A data center or computer centre (also datacenter) is a facility used to
house computer systems and associated components, such as
telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes redundant or
backup power supplies, redundant data communications connections,
environmental controls (e.g., air conditioning, fire suppression) and security
devices. Large data centers are industrial scale operations using as much
electricity as a small town.
Data centers have their roots in the huge computer rooms of the early
ages of the computing industry. Early computer systems were complex to
operate and maintain, and required a special environment in which to operate.
Many cables were necessary to connect all the components and methods to
accommodate and organize these were devised, such as standard racks to
mount equipment, elevated floors, and cable trays (installed overhead or
under the elevated floor). Also, a single mainframe required a great deal of
power, and had to be cooled to avoid overheating. Security was important –
computers were expensive, and were often used for military purposes. Basic
design guidelines for controlling access to the computer room were therefore
The boom of data centers came during the dot-com bubble. Companies
needed fast Internet connectivity and nonstop operation to deploy systems
and establish a presence on the Internet. Installing such equipment was not
viable for many smaller companies. Many companies started building very
large facilities, called Internet data centers (IDCs), which provide businesses
with a range of solutions for systems deployment and operation.
With an increase in the uptake of cloud computing, business and
government organizations are scrutinizing data centers to a higher degree in
areas such as security, availability, environmental impact and adherence to
The old computer data center at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Standards. Standard Documents from accredited professional groups, such as
the Telecommunications industries Association, specify the requirements for
data center design. Well-known operational metrics for data center availability
can be used to evaluate the business impact of a disruption. There is still a lot
of development being done in operation practice, and also in environmentally
friendly data center design. Data centers are typically very expensive to build
REQUIREMENTS FOR MODERN DATA CENTERS:
The Planning, Design and Implementation Services for Data Center
transformation combine the people, processes and technology, with the
program and project management necessary to transform a client’s existing
data centers into ones that provide business agility at a lower cost. a wide
range of services for discovery, analysis, optimization, virtualization and
migration of data centers that can complement client efforts and fill gaps in
client skills and capacities.
Various aspects of the data centers include:
Facilities: layout, power/cooling, physical security;
System infrastructure: servers, networking, storage, and security;
Applications, infrastructure mapping & dependencies;
Service management and operations considerations
IT operations are a crucial aspect of most organizational operations around the
world. One of the main concerns is business continuity; companies rely on
their information systems to run their operations. If a system becomes
unavailable, company operations may be impaired or stopped completely. It is
necessary to provide a reliable infrastructure for IT operations, in order to
minimize any chance of disruption. Information security is also a concern, and
for this reason a data center has to offer a secure environment which
minimizes the chances of a security breach. A data center must therefore keep
high standards for assuring the integrity and functionality of its hosted
computer environment. This is accomplished through redundancy of both fiber
optic cables and power, which includes emergency backup power generation.
DATA CENTRE PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE:
Data center virtualization includes storage, desktop, and server virtualization,
reduces overall IT equipment electrical load through consolidation of systems.
The resulting energy savings can be further maximized if IT or facilities
managers adjust the power and cooling infrastructure to accommodate the
reduced loads. Planning for this cycle of initial reduced load followed by load
growth with IT equipment running at much higher overall utilization levels can
result in the capture of a significant, supplemental energy savings entitlement.
A data center can occupy one room of a building, one or more floors, or an
entire building. Most of the equipment is often in the form of servers mounted
in 19 inch rack cabinets, which are usually placed in single rows forming
corridors (so-called aisles) between them. This allows people access to the
front and rear of each cabinet.
Some equipment such as mainframe computers and storage devices are often
as big as the racks themselves, and are placed alongside them.
Design programming, also known as architectural programming, is the process
of researching and making decisions to identify the scope of a design project.
Other than the architecture of the building itself there are three elements to
design programming for data centers: facility topology design (space planning),
engineering infrastructure design (mechanical systems such as cooling and
electrical systems including power) and technology infrastructure design (cable
plant). Each will be influenced by performance assessments and modeling to
identify gaps pertaining to the owner’s performance wishes of the facility over
Modeling criteria is used to develop future-state scenarios for space, power,
cooling, and costs. The aim is to create a master plan with parameters such as
number, size, location, topology, IT floor system layouts, and power and
cooling technology and configurations.
Design recommendations/plans generally follow the modeling criteria phase.
The optimal technology infrastructure is identified and planning criteria is
developed, such as critical power capacities, overall data center power
requirements using an agreed upon PUE (power utilization efficiency),
mechanical cooling capacities, kilowatts per cabinet, raised floor space, and
the resiliency level for the facility.
Conceptual designs embody the design recommendations or plans and should
take into account “what-if” scenarios to ensure all operational outcomes are
met in order to future-proof the facility. Conceptual floor layouts should be
driven by IT performance requirements as well as lifecycle costs associated
with IT demand, energy efficiency, cost efficiency and availability. Future-
proofing will also include expansion capabilities, often provided in modern
data centers through modularity.
Mechanical Engineering Infrastructure Design:
Mechanical engineering infrastructure design addresses mechanical systems
involved in maintaining the interior environment of a data center, such as
heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC); humidification and
dehumidification equipment; pressurization; and so on. This stage of the
design process should be aimed at saving space and costs, while ensuring
business and reliability objectives are met as well as achieving PUE and green
requirements. Modern designs include modularizing and scaling IT loads, and
making sure capital spending on the building construction is optimized.
Central heating differs from local heating in that the heat generation occurs in
one place, such as a furnace room in a house or a mechanical room in a large
building (though not necessarily at the "central" geometric point). The most
common method of heat generation involves the combustion of fossil fuel in a
furnace or boiler. The resultant heat then gets distributed: typically by forced-
air through ductwork, by water circulating through pipes, or by steam fed
through pipes. Increasingly, buildings utilize solar-powered heat sources, in
which case the distribution system normally uses water circulation.
Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as
circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors for
maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating
a building may be divided into mechanical/forced and natural types.
Mechanical" or "forced" ventilation is used to control indoor air
Heat Recovery Ventilation system
Air conditioning is the process of altering the properties of air (primarily
temperature and humidity) to more favorable conditions. More generally, air
conditioning can refer to any form of technological cooling, heating ventilation,
or disinfection that modifies the condition of air.
Refrigeration air-conditioning equipment usually reduces the absolute
humidity of the air processed by the system. The relatively cold (below the
dew point) evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air
(much like an ice-cold drink will condense water on the outside of a glass),
sending the water to a drain and removing water vapor from the cooled space
and lowering the relative humidity in the room. Since humans perspire to
provide natural cooling by the evaporation of perspiration from the skin, drier
air (up to a point) improves the comfort provided. The comfort air conditioner
is designed to create a 40% to 60% relative humidity in the occupied space. In
food-retailing establishments, large open chiller cabinets act as highly effective
air dehumidifying units.
Air Conditioning System
Electrical Engineering Infrastructure Design:
Electrical Engineering infrastructure design is focused on designing electrical
configurations that accommodate various reliability requirements and data
center sizes. Aspects may include utility service planning; distribution,
switching and bypass from power sources; uninterruptable power source (UPS)
systems; and more.
These designs should dovetail to energy standards and best practices while
also meeting business objectives. Electrical configurations should be optimized
and operationally compatible with the data center user’s capabilities. Modern
electrical design is modular and scalable, and is available for low and medium
voltage requirements as well as DC (direct current).
Banks of batteries that are always charging and a huge diesel-powered generator.
Data centers feature fire protection systems, including passive and active
design elements, as well as implementation of fire prevention programs in
operations. Smoke detectors are usually installed to provide early warning of
a fire at its incipient stage. This allows investigation, interruption of power,
and manual fire suppression using hand held fire extinguishers before the fire
grows to a large size. An active fire protection system, such as a fire sprinkler
system or a clean agent fire suppression gaseous system is often provided to
control a full scale fire if it develops. High sensitivity smoke detectors, such as
Aspirating smoke detectors, activating clean agent fire suppression gaseous
systems activate earlier than fire sprinklers. However, as gaseous systems have
a limited fire suppression agent storage quantity, the provision of a clean agent
system and a sprinkler system protects the building should the fire reignite
after the gaseous agent has dispersed. Passive fire protection elements
include the installation of fire walls around the data center, so a fire can be
restricted to a portion of the facility for a limited time in the event of the
failure of the active fire protection systems. Fire wall penetrations into the
server room, such as cable penetrations, coolant line penetrations and air
ducts, must be provided with fire rated penetration assemblies, such as fire
Active fire protection: Passive fire protection
Aspects such as proximity to available power grids, telecommunications
infrastructure, networking services, transportation lines and emergency
services can affect costs, risk, security and other factors to be taken into
consideration for data center design. Location affects data center design also
because the climatic conditions dictate what cooling technologies should be
deployed. In turn this impacts uptime and the costs associated with cooling.
For example, the topology and the cost of managing a data center in a warm,
humid climate will vary greatly from managing one in a cool, dry climate.
DATA CENTER INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT
Data center infrastructure management (DCIM) is the integration of
information technology (IT) and facility management disciplines to centralize
monitoring, management and intelligent capacity planning of a data center's
critical systems. Achieved through the implementation of specialized software,
hardware and sensors, DCIM enables common, real-time monitoring and
management platform for all interdependent systems across IT and facility
Depending on the type of implementation, DCIM products can help data
center managers identify and eliminate sources of risk to increase availability
of critical IT systems. DCIM products also can be used to identify
interdependencies between facility and IT infrastructures to alert the facility
manager to gaps in system redundancy, and provide dynamic, holistic
benchmarks on power consumption and efficiency to measure the
effectiveness of “green IT” initiatives.
Measuring and understanding important data center efficiency metrics. A lot of
the discussion in this area has focused on energy issues, but other metrics
beyond the PUE can give a more detailed picture of the data center operations.
Server, storage, and staff utilization metrics can contribute to a more complete
view of an enterprise data center. In many cases, disc capacity goes unused
and in many instances the organizations run their servers at 20% utilization or
less. More effective automation tools can also improve the number of servers
or virtual machines that a single admin can handle.
MODULAR DATA CENTER
Modular data center system is a portable method of deploying data center
capacity. An alternative to the traditional data center, a modular data center
can be placed anywhere data capacity is needed.
Modular data center systems consist of purpose-engineered modules and
components to offer scalable data center capacity with multiple power and
cooling options. Modules can be shipped anywhere in the world to be added,
integrated or retrofitted into the customer’s existing data center footprint, or
combined into a system of modules. Modular data centers typically consist of
standardized components, making them easier and cheaper to build.
Containerized data centers
Modular data centers come in two types of form factors. The more common
type, referred to as containerized data centers or portable modular data
centers, fits data center equipment (servers, storage and networking
equipment) into a standard shipping container, which is then transported to a
desired location.Containerized data centers typically come outfitted with their
own cooling systems. Cisco makes an example of this type of data center,
called the Cisco Containerized Data Center
Containerized data centers
Flexible Data Center
Flexible Data Center is constructed of sheet metal components that are formed
into four data center halls linked by a central operating building.
HP flexible data center
Communications in data centers today are most often based on networks
running the IP protocol suite. Data centers contain a set of routers and
switches that transport traffic between the servers and to the outside world.
Redundancy of the Internet connection is often provided by using two or more
upstream service providers (see Multihoming).
Some of the servers at the data center are used for running the basic Internet
and intranet services needed by internal users in the organization, e.g., e-mail
servers, proxy servers, and DNS servers.
Network security elements are also usually deployed: firewalls, VPN gateways,
intrusion detection systems, etc. Also common are monitoring systems for the
network and some of the applications. Additional off site monitoring systems
are also typical, in case of a failure of communications inside the data center.
A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks,
creating an overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data
lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in one of the lines,
the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its
ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing
policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. Routers
perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is
typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that
constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node.
Cisco CRS Router(carrier routing system)
Various Cisco routers
1. Cisco 3900 Series Integrated Services Routers
3 RU units with up to 4 GE ports with 2 SFP ports
UCS-E service module that can support Cisco and third-party
apps, VMware ESXi, and MS hypervisor
Up to 4 service modules, 1 integrated service module (ISM)
Up to 98 LAN switch ports, 4 Enhanced High-Speed WAN
Interface Card (EHWIC) slots
Ability to add a second integrated power supply
o Embedded hardware-accelerated VPN encryption and Cisco
Cloud Web Security
o Integrated threat control using Cisco IOS Firewall and Cisco
o 3 or 4 on-board digital-signal-processor (DSP) slots
optimized for voice and video
o Cisco Unified Border Element capabilities for up to 2500
2. Cisco ASR 9000 Series Aggregation Services Routers
Cisco is evolving its service provider architecture to deliver capabilities
for the Next-Generation Internet, which must be more mobile, more
visual, more virtual, and yet more simple to manage. This architecture
will allow carriers to:
Monetize new, profitable services
Optimize network performance and efficiency
Reduce operational costs and complexity
Enhance customer experiences
The Cisco ASR 9000 Series Aggregation Services Routers can serve as
the foundational baseline for next-generation Carrier Ethernet networks,
providing up to 96 terabits (Tbps) per system.
3. Cisco XR 12000 Series Router
Cisco 12000 Series they offer highly secure virtualization, integral
service delivery, continuous system operation, and multiservice scale.
With upgradeable, intelligent routing solutions and platforms ranging
from 2.5 Gbps to n x 10-Gbps capacity per slot, the Cisco XR 12000
Series facilitates the move to Next-Generation IP Multiprotocol Label
Switching (MPLS) networks.
Powered by Cisco IOS XR Software, the Cisco XR 12000 Series isolates
public and private services. Cisco IOS XR Software is a unique self-
healing, self-defending operating system. It equips the Cisco XR 12000
with distributed processing intelligence and robust quality-of-service and
4. Cisco 7600 Series Routers
High performance, with up to 720 Gbps in a single chassis, or 40
Gbps capacity per slot
A choice of form factors purpose-built for high availability
Cisco I-Flex design: A portfolio of shared port adapters (SPAs) and
SPA interface processors (SIPs) that controls voice, video, and
Scalable and extensible suite of hardware and software
capabilities to enable intelligent Carrier Ethernet services
Integrated Video Call Admission Control with innovative visual
quality of experience for both broadcast and video on demand
Intelligent Services Gateway, providing scalable subscriber and
application awareness with multidimensional identity capabilities
and policy controls.
Integrated Session Border Control with quality of experience in
both Session Initiated Protocol (SIP) and non-SIP applications
Carrier Ethernet: Aggregation of consumer and business service
Ethernet services edge: Personalized IP services
Wireless mesh networking and mobility service convergence
IP/MPLS provider edge routing
Enterprise WAN aggregation
Headquarters core routing
5.Cisco ASR 1013 router
The Cisco ASR 1013 Router offers highly integrated services for
enterprise and service provider networks. With 100 Gbps total system
bandwidth and 4- to 63-Mpps packet-forwarding capabilities, this
powerful edge device delivers exceptional performance for its price
The Cisco ASR 1013 supports:
100-Gbps embedded services processor (ESP)
40-Gbps embedded services processor (ESP)
40-Gbps SPA interface processor (SIP)
Approximately 3.2 kW of redundant power
Support Video, Web 2.0, and Collaboration Technologies
This white paper explores the innovative capabilities of the Cisco ASR
1000 Series for enterprises and service providers.
Intelligent Forwarding and Queuing
Discover the benefits of Embedded Services Processors (ESPs) on the
Cisco ASR 1000 Series, based on the powerful Quantum Flow
Prioritize Voice, Video, and Data Services
The extensible I-Flex design for the Cisco ASR 1000 Series combines
shared port adapters (SPAs) and SPA interface processors (SIPs).
A network switch is a computer networking device that links network
segments or network devices. The term commonly refers to a multi-port
network bridge that processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of
the OSI model. Switches that additionally process data at the network layer
(layer 3) and above are often called layer-3 switches or multilayer switches.
A switch is a telecommunication device that receives a message from any
device connected to it and then transmits the message only to the device for
which the message was meant. This makes the switch a more intelligent device
than a hub (which receives a message and then transmits it to all the other
devices on its network). The network switch plays an integral part in most
modern Ethernet local area networks (LANs). Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a
number of linked managed switches. Small office/home office (SOHO)
applications typically use a single switch, or an all-purpose converged device
such as a residential gateway to access small office/home broadband services
such as DS or cable Internet.
Various Cisco switches
1. Cisco Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches
Offer scalability of up to 25 times more routes and eight times more
multicast entries than competitor's products
Come in a one-rack unit (1 RU), with a low-power form factor
Support Virtual Switching System (VSS) to provide resiliency, and
increased operational efficiency with a single point of management
Offer up to 1.6 Tbps of switching capacity with VSS.
Total 1 Gigabit or 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports Up to 40
Hot-swap Uplink Module 8 x 10 GE
Size 1 rack unit
Hot-swap, Redundant Power Supplies and Fans Yes
System Power Consumption ~ 330 W
Integrated Services Cisco Flexible NetFlow, Medianet, Cisco TrustSec
Cisco Catalyst 4500-X Series Switches
2. Cisco Nexus 7000 Series Switches
The Cisco Nexus 7000 Series was designed around three
Infrastructure scalability: Virtualization, efficient power and
cooling, high density, and performance all support efficient data
center infrastructure growth.
Operational continuity: The Cisco Nexus design integrates
hardware, NX-OS software features, and management to support
Transport flexibility: You can incrementally and cost-effectively
adopt new networking innovations and technologies, such as:
o Cisco Overlay Transport Virtualization (OTV)
o Cisco Fabric Path
o Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE)
o Cisco Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)
o Cisco IOS Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
3. Cisco Nexus 5000 Series Switches
Help enable any transport over Ethernet, including Layer 2 and Layer 3
traffic and storage traffic, on one common data-center-class platform.
Cisco Nexus 5000 Series Switches help transform your data center, with
a standards-based, multipurpose, multiprotocol, Ethernet-based fabric.
4. Cisco Nexus 3000 Series Switches
Features and Capabilities
Line-rate Layer 2/Layer 3 switching at ultra-low latencies for High -
Performance Trading workloads
Network Address Translation
Virtual Port Channel
Embedded Remote SPAN with PTP time-stamping
Easy Deployment and Configuration
Modular and resilient Cisco NX-OS operating system
Robust and proven software that is deployed in thousands of data
Simplified management with support for Python scripting, EEM,
and other XML manageability tools