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Chapter 4: 
Network Access 
Introduction to Networks 
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
Chapter 4: Objectives 
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: 
 Identify device connectivity options. 
 Describe the purpose and functions of the physical layer in the 
network. 
 Describe basic principles of the physical layer standards. 
 Identify the basic characteristics of copper cabling. 
 Build a UTP cable used in Ethernet networks. 
 Describe fiber-optic cabling and its main advantages over other 
media. 
 Describe wireless media. 
 Select the appropriate media for a given requirement and connect 
devices. 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
Chapter 4: Objectives (cont.) 
Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: 
 Describe the purpose and function of the data link layer in 
preparing communication for transmission on specific media. 
 Describe the Layer 2 frame structure and identify generic fields. 
 Identify several sources for the protocols and standards used by 
the data link layer. 
 Compare the functions of logical topologies and physical 
topologies. 
 Describe the basic characteristics of media control methods on 
WAN topologies. 
 Describe the basic characteristics of media control methods on 
LAN topologies. 
 Describe the characteristics and functions of the data link frame. 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
4.4 Media Access Control 
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
Chapter 4 
4.1 Physical Layer Protocols 
4.2 Network Media 
4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols 
4.4 Media Access Control 
4.5 Summary 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
4.1 Physical Layer Protocols 
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
Getting it Connected 
Connecting to the Network 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
Getting it Connected 
Connecting to the Network (cont.) 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
Getting it Connected 
Network Interface Cards 
Connecting to the Wireless LAN with a Range Extender 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
Purpose of the Physical Layer 
The Physical Layer 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
Purpose of the Physical Layer 
Physical Layer Media 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
Purpose of the Physical Layer 
Physical Layer Standards 
Standard 
Organization 
Networking Standards 
ISO 
• ISO 8877: Officially adopted the RJ connectors (e.g., RJ-11, RJ-45) 
• ISO 11801: Network cabling standard similar to EIA/TIA 568. 
EIA/TIA 
• TIA-568-C: Telecommunications cabling standards, used by nearly all 
voice, video and data networks. 
• TIA-569-B: Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications 
Pathways and Spaces 
• TIA-598-C: Fiber optic color coding 
• TIA-942: Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers 
ANSI • 568-C: RJ-45 pinouts. Co-developed with EIA/TIA 
ITU-T • G.992: ADSL 
IEEE 
• 802.3: Ethernet 
• 802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) 
• 802.15: Bluetooth 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 
Physical Layer Fundamental Principles 
Media 
Physical 
Components 
Frame Encoding 
Technique 
Signalling Method 
Copper 
Cable 
• UTP 
• Coaxial 
• Connectors 
• NICs 
• Ports 
• Interfaces 
• Manchester Encoding 
• Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) 
techniques 
• 4B/5B codes are used with 
Multi-Level Transition Level 3 
(MLT-3) signaling 
• 8B/10B 
• PAM5 
• Changes in the 
electromagnetic field 
• Intensity of the 
electromagnetic field 
• Phase of the 
electromagnetic 
wave 
Fiber Optic 
Cable 
• Single-mode Fiber 
• Multimode Fiber 
• Connectors 
• NICs 
• Interfaces 
• Lasers and LEDs 
• Photoreceptors 
• Pulses of light 
• Wavelength multiplexing using 
different colors 
• A pulse equals 1. 
• No pulse is 0. 
Wireless 
Media 
• Access Points 
• NICs 
• Radio 
• Antennae 
• DSSS (direct-sequence 
spread-spectrum) 
• OFDM (orthogonal frequency 
division multiplexing) 
• Radio waves 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 
Bandwidth 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 
Throughput 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 
Types of Physical Media 
Gigabit Ethernet 
Interfaces 
SHDSL 
Interface 
Management 
Ports 
FastEthernet 
Switch Ports 
USB Mini-B 
Connector 
USB Type A 
Connector 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
4.2 Network Media 
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
Copper Cabling 
Characteristics of Copper Media 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
Copper Cabling 
Copper Media 
Shielded Twisted 
Pair (STP) Cable 
Unshielded Twisted 
Pair (UTP) Cable 
Coaxial Cable 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
Copper Cabling 
UTP Cable 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
Copper Cabling 
STP Cable 
Braided or Foil Shield 
Foil Shields 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
Copper Cabling 
Coaxial Cable 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
Copper Cabling 
Cooper Media Safety 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
UTP Cabling 
Properties of UTP Cabling 
UTP cable does not use shielding to counter the effects of EMI and 
RFI. Instead, cable designers have discovered that they can limit the 
negative effect of crosstalk by: 
 Cancellation 
 Varying the number of twists per wire pair 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
UTP Cabling 
UTP Cabling Standards 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
UTP Cabling 
UTP Connectors 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
UTP Cabling 
Types of UTP Cable 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27
UTP Cabling 
Testing UTP Cables 
After installation, a UTP cable tester should be used to test for the following 
parameters: 
 Wire map 
 Cable length 
 Signal loss due to attenuation 
 Crosstalk 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
Fiber Optic Cabling 
Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling 
Fiber-optic cabling is now being used in four types of industry: 
 Enterprise Networks 
 Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) and Access Networks 
 Long-Haul Networks 
 Submarine Networks 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29
Fiber Optic Cabling 
Fiber Media Cable Design 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
Fiber Optic Cabling 
Types of Fiber Media 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
Fiber Optic Cabling 
Network Fiber Connectors 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
Fiber Optic Cabling 
Testing Fiber Cables 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
Fiber Optic Cabling 
Fiber versus Copper 
Implementation Issues Copper Media Fibre Optic 
Bandwidth Supported 10 Mbps – 10 Gbps 10 Mbps – 100 Gbps 
Distance 
Relatively short 
(1 – 100 meters) 
Relatively High 
(1 – 100,000 meters) 
Immunity To EMI And RFI Low 
High 
(Completely immune) 
Immunity To Electrical Hazards Low 
High 
(Completely immune) 
Media And Connector Costs Lowest Highest 
Installation Skills Required Lowest Highest 
Safety Precautions Lowest Highest 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
Wireless Media 
Properties of Wireless Media 
Wireless does have some areas of concern including: 
 Coverage area 
 Interference 
 Security 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
Wireless Media 
Types of Wireless Media 
• IEEE 802.11 standards 
• Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi. 
• Uses CSMA/CA 
• Variations include: 
• 802.11a: 54 Mbps, 5 GHz 
• 802.11b: 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz 
• 802.11g: 54 Mbps, 2.4 GHz 
• 802.11n: 600 Mbps, 2.4 and 5 GHz 
• 802.11ac: 1 Gbps, 5 GHz 
• 802.11ad: 7 Gbps, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 60 GHz 
• IEEE 802.15 standard 
• Supports speeds up to 3 Mb/s 
• Provides device pairing over distances from 1 to 100 
meters. 
• IEEE 802.16 standard 
• Provides speeds up to 1 Gbps 
• Uses a point-to-multipoint topology to provide 
wireless broadband access. 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
Wireless Media 
Wireless LAN 
Cisco Linksys EA6500 802.11ac Wireless Router 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
Wireless Media 
802.11 Wi-Fi Standards 
Standard 
Maximum 
Speed 
Frequency 
Backwards 
Compatible 
802.11a 54 Mbps 5 GHz No 
802.11b 11 Mbps 2.4 GHz No 
802.11g 54 Mbps 2.4 GHz 802.11b 
802.11n 600 Mbps 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz 802.11b/g 
802.11ac 
1.3 Gbps 
(1300 Mbps) 
2.4 GHz and 5.5 
GHz 
802.11b/g/n 
802.11ad 
7 Gbps 
(7000 Mbps) 
2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and 
60 GHz 
802.11b/g/n/ac 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols 
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
Purpose of the Data Link Layer 
The Data Link Layer 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40
Purpose of the Data Link Layer 
Data Link Sublayers 
Network 
Data Link 
LLC Sublayer 
MAC Sublayer 
Physical 
802.3 
Ethernet 
802.11 
Wi-Fi 
802.15 
Bluetooth 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41
Purpose of the Data Link Layer 
Media Access Control 
The Data Link Layer 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
Purpose of the Data Link Layer 
Providing Access to Media 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
Data Link Layer 
Formatting Data for Transmission 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44
Layer 2 Frame Structure 
Creating a Frame 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45
Layer 2 Standards 
Data Link Layer Standards 
Standard 
organization 
Networking Standards 
IEEE 
• 802.2: Logical Link Control (LLC) 
• 802.3: Ethernet 
• 802.4: Token bus 
• 802.5: Token passing 
• 802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) 
• 802.15: Bluetooth 
• 802.16: WiMax 
ITU-T 
• G.992: ADSL 
• G.8100 - G.8199: MPLS over Transport aspects 
• Q.921: ISDN 
• Q.922: Frame Relay 
ISO 
• HDLC (High Level Data Link Control) 
• ISO 9314: FDDI Media Access Control (MAC) 
ANSI • X3T9.5 and X3T12: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 46
Topologies 
Controlling Access to the Media 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47
Topologies 
Physical and Logical Topologies 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48
Topologies 
Physical and Logical Topologies (cont.) 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 49
WAN Topologies 
Common Physical WAN Topologies 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50
WAN Topologies 
Physical Point-to-Point Topology 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51
WAN Topologies 
Logical Point-to-Point Topology 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 52
WAN Topologies 
Half- and Full-Duplex 
Half-Duplex 
Full-Duplex 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 53
LAN Topologies 
Physical LAN Topologies 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 54
LAN Topologies 
Logical Topology for Shared Media 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 55
LAN Topologies 
Contention-Based Access 
Characteristics Contention-Based Technologies 
• Stations can transmit at any time 
• Collision exist 
• There are mechanisms to resolve 
contention for the media 
• CSMA/CD for 802.3 Ethernet networks 
• CSMA/CA for 802.11 wireless networks 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 56
LAN Topologies 
Multi-Access Topology 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 57
LAN Topologies 
Controlled Access 
Characteristics Controlled Access Technologies 
• Only one station can transmit at a time 
• Devices wanting to transmit must wait 
their turn 
• No collisions 
• May use a token passing method 
• Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) 
• FDDI 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 58
LAN Topologies 
Ring Topology 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 59
Data Link Frame 
The Frame 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 60
Data Link Frame 
The Header 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 61
Data Link Frame 
Layer 2 Address 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 62
Data Link Frame 
The Trailer 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 63
Data Link Frame 
LAN and WAN Frames 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 64
Data Link Frame 
Ethernet Frame 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 65
Data Link Frame 
Point-to-Point Protocol Frame 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 66
Data Link Frame 
802.11 Wireless Frame 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 67
Network Access 
Summary 
 The TCP/IP network access layer is the equivalent of the OSI data link 
layer (Layer 2) and the physical layer (Layer 1). 
 The OSI physical layer provides the means to transport the bits that make 
up a data link layer frame across the network media. 
 The physical layer standards address three functional areas: physical 
components, frame encoding technique, and signaling method. 
 Using the proper media is an important part of network communications. 
Without the proper physical connection, either wired or wireless, 
communications between any two devices will not occur. 
 Wired communication consists of copper media and fiber cable. 
 There are three main types of copper media used in networking: 
unshielded-twisted pair (UTP), shielded-twisted pair (STP), and coaxial 
cable. UTP cabling is the most common copper networking media. 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 68
Network Access 
Summary (cont.) 
 Optical fiber cable has become very popular for interconnecting 
infrastructure network devices. It permits the transmission of data over 
longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than any other 
networking media. 
 Wireless media carry electromagnetic signals that represent the binary 
digits of data communications using radio or microwave frequencies. 
 The data link layer is responsible for the exchange of frames between 
nodes over a physical network media. It allows the upper layers to access 
the media and controls how data is placed and received on the media. 
 Among the different implementations of the data link layer protocols, there 
are different methods of controlling access to the media. These media 
access control techniques define if and how the nodes share the media. 
 The actual media access control method used depends on the topology 
and media sharing. LAN and WAN topologies can be physical or logical. 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 69
Network Access 
Summary (cont.) 
 WANs are commonly interconnected using the point-to-point, hub and 
spoke, or mesh physical topologies. 
 In shared media LANs, end devices can be interconnected using the star, 
bus, ring, or extended star (hybrid) physical topologies. 
 All data link layer protocols encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU within the data 
field of the frame. However, the structure of the frame and the fields 
contained in the header and trailer vary according to the protocol. 
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 70
Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 71

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CCNA 1 Routing and Switching v5.0 Chapter 4

  • 1. Chapter 4: Network Access Introduction to Networks © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
  • 2. Chapter 4: Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:  Identify device connectivity options.  Describe the purpose and functions of the physical layer in the network.  Describe basic principles of the physical layer standards.  Identify the basic characteristics of copper cabling.  Build a UTP cable used in Ethernet networks.  Describe fiber-optic cabling and its main advantages over other media.  Describe wireless media.  Select the appropriate media for a given requirement and connect devices. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 2
  • 3. Chapter 4: Objectives (cont.) Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:  Describe the purpose and function of the data link layer in preparing communication for transmission on specific media.  Describe the Layer 2 frame structure and identify generic fields.  Identify several sources for the protocols and standards used by the data link layer.  Compare the functions of logical topologies and physical topologies.  Describe the basic characteristics of media control methods on WAN topologies.  Describe the basic characteristics of media control methods on LAN topologies.  Describe the characteristics and functions of the data link frame. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
  • 4. 4.4 Media Access Control © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
  • 5. Chapter 4 4.1 Physical Layer Protocols 4.2 Network Media 4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols 4.4 Media Access Control 4.5 Summary Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
  • 6. 4.1 Physical Layer Protocols © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
  • 7. Getting it Connected Connecting to the Network Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
  • 8. Getting it Connected Connecting to the Network (cont.) Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
  • 9. Getting it Connected Network Interface Cards Connecting to the Wireless LAN with a Range Extender Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
  • 10. Purpose of the Physical Layer The Physical Layer Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
  • 11. Purpose of the Physical Layer Physical Layer Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
  • 12. Purpose of the Physical Layer Physical Layer Standards Standard Organization Networking Standards ISO • ISO 8877: Officially adopted the RJ connectors (e.g., RJ-11, RJ-45) • ISO 11801: Network cabling standard similar to EIA/TIA 568. EIA/TIA • TIA-568-C: Telecommunications cabling standards, used by nearly all voice, video and data networks. • TIA-569-B: Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces • TIA-598-C: Fiber optic color coding • TIA-942: Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers ANSI • 568-C: RJ-45 pinouts. Co-developed with EIA/TIA ITU-T • G.992: ADSL IEEE • 802.3: Ethernet • 802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) • 802.15: Bluetooth Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
  • 13. Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Physical Layer Fundamental Principles Media Physical Components Frame Encoding Technique Signalling Method Copper Cable • UTP • Coaxial • Connectors • NICs • Ports • Interfaces • Manchester Encoding • Non-Return to Zero (NRZ) techniques • 4B/5B codes are used with Multi-Level Transition Level 3 (MLT-3) signaling • 8B/10B • PAM5 • Changes in the electromagnetic field • Intensity of the electromagnetic field • Phase of the electromagnetic wave Fiber Optic Cable • Single-mode Fiber • Multimode Fiber • Connectors • NICs • Interfaces • Lasers and LEDs • Photoreceptors • Pulses of light • Wavelength multiplexing using different colors • A pulse equals 1. • No pulse is 0. Wireless Media • Access Points • NICs • Radio • Antennae • DSSS (direct-sequence spread-spectrum) • OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) • Radio waves Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
  • 14. Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Bandwidth Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
  • 15. Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Throughput Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
  • 16. Fundamental Principles of Layer 1 Types of Physical Media Gigabit Ethernet Interfaces SHDSL Interface Management Ports FastEthernet Switch Ports USB Mini-B Connector USB Type A Connector Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
  • 17. 4.2 Network Media © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
  • 18. Copper Cabling Characteristics of Copper Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
  • 19. Copper Cabling Copper Media Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Coaxial Cable Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
  • 20. Copper Cabling UTP Cable Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
  • 21. Copper Cabling STP Cable Braided or Foil Shield Foil Shields Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
  • 22. Copper Cabling Coaxial Cable Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
  • 23. Copper Cabling Cooper Media Safety Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
  • 24. UTP Cabling Properties of UTP Cabling UTP cable does not use shielding to counter the effects of EMI and RFI. Instead, cable designers have discovered that they can limit the negative effect of crosstalk by:  Cancellation  Varying the number of twists per wire pair Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
  • 25. UTP Cabling UTP Cabling Standards Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
  • 26. UTP Cabling UTP Connectors Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
  • 27. UTP Cabling Types of UTP Cable Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27
  • 28. UTP Cabling Testing UTP Cables After installation, a UTP cable tester should be used to test for the following parameters:  Wire map  Cable length  Signal loss due to attenuation  Crosstalk Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
  • 29. Fiber Optic Cabling Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling Fiber-optic cabling is now being used in four types of industry:  Enterprise Networks  Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) and Access Networks  Long-Haul Networks  Submarine Networks Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29
  • 30. Fiber Optic Cabling Fiber Media Cable Design Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
  • 31. Fiber Optic Cabling Types of Fiber Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
  • 32. Fiber Optic Cabling Network Fiber Connectors Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
  • 33. Fiber Optic Cabling Testing Fiber Cables Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
  • 34. Fiber Optic Cabling Fiber versus Copper Implementation Issues Copper Media Fibre Optic Bandwidth Supported 10 Mbps – 10 Gbps 10 Mbps – 100 Gbps Distance Relatively short (1 – 100 meters) Relatively High (1 – 100,000 meters) Immunity To EMI And RFI Low High (Completely immune) Immunity To Electrical Hazards Low High (Completely immune) Media And Connector Costs Lowest Highest Installation Skills Required Lowest Highest Safety Precautions Lowest Highest Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
  • 35. Wireless Media Properties of Wireless Media Wireless does have some areas of concern including:  Coverage area  Interference  Security Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
  • 36. Wireless Media Types of Wireless Media • IEEE 802.11 standards • Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi. • Uses CSMA/CA • Variations include: • 802.11a: 54 Mbps, 5 GHz • 802.11b: 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz • 802.11g: 54 Mbps, 2.4 GHz • 802.11n: 600 Mbps, 2.4 and 5 GHz • 802.11ac: 1 Gbps, 5 GHz • 802.11ad: 7 Gbps, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 60 GHz • IEEE 802.15 standard • Supports speeds up to 3 Mb/s • Provides device pairing over distances from 1 to 100 meters. • IEEE 802.16 standard • Provides speeds up to 1 Gbps • Uses a point-to-multipoint topology to provide wireless broadband access. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
  • 37. Wireless Media Wireless LAN Cisco Linksys EA6500 802.11ac Wireless Router Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
  • 38. Wireless Media 802.11 Wi-Fi Standards Standard Maximum Speed Frequency Backwards Compatible 802.11a 54 Mbps 5 GHz No 802.11b 11 Mbps 2.4 GHz No 802.11g 54 Mbps 2.4 GHz 802.11b 802.11n 600 Mbps 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz 802.11b/g 802.11ac 1.3 Gbps (1300 Mbps) 2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz 802.11b/g/n 802.11ad 7 Gbps (7000 Mbps) 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and 60 GHz 802.11b/g/n/ac Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
  • 39. 4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All Presentation_ID rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
  • 40. Purpose of the Data Link Layer The Data Link Layer Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40
  • 41. Purpose of the Data Link Layer Data Link Sublayers Network Data Link LLC Sublayer MAC Sublayer Physical 802.3 Ethernet 802.11 Wi-Fi 802.15 Bluetooth Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41
  • 42. Purpose of the Data Link Layer Media Access Control The Data Link Layer Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
  • 43. Purpose of the Data Link Layer Providing Access to Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
  • 44. Data Link Layer Formatting Data for Transmission Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44
  • 45. Layer 2 Frame Structure Creating a Frame Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45
  • 46. Layer 2 Standards Data Link Layer Standards Standard organization Networking Standards IEEE • 802.2: Logical Link Control (LLC) • 802.3: Ethernet • 802.4: Token bus • 802.5: Token passing • 802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification) • 802.15: Bluetooth • 802.16: WiMax ITU-T • G.992: ADSL • G.8100 - G.8199: MPLS over Transport aspects • Q.921: ISDN • Q.922: Frame Relay ISO • HDLC (High Level Data Link Control) • ISO 9314: FDDI Media Access Control (MAC) ANSI • X3T9.5 and X3T12: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 46
  • 47. Topologies Controlling Access to the Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47
  • 48. Topologies Physical and Logical Topologies Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48
  • 49. Topologies Physical and Logical Topologies (cont.) Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 49
  • 50. WAN Topologies Common Physical WAN Topologies Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50
  • 51. WAN Topologies Physical Point-to-Point Topology Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51
  • 52. WAN Topologies Logical Point-to-Point Topology Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 52
  • 53. WAN Topologies Half- and Full-Duplex Half-Duplex Full-Duplex Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 53
  • 54. LAN Topologies Physical LAN Topologies Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 54
  • 55. LAN Topologies Logical Topology for Shared Media Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 55
  • 56. LAN Topologies Contention-Based Access Characteristics Contention-Based Technologies • Stations can transmit at any time • Collision exist • There are mechanisms to resolve contention for the media • CSMA/CD for 802.3 Ethernet networks • CSMA/CA for 802.11 wireless networks Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 56
  • 57. LAN Topologies Multi-Access Topology Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 57
  • 58. LAN Topologies Controlled Access Characteristics Controlled Access Technologies • Only one station can transmit at a time • Devices wanting to transmit must wait their turn • No collisions • May use a token passing method • Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) • FDDI Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 58
  • 59. LAN Topologies Ring Topology Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 59
  • 60. Data Link Frame The Frame Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 60
  • 61. Data Link Frame The Header Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 61
  • 62. Data Link Frame Layer 2 Address Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 62
  • 63. Data Link Frame The Trailer Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 63
  • 64. Data Link Frame LAN and WAN Frames Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 64
  • 65. Data Link Frame Ethernet Frame Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 65
  • 66. Data Link Frame Point-to-Point Protocol Frame Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 66
  • 67. Data Link Frame 802.11 Wireless Frame Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 67
  • 68. Network Access Summary  The TCP/IP network access layer is the equivalent of the OSI data link layer (Layer 2) and the physical layer (Layer 1).  The OSI physical layer provides the means to transport the bits that make up a data link layer frame across the network media.  The physical layer standards address three functional areas: physical components, frame encoding technique, and signaling method.  Using the proper media is an important part of network communications. Without the proper physical connection, either wired or wireless, communications between any two devices will not occur.  Wired communication consists of copper media and fiber cable.  There are three main types of copper media used in networking: unshielded-twisted pair (UTP), shielded-twisted pair (STP), and coaxial cable. UTP cabling is the most common copper networking media. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 68
  • 69. Network Access Summary (cont.)  Optical fiber cable has become very popular for interconnecting infrastructure network devices. It permits the transmission of data over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than any other networking media.  Wireless media carry electromagnetic signals that represent the binary digits of data communications using radio or microwave frequencies.  The data link layer is responsible for the exchange of frames between nodes over a physical network media. It allows the upper layers to access the media and controls how data is placed and received on the media.  Among the different implementations of the data link layer protocols, there are different methods of controlling access to the media. These media access control techniques define if and how the nodes share the media.  The actual media access control method used depends on the topology and media sharing. LAN and WAN topologies can be physical or logical. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 69
  • 70. Network Access Summary (cont.)  WANs are commonly interconnected using the point-to-point, hub and spoke, or mesh physical topologies.  In shared media LANs, end devices can be interconnected using the star, bus, ring, or extended star (hybrid) physical topologies.  All data link layer protocols encapsulate the Layer 3 PDU within the data field of the frame. However, the structure of the frame and the fields contained in the header and trailer vary according to the protocol. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 70
  • 71. Presentation_ID © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 71