BIOLOGY NOTES  CHAPTER 2 “ THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE”
I.  pH Scale <ul><li>A.  Measures how  acidic  or  basic  a solution is. </li></ul><ul><li>B.  Scale ranges from  </li></u...
II. Compounds of Life <ul><li>A.  Inorganic Compounds  – do not contain  carbon . Come from nonliving sources. </li></ul><...
<ul><li>B.  Organic Compounds  – contain  carbon  and come from living things. </li></ul><ul><li>1.  most organic molecule...
<ul><li>2.  There are 4 major organic compounds  (macromolecules) </li></ul><ul><li>a.  Carbohydrates  – include sugars an...
<ul><li>b.  Lipids  – waxy, fatty, or oily compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>  Store and release  energy  in the cell. </li></u...
<ul><li>c.  Proteins  – building blocks of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>  Made of monomers called  amino   acids </li></ul>
<ul><li>  d.  Nucleic acids  – carry information in the cell </li></ul><ul><li>  Made of units called  nucleotides . </li>...
III. Chemical Reactions and Enzymes <ul><li>A. Chemical reaction is a process that changes one set of substances into a ne...
<ul><li>B.  Enzymes  – act as a  catalyst , which is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up ...
 
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C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2

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C:\documents and settings\dwalker\desktop\notes\biology notes ch 2

  1. 1. BIOLOGY NOTES CHAPTER 2 “ THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE”
  2. 2. I. pH Scale <ul><li>A. Measures how acidic or basic a solution is. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Scale ranges from </li></ul><ul><li>0 – 14 </li></ul><ul><li>1. below 7 acid </li></ul><ul><li>2. above 7 base </li></ul><ul><li>3. at 7 neutral </li></ul><ul><li>C. Many chemical processes in living organisms require a certain pH level to function. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: hydrochloric acid in stomach used in the process of digestion has a pH of about 2. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. II. Compounds of Life <ul><li>A. Inorganic Compounds – do not contain carbon . Come from nonliving sources. </li></ul><ul><li>ex: water – a polar molecule with a + charge on one end and a – charge on the other. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>B. Organic Compounds – contain carbon and come from living things. </li></ul><ul><li>1. most organic molecules are polymers , which are large molecules made from small individual molecules called monomers . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>2. There are 4 major organic compounds (macromolecules) </li></ul><ul><li>a. Carbohydrates – include sugars and starches. </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of carbon , hydrogen , and oxygen . </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 chemical formula for the simple </li></ul><ul><li>sugar glucose made by plants. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>b. Lipids – waxy, fatty, or oily compounds. </li></ul><ul><li> Store and release energy in the cell. </li></ul><ul><li> Many lipids are made by combining the </li></ul><ul><li> monomers fatty acids and glycerol . </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>c. Proteins – building blocks of cells. </li></ul><ul><li> Made of monomers called amino acids </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li> d. Nucleic acids – carry information in the cell </li></ul><ul><li> Made of units called nucleotides . </li></ul><ul><li> DNA and RNA are the two nucleic acids. </li></ul>
  9. 9. III. Chemical Reactions and Enzymes <ul><li>A. Chemical reaction is a process that changes one set of substances into a new set of substances. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>B. Enzymes – act as a catalyst , which is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up in the reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Substrate – the part of the reaction that binds to the enzyme. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Active site – region on the enzyme where the substrate fits. </li></ul><ul><li> Can compare to a lock and key, with the lock representing the enzyme , the key representing the substrat e, and the active site is the place where the key fits into the lock. </li></ul>

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