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Introduction For Lighting Luminaries


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Introduction For Lighting Luminaries

  1. 1. overview  Lighting System is a major system in any electrical plan, as engineers we must take into account in our designs the Jordanian design standards (lux level, luminary type, lamp type… etc.) to have the most efficient and economic design.  In this factory we detect many problems such as: 1. They didn’t satisfy lux level as Jordanian Lighting Code recommendations. 2. They didn’t use appropriate luminary type to satisfy the efficient energy light. 3. They didn’t use appropriate lamp type to satisfy the efficient energy light. 4. They didn’t distribute the lighting unit in recommended places to give the most efficient lighting.
  2. 2. overview  To solve these problems we worked on redesigning lighting system for the factory by using Dialux program and Philips Luminaries once by using conventional luminaries and the other by using LED luminaries to select the most appropriate luminaries and lamps to satisfy the Jordanian Lighting Code recommendation and to give the most energy efficient design.
  3. 3. Dialux  Dialux is the most important lighting design and lighting planning program which used by architects, lighting designers, lighting and lighting furniture experts worldwide.  It allows simulating light settings both indoors and outdoors; it professionally calculates and checks all lighting parameters for interiors and exteriors, roads and tunnels, providing clear and accurate results according to the latest interior décor regulations.  Lighting designers can then rely on a software system and on constantly updated files, which allow choosing from the lighting components manufactured by leading world manufacturers. The luminaries (lamps, LED spotlights, floodlights, ceiling fixtures) included in the program come with detailed descriptions and technical specifications such as power rate, intensity and luminous flux, luminance diagrams and isolux photometric curves.
  4. 4. Some important definitions : 1. Lumen : The lumen is a standardized unit of measurement of the total amount of light that is produced by a light source, such as a bulb or tube. 2. Lux : Lux is a standardized unit of measurement of the light intensity (which can also be called ( “luminance” or “illumination” ) as an example for reference purposes and it can define as the illumination of a surface one meter away from a single candle . 3. Color rendering : Color rendering relates to the way objects appear under a given light source. The measure is called the "color rendering index", or CRI.A low CRI indicates than objects may appear unnatural under the source, while a light with a high CRI rating will allow an object's colors to appear more nature
  5. 5. The classification of luminaries based on diffuser type : 1. Opal Diffuser : This type is used to protect the luminary against “Moisture”
  6. 6. The classification of luminaries based on diffuser type : 2. Prismatic diffuser : This type use to protect the luminary against “ Dust “
  7. 7. The classification of luminaries based on diffuser type : 3. Louver diffuser : This type use in offices to distribute light and reduce the glare .
  8. 8. The classification of luminaries based on ceiling type: 1. Surface Mounted Lighting :
  9. 9. The classification of luminaries based on ceiling type: 2. Suspended Lighting : It’s used for high ceiling ( more than 6.5 m )
  10. 10. The classification of luminaries based on ceiling type: 3. Recessed Lighting : This type use when there is False Ceiling or Gibson Board ceiling .
  11. 11. Lamp classification : There is three basic lamp family : A. Filament lamp . B. Discharge lamps . C. LED .
  12. 12. A. Filament Lamp 1. Incandescent  incandescent lighting is a bad choice for energy saving projects , incandescent is the least efficient of another lighting lamp types.  Approximately 90% of the energy that is consumed in an incandescent lamp is release in the form of heat while only 10% is converted to visible light , but it’s still the most cheap type .( 1 )  Color rendering factor is amount 100% , but it’s not comfortable for human eyes .
  13. 13. A. Filament Lamp 2. Halogen (Tungsten)  Advantages : I. Halogen lamps are low cost to produce . II. Longer life than a conventional incandescent . III. Instant on to full brightness , no warm up time , and it is dimmable .
  14. 14. Halogen (Tungsten) Cont.  Disadvantages : I. Extremely hot ( easily capable of causing severe burns if the lamp is touched ) II. The lamp is sensitive to oils left by human skin , if we touch the bulb with our bare hands the oil left behind will heat up once the bulb is activated , this oil may cause an imbalance and result in a rupture of the bulb . III. Not as efficient as ( Metal Halide lamps ) .
  15. 15. B. Gas Discharge Lamps :  This family has many different types , such as : 1. Fluorescent Lamps 2. High Pressure Sodium [HPS] 3. Low Pressure Sodium [LPS] 4. Low Pressure Mercury [LPM] 5. Metal Halide [ MBI ]
  16. 16. 1. Fluorescent Lamps  This type has tow shapes : I. Fluorescent Tubes : the most famous types of fluorescent tubes are TL-5 and TL-D II. Compact Fluorescent : The most famous types of Compact Fluorescent are Integrated type and Non Integrated type .
  17. 17. I. Fluorescent Tubes  Fluorescent tube came in to dimension : I. TL-D II. TL-5
  18. 18. I. Fluorescent Tubes I. TL-D II. TL-5 LumenTube LengthConsumption Power 1200 Lumen60 cm18 Watt 3000 Lumen120 cm36 Watt 5000 Lumen150 cm58 Watt LumenTube LengthConsumption Power 1200 Lumen60 cm14 Watt 3000 Lumen120 cm28 Watt 5000 Lumen150 cm35 Watt
  19. 19. I. Fluorescent Tubes  Final Comparison : TL-DTL-5Type Low Lm/WHigh Lm/WLumen Diameter : 35 mmDiameter : 16 mmSize 10,000 hours30,000 hourslife time High powerLow powerWatt LowHighCost
  20. 20. II. Compact Florescent I. Integrated type : II. Non integrated type : Low Lumen/watt 18 watt → 900 Lumen High Lumen/watt 18 watt → 1350 Lumen
  21. 21. 2. High Pressure Sodium [HPS]  Advantages : 1. Very efficient lamp . 2. Powerful lamp for use of large areas . 3. Lumen output does not drop with age ( such as in LEDs or Incandescents ) .  Disadvantages : 1. Worst color rendering of any lamp 20% . 2. Sodium is a hazardous material which can combust when exposed to air (such as if the bulb is broken in the trash ) .
  22. 22. 2. High Pressure Sodium [HPS]
  23. 23. 3. Low Pressure Sodium [LPS]  This family has the same setting of High Pressure Sodium but with better color rendering with 45% .
  24. 24. 4. Low Pressure Mercury [LPM]  Advantages : I. Good efficiency II. Color rendering is better than high pressure sodium but still bad in around 40 % . III. Some lamps last far longer than 24,000 hour mark , sometimes 40 years .  Disadvantages : 1. Like many lamps it contains traces of mercury which must be disposed properly . 2. HPS streetlights have a better lumen per watt rating . 3. Human skin looks green under the light, it is poor for color film/photography . 4. Warm up time required to start the lamp ( 2 ) .
  25. 25. 4. Low Pressure Mercury [LPM]
  26. 26. 5. Metal Halide [ MBI ]  Advantages : I. Compared to high pressure sodium (SON) lamps, Metal halide lamps offer similar advantages, but have different characteristics. The efficacy of MBI lamps is comparable to that of SON lamps, and they are available over a wider range of power ratings, 50 to 2000 W. II. They have a cooler, whiter, color appearance than SON lamps. They have better color rendering properties than SON lamps around ( 70-90 ) %.  Disadvantages : I. A disadvantage of MBI lamps, when compared to SON lamps, is that they have a shorter service life , this should be weighed against the advantages of better color rendering ( 3 ) .
  27. 27. 5. Metal Halide [ MBI ]
  28. 28. C. LED  Today most efficient way of illumination and lighting, with an estimated energy efficiency of 80%-90% when compared to traditional lighting and conventional light bulbs. This means that about 80% of the electrical energy is converted to light, while a 20% is lost and converted into other forms of energy such as heat.
  29. 29. C. LED  Basic advantages of LED Light: 1. Energy efficient - LED’s are now capable of outputting 135 lumens/watt . 2. Long Lifetime - 50,000 hours or more if properly engineered . 3. Rugged - LED’s are also called “Solid State Lighting (SSL) as they are made of solid material with no filament or tube or bulb to break . 4. No warm-up period - LED’s light instantly – in nanoseconds . 5. Excellent Color Rendering - LED’s do not wash out colors like other light sources such as fluorescents, making them perfect for displays and retail applications . 6. Environmentally friendly - LED’s contain no mercury or other hazardous substances . 7. Controllable - LED’s can be controlled for brightness and color 8. LEDs are ideal for use in applications that are subject to frequent on-off cycling, unlike fluorescent lamps that burn out more quickly when cycled frequently, or HID lamps that require a long time before restarting .
  30. 30. C. LED  Disadvantages and challenges in using LEDs: 1. LEDs are currently more expensive, price per lumen, on an initial capital cost basis, than more conventional lighting technologies. However, when considering the total cost of ownership (including energy and maintenance costs), LEDs far surpass incandescent or halogen sources and begin to threaten compact fluorescent lamps. 2. LEDs must be supplied with the correct voltage and current at a constant flow. This requires some electronics expertise to design the electronic drivers. 3. LED performance largely depends on correctly engineering the fixture to manage the heat generated by the LED, which causes deterioration of the LED chip itself.
  31. 31. C. LED HalogenCompact fluorescent LEDComparison 5k hrs10k hrs100k hrsLife time 501610Watts per bulb 2.5635Cost per light (euro) 5.0001.6001.000KWH of electricity used over 100k hrs 700224140Cost of electricity (euro) at 0.14 euro/KWH 20101No. of lights needed for 100K hrs use 506035Equivalent 100k hrs bulb expense (euro) 750284175Total cost per light for 100k hrs (euro)
  32. 32. C. LED