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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1
Chapter 3: Point-to-
Point Connections
Connecting Networks
Presentation_ID 2© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Chapter 3
3.1 Serial Point-to-Point Overview
3.2 PPP Operation
3.3 Configuring PPP
3.4 Troubleshooting WAN Connectivity
3.5 Summary
Presentation_ID 3© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Chapter 3: Objectives
In this chapter, you will be able to:
 Explain the fundamentals of point-to-point serial communication
across a WAN.
 Configure HDLC encapsulation on a point-to-point serial link.
 Describe the benefits of using PPP over HDLC in a WAN.
 Describe the PPP layered architecture and the functions of LCP and
NCP.
 Explain how a PPP session is established.
 Configure PPP encapsulation on a point-to-point serial link.
 Configure PPP authentication protocols.
 Use show and debug commands to troubleshoot PPP.
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 4
3.1 Serial Point-to-Point
Overview
Presentation_ID 5© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Serial Communications
Serial and Parallel Ports
 Point-to-point connections are used to connect LANs to service provider
WANs.
• Also referred to as a serial connection or leased-line connection.
 Communications across a serial connection is a method of data
transmissions in which the bits are transmitted sequentially over a single
channel.
 In parallel communications, bits can be transmitted simultaneously over
multiple wires.
Presentation_ID 6© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Serial Communications
Serial Communication
 On the WAN link, data is
encapsulated by the protocol
used by the sending router.
 Encapsulated frame is sent on a
physical medium to the WAN.
 Receiving router uses the same
communications protocol to de-
encapsulate the frame when it
arrives.
Three serial communication
standards for LAN-to-WAN
connections: RS-232, V.35, HSSI
Presentation_ID 7© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Serial Communications
Point-to-Point Communication Links
 Point-to-point links can connect two geographically distant sites.
 Carrier dedicates specific resources for a line leased by the customer
(leased-line).
 Point-to-point links are usually more expensive than shared services.
Presentation_ID 8© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Serial Communications
Time-Division Multiplexing
Multiplexing – A scheme that allows multiple logical signals to share a
single physical channel.
Presentation_ID 9© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Serial Communications
Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing
 STDM uses a variable time-slot length, allowing channels to
compete for any free slot space.
 STDM does not waste high-speed line time with inactive channels
using this scheme.
Presentation_ID 10© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Serial Communications
TDM Examples
 The industry uses the Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) or
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) standard for optical transport of
TDM data.
 Traffic arriving at the SONET multiplexer from four places at 2.5 Gb/s
goes out as a single stream at 4 x 2.5 Gb/s or 10 Gb/s.
Example:
TDM SONET
Presentation_ID 11© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Serial Communications
Demarcation Point
 Marks the point where your
network interfaces with a
network that is owned by
another organization
 Interface between CPE and
network service provider
equipment
 Point in the network where
the responsibility of the
service provider ends
Presentation_ID 12© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Serial Communications
DTE-DCE
 DTE – Commonly CPE, generally a router, could also be a terminal,
computer, printer, or fax machine if they connect directly to the service
provider network.
 DCE – Commonly a modem or CSU/DSU, it is a device used to
convert the user data from the DTE into a form acceptable to the WAN
service provider transmission link. The signal is received at the remote
DCE, which decodes the signal back into a sequence of bits; the
remote DCE then signals this sequence to the remote DTE.
Presentation_ID 13© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Serial Communications
Serial Cables
Presentation_ID 14© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Serial Communications
Serial Bandwidth
Bandwidth refers to the rate at which data is transferred over the
communication link.
Presentation_ID 15© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
HDLC Encapsulation
WAN Encapsulation Protocols
Data is encapsulated into frames before crossing the WAN link; an
appropriate Layer 2 encapsulation type must be configured.
Presentation_ID 16© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
HDLC Encapsulation
HDLC Encapsulation
 Bit-oriented, synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
 Uses synchronous serial transmission to provide error-free
communication between two points.
 Defines a Layer 2 framing structure that allows for flow control and
error control through the use of acknowledgments.
 Cisco has developed an extension to the HLDC protocol to solve the
inability to provide multiprotocol support (Cisco HLDC also referred to
as cHDLC).
Presentation_ID 17© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
HDLC Encapsulation
HDLC Frame Types
• The Flag field initiates and
terminates error checking, and
the frame always starts and
ends with an 8-bit flag field,
01111110.
• I-frames carry upper layer information
and some control information; sends and
receives sequence numbers, and the
poll final (P/F) bit performs flow and
error control.
• S-frames provide control information –
Request and suspend transmission,
report on status, and acknowledge
receipt of I-frame.
• U-frames support control
purposes and are not sequenced.
Presentation_ID 18© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
HDLC Encapsulation
Configuring HDLC Encapsulation
 Default encapsulation method used by Cisco devices on synchronous
serial lines
 Point-to-point protocol on leased lines between two Cisco devices
 Connecting to a non-Cisco device, use synchronous PPP
Presentation_ID 19© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
HDLC Encapsulation
Troubleshooting a Serial Interface
Presentation_ID 20© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
HDLC Encapsulation
Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.)
Presentation_ID 21© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
HDLC Encapsulation
Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.)
Presentation_ID 22© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
HDLC Encapsulation
Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.)
Presentation_ID 23© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
HDLC Encapsulation
Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.)
Presentation_ID 24© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
HDLC Encapsulation
Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.)
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 25
3.2 PPP Operation
Presentation_ID 26© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Benefits of PPP
Introducing PPP
PPP contains three main
components:
 HDLC protocol for
encapsulating datagrams
over point-to-point links
 Extensible Link Control
Protocol (LCP) to establish,
configure, and test the data
link connection
 Family of Network Control
Protocols (NCPs) to
establish and configure
different network layer
protocols (IPv4, IPv6,
AppleTalk, Novell IPX, and
SNA Control Protocol)
Presentation_ID 27© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Benefits of PPP
Advantages of PPP
 PPP not proprietary
 PPP includes many features not available in HDLC
 Link quality management feature monitors the quality of the link.
If too many errors are detected, PPP takes down the link
 Supports PAP and CHAP authentication
Presentation_ID 28© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
LCP and NCP
PPP Layered Architecture
 LCP sets up the
PPP connection
and its
parameters
 NCPs handle
higher layer
protocol
configurations
 LCP terminates
the PPP
connection
Presentation_ID 29© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
LCP and NCP
PPP Control Protocol (LCP)
LCP provides
automatic
configuration of the
interfaces at each end,
including:
 Handling varying
limits on packet
size.
 Detecting common
misconfiguration
errors.
 Terminating the link.
 Determining when a
link is functioning
properly or when it
is failing.
Presentation_ID 30© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
LCP and NCP
PPP Network Control Protocol (NCP)
 PPP permits
multiple network
layer protocols to
operate on the
same
communications
link.
 For every
network layer
protocol used,
PPP uses a
separate NCP.
Presentation_ID 31© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
LCP and NCP
PPP Frame Structure
Presentation_ID 32© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Sessions
Establishing a PPP Session
Phase 1 – LCP must first open the connection and
negotiate configuration options; it completes when the
receiving router sends a configuration-acknowledgment
frame back to the router initiating the connection.
Presentation_ID 33© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Sessions
Establishing a PPP Session (cont.)
Phase 2 – LCP tests the link to determine whether the
link quality is sufficient to bring up network layer
protocols.
Presentation_ID 34© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Sessions
Establishing a PPP Session (cont.)
Phase 3 – After the LCP has finished the link quality
determination phase, the appropriate NCP can separately
configure the network layer protocols, and bring them up
and take them down at any time.
Presentation_ID 35© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Sessions
LCP Operation
 LCP operation includes provisions for link establishment, link
maintenance, and link termination.
 LCP operation uses three classes of LCP frames to accomplish the
work of each of the LCP phases:
 Link-establishment frames establish and configure a link.
 Configure-Request, Configure-Ack, Configure-Nak, and
Configure-Reject
 Link-maintenance frames manage and debug a link.
 Code-Reject, Protocol-Reject, Echo-Request, Echo-Reply,
and Discard-Request
 Link-termination frames terminate a link.
 Terminate-Request and Terminate-Ack
Presentation_ID 36© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Sessions
LCP Operation (cont.)
During link maintenance, LCP can use messages to provide feedback
and test the link.
 Echo-Request, Echo-Reply, and Discard-Request can be used to
test the link.
 Code-Reject and Protocol-Reject provides feedback when one
device receives an invalid frame due to either an unrecognized LCP
code (LCP frame type) or a bad protocol identifier.
Presentation_ID 37© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Sessions
LCP Operation (cont.)
Presentation_ID 38© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Sessions
LCP Packet
Presentation_ID 39© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Sessions
LCP Packet
Presentation_ID 40© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Sessions
LCP Packet (cont.)
Presentation_ID 41© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Sessions
PPP Configuration Options
Optional functions
include:
 Authentication
using either
PAP or CHAP
 Compression
using either
Stacker or
Predictor
 Multilink that
combines two
or more
channels to
increase the
WAN bandwidth
Presentation_ID 42© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Sessions
NCP Explained
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 43
3.3 Configuring PPP
Presentation_ID 44© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure PPP
PPP Configuration Options
 Authentication – Two authentication choices are Password
Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake
Authentication Protocol (CHAP).
 Compression – Increases the effective throughput on PPP
connections by reducing the amount of data in the frame that must
travel across the link. The protocol decompresses the frame at its
destination. Two compression protocols available in Cisco routers are
Stacker and Predictor.
 Error detection – Identifies fault conditions. The Quality and Magic
Number options help ensure a reliable, loop-free data link. The Magic
Number field helps in detecting links that are in a looped-back
condition. Magic numbers are generated randomly at each end of the
connection.
Presentation_ID 45© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure PPP
PPP Configuration Options
 PPP Callback – PPP callback is used to enhance security. With this
LCP option, a Cisco router can act as a callback client or a callback
server. The client makes the initial call, requests that the server call it
back, and terminates its initial call. The callback router answers the
initial call and makes the return call to the client based on its
configuration statements. The command is ppp callback [accept
| request].
 Multilink – This alternative provides load balancing over the router
interfaces that PPP uses. Multilink PPP provides a method for
spreading traffic across multiple physical WAN links while providing
packet fragmentation and reassembly, proper sequencing, multivendor
interoperability, and load balancing on inbound and outbound traffic.
Presentation_ID 46© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure PPP
PPP Basic Configuration Command
Presentation_ID 47© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure PPP
PPP Compression Commands
Presentation_ID 48© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure PPP
PPP Link Quality Monitoring Command
The ppp quality percentage command ensures that
the link meets the quality requirement set; otherwise, the link
closes down.
Presentation_ID 49© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure PPP
PPP Multilink Commands
Presentation_ID 50© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure PPP
Verifying PPP Configuration
Presentation_ID 51© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Configure PPP
Verifying PPP Configuration (cont.)
The output indicates the interface Multilink 1, the hostnames of both
the local and remote endpoints, and the serial interfaces assigned to
the multilink bundle.
Presentation_ID 52© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Authentication
PPP Authentication Protocols
Presentation_ID 53© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Authentication
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
Initiating PAP
Completing PAP
Presentation_ID 54© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Authentication
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
Initiating CHAP
Responding CHAP
Presentation_ID 55© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Authentication
CHAP (cont.)
Completing CHAP
Presentation_ID 56© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Authentication
PPP Encapsulation and Authentication Process
Presentation_ID 57© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Authentication
Configuring PPP Authentication
Presentation_ID 58© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Authentication
Configuring PPP Authentication (cont.)
Presentation_ID 59© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
PPP Authentication
Configuring PPP Authentication (cont.)
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 60
3.4 Troubleshooting WAN
Connectivity
Presentation_ID 61© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Troubleshoot PPP
Troubleshooting PPP Serial Encapsulation
Presentation_ID 62© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Troubleshoot PPP
Troubleshooting a PPP Configuration with Authentication
Presentation_ID 63© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential
Chapter 3: Summary
 Point-to-Point links are usually more expensive than shared services;
however, the benefits may outweigh the costs. Constant availability is
important for some protocols, such as VoIP.
 SONET is an optical network standard that uses STDM for efficient use
of bandwidth.
 The demarcation point is the point in the network where the
responsibility of the service provider ends and the responsibility of the
customer begins. The CPE, usually a router, is the DTE device. The
DCE is usually a modem or CSU/DSU.
 Cisco HDLC is a bit-oriented synchronous data link layer protocol
extension of HDLC and is used by many vendors to provide
multiprotocol support. This is the default encapsulation method used on
Cisco synchronous serial lines.
 Synchronous PPP is used to connect to non-Cisco devices, to monitor
link quality, provide authentication, or bundle links for shared use
 LCP is the PPP protocol used to establish, configure, test and
terminate the data link connection. LCP can optionally authenticate a
peer using PAP or CHAP.
Presentation_ID 64© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

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CCNAv5 - S4: Chapter3 Point to-point Connections

  • 1. © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 1 Chapter 3: Point-to- Point Connections Connecting Networks
  • 2. Presentation_ID 2© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Chapter 3 3.1 Serial Point-to-Point Overview 3.2 PPP Operation 3.3 Configuring PPP 3.4 Troubleshooting WAN Connectivity 3.5 Summary
  • 3. Presentation_ID 3© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Chapter 3: Objectives In this chapter, you will be able to:  Explain the fundamentals of point-to-point serial communication across a WAN.  Configure HDLC encapsulation on a point-to-point serial link.  Describe the benefits of using PPP over HDLC in a WAN.  Describe the PPP layered architecture and the functions of LCP and NCP.  Explain how a PPP session is established.  Configure PPP encapsulation on a point-to-point serial link.  Configure PPP authentication protocols.  Use show and debug commands to troubleshoot PPP.
  • 4. © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 4 3.1 Serial Point-to-Point Overview
  • 5. Presentation_ID 5© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Serial Communications Serial and Parallel Ports  Point-to-point connections are used to connect LANs to service provider WANs. • Also referred to as a serial connection or leased-line connection.  Communications across a serial connection is a method of data transmissions in which the bits are transmitted sequentially over a single channel.  In parallel communications, bits can be transmitted simultaneously over multiple wires.
  • 6. Presentation_ID 6© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Serial Communications Serial Communication  On the WAN link, data is encapsulated by the protocol used by the sending router.  Encapsulated frame is sent on a physical medium to the WAN.  Receiving router uses the same communications protocol to de- encapsulate the frame when it arrives. Three serial communication standards for LAN-to-WAN connections: RS-232, V.35, HSSI
  • 7. Presentation_ID 7© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Serial Communications Point-to-Point Communication Links  Point-to-point links can connect two geographically distant sites.  Carrier dedicates specific resources for a line leased by the customer (leased-line).  Point-to-point links are usually more expensive than shared services.
  • 8. Presentation_ID 8© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Serial Communications Time-Division Multiplexing Multiplexing – A scheme that allows multiple logical signals to share a single physical channel.
  • 9. Presentation_ID 9© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Serial Communications Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing  STDM uses a variable time-slot length, allowing channels to compete for any free slot space.  STDM does not waste high-speed line time with inactive channels using this scheme.
  • 10. Presentation_ID 10© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Serial Communications TDM Examples  The industry uses the Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) or Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) standard for optical transport of TDM data.  Traffic arriving at the SONET multiplexer from four places at 2.5 Gb/s goes out as a single stream at 4 x 2.5 Gb/s or 10 Gb/s. Example: TDM SONET
  • 11. Presentation_ID 11© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Serial Communications Demarcation Point  Marks the point where your network interfaces with a network that is owned by another organization  Interface between CPE and network service provider equipment  Point in the network where the responsibility of the service provider ends
  • 12. Presentation_ID 12© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Serial Communications DTE-DCE  DTE – Commonly CPE, generally a router, could also be a terminal, computer, printer, or fax machine if they connect directly to the service provider network.  DCE – Commonly a modem or CSU/DSU, it is a device used to convert the user data from the DTE into a form acceptable to the WAN service provider transmission link. The signal is received at the remote DCE, which decodes the signal back into a sequence of bits; the remote DCE then signals this sequence to the remote DTE.
  • 13. Presentation_ID 13© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Serial Communications Serial Cables
  • 14. Presentation_ID 14© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Serial Communications Serial Bandwidth Bandwidth refers to the rate at which data is transferred over the communication link.
  • 15. Presentation_ID 15© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential HDLC Encapsulation WAN Encapsulation Protocols Data is encapsulated into frames before crossing the WAN link; an appropriate Layer 2 encapsulation type must be configured.
  • 16. Presentation_ID 16© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential HDLC Encapsulation HDLC Encapsulation  Bit-oriented, synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).  Uses synchronous serial transmission to provide error-free communication between two points.  Defines a Layer 2 framing structure that allows for flow control and error control through the use of acknowledgments.  Cisco has developed an extension to the HLDC protocol to solve the inability to provide multiprotocol support (Cisco HLDC also referred to as cHDLC).
  • 17. Presentation_ID 17© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential HDLC Encapsulation HDLC Frame Types • The Flag field initiates and terminates error checking, and the frame always starts and ends with an 8-bit flag field, 01111110. • I-frames carry upper layer information and some control information; sends and receives sequence numbers, and the poll final (P/F) bit performs flow and error control. • S-frames provide control information – Request and suspend transmission, report on status, and acknowledge receipt of I-frame. • U-frames support control purposes and are not sequenced.
  • 18. Presentation_ID 18© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential HDLC Encapsulation Configuring HDLC Encapsulation  Default encapsulation method used by Cisco devices on synchronous serial lines  Point-to-point protocol on leased lines between two Cisco devices  Connecting to a non-Cisco device, use synchronous PPP
  • 19. Presentation_ID 19© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface
  • 20. Presentation_ID 20© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.)
  • 21. Presentation_ID 21© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.)
  • 22. Presentation_ID 22© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.)
  • 23. Presentation_ID 23© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.)
  • 24. Presentation_ID 24© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential HDLC Encapsulation Troubleshooting a Serial Interface (cont.)
  • 25. © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 25 3.2 PPP Operation
  • 26. Presentation_ID 26© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Benefits of PPP Introducing PPP PPP contains three main components:  HDLC protocol for encapsulating datagrams over point-to-point links  Extensible Link Control Protocol (LCP) to establish, configure, and test the data link connection  Family of Network Control Protocols (NCPs) to establish and configure different network layer protocols (IPv4, IPv6, AppleTalk, Novell IPX, and SNA Control Protocol)
  • 27. Presentation_ID 27© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Benefits of PPP Advantages of PPP  PPP not proprietary  PPP includes many features not available in HDLC  Link quality management feature monitors the quality of the link. If too many errors are detected, PPP takes down the link  Supports PAP and CHAP authentication
  • 28. Presentation_ID 28© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential LCP and NCP PPP Layered Architecture  LCP sets up the PPP connection and its parameters  NCPs handle higher layer protocol configurations  LCP terminates the PPP connection
  • 29. Presentation_ID 29© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential LCP and NCP PPP Control Protocol (LCP) LCP provides automatic configuration of the interfaces at each end, including:  Handling varying limits on packet size.  Detecting common misconfiguration errors.  Terminating the link.  Determining when a link is functioning properly or when it is failing.
  • 30. Presentation_ID 30© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential LCP and NCP PPP Network Control Protocol (NCP)  PPP permits multiple network layer protocols to operate on the same communications link.  For every network layer protocol used, PPP uses a separate NCP.
  • 31. Presentation_ID 31© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential LCP and NCP PPP Frame Structure
  • 32. Presentation_ID 32© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Sessions Establishing a PPP Session Phase 1 – LCP must first open the connection and negotiate configuration options; it completes when the receiving router sends a configuration-acknowledgment frame back to the router initiating the connection.
  • 33. Presentation_ID 33© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Sessions Establishing a PPP Session (cont.) Phase 2 – LCP tests the link to determine whether the link quality is sufficient to bring up network layer protocols.
  • 34. Presentation_ID 34© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Sessions Establishing a PPP Session (cont.) Phase 3 – After the LCP has finished the link quality determination phase, the appropriate NCP can separately configure the network layer protocols, and bring them up and take them down at any time.
  • 35. Presentation_ID 35© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Sessions LCP Operation  LCP operation includes provisions for link establishment, link maintenance, and link termination.  LCP operation uses three classes of LCP frames to accomplish the work of each of the LCP phases:  Link-establishment frames establish and configure a link.  Configure-Request, Configure-Ack, Configure-Nak, and Configure-Reject  Link-maintenance frames manage and debug a link.  Code-Reject, Protocol-Reject, Echo-Request, Echo-Reply, and Discard-Request  Link-termination frames terminate a link.  Terminate-Request and Terminate-Ack
  • 36. Presentation_ID 36© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Sessions LCP Operation (cont.) During link maintenance, LCP can use messages to provide feedback and test the link.  Echo-Request, Echo-Reply, and Discard-Request can be used to test the link.  Code-Reject and Protocol-Reject provides feedback when one device receives an invalid frame due to either an unrecognized LCP code (LCP frame type) or a bad protocol identifier.
  • 37. Presentation_ID 37© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Sessions LCP Operation (cont.)
  • 38. Presentation_ID 38© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Sessions LCP Packet
  • 39. Presentation_ID 39© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Sessions LCP Packet
  • 40. Presentation_ID 40© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Sessions LCP Packet (cont.)
  • 41. Presentation_ID 41© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Sessions PPP Configuration Options Optional functions include:  Authentication using either PAP or CHAP  Compression using either Stacker or Predictor  Multilink that combines two or more channels to increase the WAN bandwidth
  • 42. Presentation_ID 42© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Sessions NCP Explained
  • 43. © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 43 3.3 Configuring PPP
  • 44. Presentation_ID 44© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure PPP PPP Configuration Options  Authentication – Two authentication choices are Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP).  Compression – Increases the effective throughput on PPP connections by reducing the amount of data in the frame that must travel across the link. The protocol decompresses the frame at its destination. Two compression protocols available in Cisco routers are Stacker and Predictor.  Error detection – Identifies fault conditions. The Quality and Magic Number options help ensure a reliable, loop-free data link. The Magic Number field helps in detecting links that are in a looped-back condition. Magic numbers are generated randomly at each end of the connection.
  • 45. Presentation_ID 45© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure PPP PPP Configuration Options  PPP Callback – PPP callback is used to enhance security. With this LCP option, a Cisco router can act as a callback client or a callback server. The client makes the initial call, requests that the server call it back, and terminates its initial call. The callback router answers the initial call and makes the return call to the client based on its configuration statements. The command is ppp callback [accept | request].  Multilink – This alternative provides load balancing over the router interfaces that PPP uses. Multilink PPP provides a method for spreading traffic across multiple physical WAN links while providing packet fragmentation and reassembly, proper sequencing, multivendor interoperability, and load balancing on inbound and outbound traffic.
  • 46. Presentation_ID 46© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure PPP PPP Basic Configuration Command
  • 47. Presentation_ID 47© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure PPP PPP Compression Commands
  • 48. Presentation_ID 48© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure PPP PPP Link Quality Monitoring Command The ppp quality percentage command ensures that the link meets the quality requirement set; otherwise, the link closes down.
  • 49. Presentation_ID 49© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure PPP PPP Multilink Commands
  • 50. Presentation_ID 50© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure PPP Verifying PPP Configuration
  • 51. Presentation_ID 51© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Configure PPP Verifying PPP Configuration (cont.) The output indicates the interface Multilink 1, the hostnames of both the local and remote endpoints, and the serial interfaces assigned to the multilink bundle.
  • 52. Presentation_ID 52© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Authentication PPP Authentication Protocols
  • 53. Presentation_ID 53© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Authentication Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) Initiating PAP Completing PAP
  • 54. Presentation_ID 54© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Authentication Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol Initiating CHAP Responding CHAP
  • 55. Presentation_ID 55© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Authentication CHAP (cont.) Completing CHAP
  • 56. Presentation_ID 56© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Authentication PPP Encapsulation and Authentication Process
  • 57. Presentation_ID 57© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Authentication Configuring PPP Authentication
  • 58. Presentation_ID 58© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Authentication Configuring PPP Authentication (cont.)
  • 59. Presentation_ID 59© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential PPP Authentication Configuring PPP Authentication (cont.)
  • 60. © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID 60 3.4 Troubleshooting WAN Connectivity
  • 61. Presentation_ID 61© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Troubleshoot PPP Troubleshooting PPP Serial Encapsulation
  • 62. Presentation_ID 62© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Troubleshoot PPP Troubleshooting a PPP Configuration with Authentication
  • 63. Presentation_ID 63© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Chapter 3: Summary  Point-to-Point links are usually more expensive than shared services; however, the benefits may outweigh the costs. Constant availability is important for some protocols, such as VoIP.  SONET is an optical network standard that uses STDM for efficient use of bandwidth.  The demarcation point is the point in the network where the responsibility of the service provider ends and the responsibility of the customer begins. The CPE, usually a router, is the DTE device. The DCE is usually a modem or CSU/DSU.  Cisco HDLC is a bit-oriented synchronous data link layer protocol extension of HDLC and is used by many vendors to provide multiprotocol support. This is the default encapsulation method used on Cisco synchronous serial lines.  Synchronous PPP is used to connect to non-Cisco devices, to monitor link quality, provide authentication, or bundle links for shared use  LCP is the PPP protocol used to establish, configure, test and terminate the data link connection. LCP can optionally authenticate a peer using PAP or CHAP.
  • 64. Presentation_ID 64© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential