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Chapter 3: 
Network Protocols and 
Communications 
Introduction to Networks 
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
Chapter 3: Objectives 
After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 
 Explain how rules are used to facilitate communication. 
 Explain the role of protocols and standards organizations in 
facilitating interoperability in network communications. 
 Explain how devices on a LAN access resources in a small to 
medium-sized business network. 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
Chapter 3 
3.1 Rules of Communication 
3.2 Network Protocols and Standards 
3.3 Moving Data in the Network 
3.4 Summary 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
3.1 Rules of 
Communication 
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
The Rules 
What is Communication? 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
The Rules 
Establishing the Rules 
 An identified sender and receiver 
 Agreed upon method of communicating (face-to-face, telephone, letter, 
photograph) 
 Common language and grammar 
 Speed and timing of delivery 
 Confirmation or acknowledgment requirements 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
The Rules 
Message Encoding 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
The Rules 
Message Formatting and Encapsulation 
Example: Personal letter contains the following elements: 
 Identifier of the recipient’s location 
 Identifier of the sender’s location 
 Salutation or greeting 
 Recipient identifier 
 The message content 
 Source identifier 
 End of message indicator 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
The Rules 
Message Size 
An overview of the segmenting process: 
 The size restrictions of frames require the source host to break a long 
message into individual pieces (or segments) that meet both the minimum 
and maximum size requirements. 
 Each segment is encapsulated in a separate frame with the address 
information, and is sent over the network. 
 At the receiving host, the messages are de-encapsulated and put back 
together to be processed and interpreted. 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
The Rules 
Message Timing 
 Access Method 
 Flow Control 
 Response Timeout 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
The Rules 
Message Delivery Options 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
3.2 Network Protocols and Standards 
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
Protocols 
Rules that Govern Communications 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
Protocols 
Network Protocols 
 How the message is formatted or structured 
 The process by which networking devices share information about 
pathways with other networks 
 How and when error and system messages are passed between devices 
 The setup and termination of data transfer sessions 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
Protocols 
Interaction of Protocols 
 Application Protocol – Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 
 Transport Protocol – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 
 Internet Protocol – Internet Protocol (IP) 
 Network Access Protocols – Data link & physical layers 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
Protocol Suites 
Protocol Suites and Industry Standards 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
Protocol Suites 
Creation of Internet, Development of TCP/IP 
 The first packet switching network and predecessor to today’s Internet 
was the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), 
which came to life in 1969 by connecting mainframe computers at four 
locations. 
 ARPANET was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense for use by 
universities and research laboratories. Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) 
was the contractor that did much of the initial development of the 
ARPANET, including creating the first router known as an Interface 
Message Processor (IMP). 
 In 1973, Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf began work on TCP to develop the 
next generation of the ARPANET. TCP was designed to replace 
ARPANET’s current Network Control Program (NCP). 
 In 1978, TCP was divided into two protocols: TCP and IP. Later, other 
protocols were added to the TCP/IP suite of protocols including Telnet, 
FTP, DNS, and many others. 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
Protocol Suites 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
Standards Organizations 
Open Standards 
 The Internet Society (ISOC) 
 The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) 
 The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) 
 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 
 The International Organization for Standards (ISO) 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
Standards Organizations 
ISOC, IAB, and IETF 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
Standards Organizations 
IEEE 
 38 societies 
 130 journals 
 1,300 conferences each year 
 1,300 standards and projects 
 400,000 members 
 160 countries 
 IEEE 802.3 
 IEEE 802.11 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
Standards Organizations 
ISO 
OSI Model 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
Standards Organizations 
Other Standards Organization 
 The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) 
 The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) 
 The International Telecommunications Union – Telecommunications 
Standardization Sector (ITU-T) 
 The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 
 The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
Reference Models 
Benefits of Using a Layered Model 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
Reference Models 
The OSI Reference Model 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
Reference Models 
The TCP/IP Reference Model 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
Reference Models 
Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Models 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27
3.3 Moving Data in the Network 
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
Data Encapsulation 
Communicating the Messages 
 Segmenting message benefits 
Different conversations can be interleaved 
Increased reliability of network communications 
 Segmenting message disadvantage 
Increased level of complexity 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29
Data Encapsulation 
Protocol Data Units (PDUs) 
 Data 
 Segment 
 Packet 
 Frame 
 Bits 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
Data Encapsulation 
Protocol Encapsulation 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
Data Encapsulation 
Protocol De-encapsulation 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
Moving Data in the Network 
Accessing Local Resources 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
Accessing Local Resources 
Communicating with Device / Same Network 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
Accessing Local Resources 
MAC and IP Addresses 
PC1 
192.168.1.110 
AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA 
PC2 
192.168.1.111 
BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB 
11-11-11-11-11-11 
S1 R1 
FTP Server 
192.168.1.9 
R1 
192.168.1.1 
CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CC 
ARP 
Request 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
Accessing Remote Resources 
Default Gateway 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
Accessing Remote Resources 
Communicating Device / Remote Network 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
Network Protocols and Communications 
Summary 
In this chapter, you learned: 
 Data networks are systems of end devices, intermediary devices, and the 
media connecting the devices. For communication to occur, these devices 
must know how to communicate. 
 These devices must comply with communication rules and protocols. 
TCP/IP is an example of a protocol suite. 
 Most protocols are created by a standards organization such as the IETF 
or IEEE. 
 The most widely-used networking models are the OSI and TCP/IP 
models. 
 Data that passes down the stack of the OSI model is segmented into 
pieces and encapsulated with addresses and other labels. The process is 
reversed as the pieces are de-encapsulated and passed up the 
destination protocol stack. 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
Network Protocols and Communications 
Summary (cont.) 
In this chapter, you learned: 
 The OSI model describes the processes of encoding, formatting, 
segmenting, and encapsulating data for transmission over the network. 
 The TCP/IP protocol suite is an open standard protocol that has been 
endorsed by the networking industry and ratified, or approved, by a 
standards organization. 
 The Internet Protocol Suite is a suite of protocols required for transmitting 
and receiving information using the Internet. 
 Protocol Data Units (PDUs) are named according to the protocols of the 
TCP/IP suite: data, segment, packet, frame, and bits. 
 Applying models allows individuals, companies, and trade associations to 
analyze current networks and plan the networks of the future. 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40

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CCNA 1 Routing and Switching v5.0 Chapter 3

  • 1. Chapter 3: Network Protocols and Communications Introduction to Networks © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
  • 2. Chapter 3: Objectives After completing this chapter, you will be able to:  Explain how rules are used to facilitate communication.  Explain the role of protocols and standards organizations in facilitating interoperability in network communications.  Explain how devices on a LAN access resources in a small to medium-sized business network. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
  • 3. Chapter 3 3.1 Rules of Communication 3.2 Network Protocols and Standards 3.3 Moving Data in the Network 3.4 Summary Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
  • 4. 3.1 Rules of Communication © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
  • 5. The Rules What is Communication? Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
  • 6. The Rules Establishing the Rules  An identified sender and receiver  Agreed upon method of communicating (face-to-face, telephone, letter, photograph)  Common language and grammar  Speed and timing of delivery  Confirmation or acknowledgment requirements Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
  • 7. The Rules Message Encoding Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
  • 8. The Rules Message Formatting and Encapsulation Example: Personal letter contains the following elements:  Identifier of the recipient’s location  Identifier of the sender’s location  Salutation or greeting  Recipient identifier  The message content  Source identifier  End of message indicator Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
  • 9. The Rules Message Size An overview of the segmenting process:  The size restrictions of frames require the source host to break a long message into individual pieces (or segments) that meet both the minimum and maximum size requirements.  Each segment is encapsulated in a separate frame with the address information, and is sent over the network.  At the receiving host, the messages are de-encapsulated and put back together to be processed and interpreted. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
  • 10. The Rules Message Timing  Access Method  Flow Control  Response Timeout Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
  • 11. The Rules Message Delivery Options Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
  • 12. 3.2 Network Protocols and Standards © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
  • 13. Protocols Rules that Govern Communications Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
  • 14. Protocols Network Protocols  How the message is formatted or structured  The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks  How and when error and system messages are passed between devices  The setup and termination of data transfer sessions Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
  • 15. Protocols Interaction of Protocols  Application Protocol – Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)  Transport Protocol – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)  Internet Protocol – Internet Protocol (IP)  Network Access Protocols – Data link & physical layers Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
  • 16. Protocol Suites Protocol Suites and Industry Standards Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
  • 17. Protocol Suites Creation of Internet, Development of TCP/IP  The first packet switching network and predecessor to today’s Internet was the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), which came to life in 1969 by connecting mainframe computers at four locations.  ARPANET was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense for use by universities and research laboratories. Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) was the contractor that did much of the initial development of the ARPANET, including creating the first router known as an Interface Message Processor (IMP).  In 1973, Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf began work on TCP to develop the next generation of the ARPANET. TCP was designed to replace ARPANET’s current Network Control Program (NCP).  In 1978, TCP was divided into two protocols: TCP and IP. Later, other protocols were added to the TCP/IP suite of protocols including Telnet, FTP, DNS, and many others. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
  • 18. Protocol Suites TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
  • 19. Standards Organizations Open Standards  The Internet Society (ISOC)  The Internet Architecture Board (IAB)  The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)  The International Organization for Standards (ISO) Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
  • 20. Standards Organizations ISOC, IAB, and IETF Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
  • 21. Standards Organizations IEEE  38 societies  130 journals  1,300 conferences each year  1,300 standards and projects  400,000 members  160 countries  IEEE 802.3  IEEE 802.11 Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
  • 22. Standards Organizations ISO OSI Model Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
  • 23. Standards Organizations Other Standards Organization  The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)  The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)  The International Telecommunications Union – Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T)  The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)  The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
  • 24. Reference Models Benefits of Using a Layered Model Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
  • 25. Reference Models The OSI Reference Model Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
  • 26. Reference Models The TCP/IP Reference Model Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
  • 27. Reference Models Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Models Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27
  • 28. 3.3 Moving Data in the Network © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
  • 29. Data Encapsulation Communicating the Messages  Segmenting message benefits Different conversations can be interleaved Increased reliability of network communications  Segmenting message disadvantage Increased level of complexity Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29
  • 30. Data Encapsulation Protocol Data Units (PDUs)  Data  Segment  Packet  Frame  Bits Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
  • 31. Data Encapsulation Protocol Encapsulation Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
  • 32. Data Encapsulation Protocol De-encapsulation Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
  • 33. Moving Data in the Network Accessing Local Resources Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
  • 34. Accessing Local Resources Communicating with Device / Same Network Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
  • 35. Accessing Local Resources MAC and IP Addresses PC1 192.168.1.110 AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AA PC2 192.168.1.111 BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB 11-11-11-11-11-11 S1 R1 FTP Server 192.168.1.9 R1 192.168.1.1 CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CC ARP Request Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
  • 36. Accessing Remote Resources Default Gateway Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
  • 37. Accessing Remote Resources Communicating Device / Remote Network Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
  • 38. Network Protocols and Communications Summary In this chapter, you learned:  Data networks are systems of end devices, intermediary devices, and the media connecting the devices. For communication to occur, these devices must know how to communicate.  These devices must comply with communication rules and protocols. TCP/IP is an example of a protocol suite.  Most protocols are created by a standards organization such as the IETF or IEEE.  The most widely-used networking models are the OSI and TCP/IP models.  Data that passes down the stack of the OSI model is segmented into pieces and encapsulated with addresses and other labels. The process is reversed as the pieces are de-encapsulated and passed up the destination protocol stack. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
  • 39. Network Protocols and Communications Summary (cont.) In this chapter, you learned:  The OSI model describes the processes of encoding, formatting, segmenting, and encapsulating data for transmission over the network.  The TCP/IP protocol suite is an open standard protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified, or approved, by a standards organization.  The Internet Protocol Suite is a suite of protocols required for transmitting and receiving information using the Internet.  Protocol Data Units (PDUs) are named according to the protocols of the TCP/IP suite: data, segment, packet, frame, and bits.  Applying models allows individuals, companies, and trade associations to analyze current networks and plan the networks of the future. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
  • 40. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40