Chapter 3 notes

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The microscope and the cell

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Chapter 3 notes

  1. 1. Cell Structure
  2. 2. I. Looking at Cells <ul><li>A. Cells Under the Microscope-most cells are too small to be seen by the naked eye. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Robert Hooke - first to observe and name cells by looking at slices of cork . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Anton van Leeuwenhoek -first to observe living cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Magnification -quality of making an image appear larger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Resolution -measure of the clarity of an image. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>B. Types of Microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Compound light microscope -uses two lenses to view living cells </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>2. Electron microscope -very powerful; cannot view living cells. </li></ul>
  5. 5. II. Cell Features <ul><li>A. Cell Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. All living things are made of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function of living things. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Cells come from existing cells. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>B. Prokaryote - “pro = no” cell without a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles . The simplest cells. Ex: Bacteria (has DNA, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and cell wall) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>C. Eukaryote - “eu = true” true cells with a nucleus and organelles . Ex: plant and animal cells . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>D. The Cell Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Cell membranes are not rigid , they are fluid . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Function is to control what enters and exits the cell . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of phospholipid bilayer that contains proteins . </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. III. Cell Organelles <ul><li>A. Nucleus -control center of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the DNA . </li></ul><ul><li>B. Ribosomes -where proteins </li></ul><ul><li>are made. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>rough or smooth depending on </li></ul><ul><li>whether it has ribosome. Transports proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Golgi Apparatus -package proteins </li></ul><ul><li>from the e.r. </li></ul><ul><li>E. Mitochondria -produces energy in </li></ul><ul><li>the cell in the form of ATP . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Human cheek cell
  11. 11. Animal Cell-Draw
  12. 12. <ul><li>F. Plant Cell Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Cell Wall -helps provide support and maintain the shape of the plant cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Chloroplasts -plant cells only; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where photosynthesis takes place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Central vacuole -stores water and other substances. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Plant Cell-Draw
  14. 14. Onion skin slide

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