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# Lisp Programming Languge

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Basic Description on the Lisp Programming Language with some history background and some practical examples with the output

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### Lisp Programming Languge

1. 1. LISP Lisp Programming Language
2. 2. LISP What is LISP? • A LISt Processing language – The basic data structure is linked list and Atoms. • A functional programming language – Each expression in LISP is a function that returns a value • An interpretive language – Running LISP programs involves interacting with the LISP interpreter. – Clisp is the common lisp interpreter available only for Linux. – Recently Compilers have been made for this language but they are not used a lot.
3. 3. LISP History • First developed by John McCarthy as a language for symbolic (rather than numeric) computation in 1958 based on Fortran Syntax • Very SLOW: – no compilation of source to machine code – inefficient garbage collector • Historical Reason – Most AI programs in the U.S. have been developed in LISP – However, most AI programs in Europe have been developed in PROLOG
4. 4. LISP Terminology •Write a program => Define a set of functions •Running a program => Evaluating an expression •Simple syntax: operator precedence issues eliminated •Lists (or S-expressions) are important: •Functions are defined as lists •Lists can be manipulated easily in Lisp •Functions can be manipulated easily
5. 5. LISP Functions • Lisp is a functional language – So everything is a function -> Functions in other languages var sum := sqrt(x) Print sum In lisp this function is: -> (sqrt x) • Most LISP functions require you to think and use Prefix Notation – you have to think backwards – (print (+ 5 (sqrt 6))) • And there are primary effects and side effects – In ‘pure’ Lisp, we ONLY get values by executing a function. – We DON’T set a variable to a new value INSIDE a function….that is a side effect of executing a function. (You all probably do that all the time in Java or C++)
6. 6. LISP How the Lisp Functions work – The read-eval loop • Evaluation process starts with an “S” expression (i.e., a function and operands to that function) This one adds two numbers…. (+ 3 4) Parentheses – Notification to evaluate Function name – Go get function (in this case ‘+’ is the add function) space - separator operands -- value for function Parentheses – stop evaluation and return the answer
7. 7. LISP How Lisp Interpreter Works •Programs are lisp objects (i.e. functions) •Evaluation of a lisp object returns a new object. •Evaluation is simply a function called EVAL that maps lisp objects to lisp objects: •EVAL: object => object •we will use the symbol => to represent evaluation •The Lisp interpreter is a loop consisting of: •read a lisp expression
8. 8. LISP Let’s start with the math functions • There are many built in arithmetic functions • You then put these arithmetic functions together
9. 9. LISP Arithmetic Functions (+ numbers…) -- adding (- numbers…) -- subtracting (* numbers…) -- multiplication (/ numbers…) -- division (1+ number) – plus 1 (this is hard to read) (1- number) – minus 1 (abs number) etc….. (acos number)
10. 10. LISP Examples:
11. 11. LISP Atoms • Atoms: – Number » examples: 3, 8.9, etc. – Symbol » An object written as a sequence of characters » Symbols are usually manipulated as names that are “bound” to other lisp objects • Symbol FOO might be bound to 4.2
12. 12. LISP Lists •Lists : •Anything with parentheses around it. •() •(a) •(this is one too) •(a list of (two) lists) •(a (very (very (very (inscrutable) list)))
13. 13. LISP A Special Symbol: NIL • NIL represents an empty list. • NIL is a terminator of a list. • A list is usually built by inserting its elements into NIL in the reverse order . • NIL can also represent “false''. • The special symbol representing “true” is T.
14. 14. LISP Taking lists apart • (first <a list>) returns the first element of the list. • (rest <a list>) returns the remaining list (i.e., everything except the first element).
15. 15. LISP Quote • Quote symbol ‘ is a short hand for the function called QUOTE. • (QUOTE <arg>) • QUOTE is a special function that prevents LISP from evaluating its argument. • QUOTE returns the argument literately. Example: (quote (dummy-fn 2)) ==> (DUMMY-FN 2)
16. 16. LISP Basic Evaluation Rules • A number evaluates to itself • A symbol evaluates to its value. • A list is evaluated by – treating the first element as a function – evaluating each arguments of the function in a left-to-right order • An expression preceded by a quote symbol ‘ evaluates to the expression itself.
17. 17. LISP Assignment and Binding • A symbol (or variable) can be assigned a value (called its binding) using SETQ. • (SETQ <symbol-name> <anything>) Example: (SETQ A ‘(A B C)) ==> (A B C) A evaluates to ==> (A B C) • Evaluating a symbol that does not have a value assigned (i.e., no binding) causes error
18. 18. LISP All other functions do NOT change the bindings • In particular, FIRST and REST are non- destructive. > (setq my-friends ‘(Superman Batman Robin) ) (Superman Batman Robin) > (first (rest my-friends)) Batman > my-friends (Superman Batman Robin)
19. 19. LISP Defining My-Own Functions • A function is defined using DEFUN • (DEFUN <fn-name> (<arg1> ...<argK>) <exp1> ... <expN> ) • All arguments are passed by value. • The body of the function may contain any number of expressions (i.e., function calls). • The function returns the value returned by the last expression.
20. 20. LISP Defining A Function (defun square (x) (times x x) ) (defun add-friend (new-friend friends) (cons new-friend friends) )
21. 21. LISP Predicates – Checking to see if something is true…. • Functions that return ``true’’ (i.e., T) or ``false’’ (i.e., NIL). type-testing predicates • (NULL <item>) returns T if <item> is NIL (empty list), otherwise NIL. • (LISTP <item>) returns T if <item> is a list, otherwise NIL. • (ATOM <item>) returns T if <item> is an atom (i.e., a symbol, a number, or NIL). • (NUMBERP <item>) returns T if <item> is a number
22. 22. LISP Conditional Expression • COND is an N-branch conditional expression (COND ( <test1> <exp11> ... <exp1L> ) ( <test2> <exp21> ... <exp2M> ) ... ( <testK> <expK1> ... <expKN> ) ) • Each test is evaluated sequentially until a test returns true. • Expressions following that test will be executed. • COND returns the value returned by the last expression associated with the test.
23. 23. LISP Terminates a COND with a T condition (defun select-character (enemy) (cond ( (equal enemy ‘Penguin) ‘Batman) ( (equal enemy ‘Catwoman) ‘J-Bond ) ( (equal enemy ‘Black-Knight) ‘(White-Knight King-Arthur ) ) ( T ; for all other enemies ‘SuperMan) ; ask Superman for help ) )
24. 24. LISP Using AND, OR in COND (defun Evaluate-feeling ( sentence ) (cond ( (OR (member ‘hate sentence) (member ‘dislike sentence)) ‘hatred) ( (AND (member ‘I sentence) (member ‘feel sentence) ) ‘self-centered ) ( T ‘happy) ) ; end of cond ) ; end of defun
25. 25. LISP Loops i=1, while i <= 3: => (loop for i in ‘(1 2 3) do (print i)) 1 2 3 i=1, while i <= 3: (different step) => (loop for i from 1.0 to 3.0 by 0.5 do (print i)) i=3, while i >= 1: => (loop for i from 3 downto 1 do (print i)) 3 2 1
26. 26. LISP Conclusion Things to remember: •Lisp is considered the mother of a lot of functional languages like Scheme and Haskell ….. •Common Lisp has dynamic type checking •Lisp is interpreted. The reason why Lisp is dead: •Stock hardware platforms becoming faster than special purpose hardware •Low Interoperability with other languages