Ld4d 2013 part 2


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Slides for the second part of the Linked Data for Development (LD4D) Tutorial, held at WSSF2013 in Montreal Canada.

In this presentation I talk about Downscaling the Semantic Web, taking into account issues around 1) infrastructure and hardware 2) interfaces 3) relevant data

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Ld4d 2013 part 2

  1. 1. Linked Data for Development: Part 2: Downscaling Linked Data Victor de Boer With significant input from Christophe Guéret, Martin Murillo, Stephane Boyera, Stefan Schlobach, Bernie Innocenti, Walter Bender, Claudia Urrea, Anna Bon, Hans Akkermans, Nana Gyan, Amadou Tangara. Mary Allen,…
  2. 2. LD4D at ISWC2012
  3. 3. Outline • Part 2: – Why Linked Data for Development – Bringing the Semantic Web and Linked Data to the Base of the Pyramid • Relevancy • Infrastructure and connectivity • Interfaces – IATI as Linked Data – Voice-based access to Market data in the Sahel – Distributed data sharing: OLPC and ERS • Part 3: Handson session!
  4. 4. CAUTION! DIGITAL DIVIDE AHEAD Img: Internet World Stats
  5. 5. Digital divide in classrooms
  6. 6. ICT4D • Technology is a development tool – – – – • Education Healthcare Livelihood etc. Leveraging communication independently of physical/geographical barriers • Improving transparency, accountability, efficiency of governments • Developing nations can leapfrog directly into the information age, jumping many phases of immature technologies Based on Sbc4d.com
  7. 7. Information sharing needs • Agriculture – – – – Market Prices Business opportunities Support Sharing indigenous knowledge – Etc. • Health – Prevention – Access to healthcare – Detection of disease outbreak – etc. • • Education Etc. Based on Sbc4d.com
  8. 8. Web Alliance for Regreening in Africa W4RA : Information exchange and knowledge sharing in rural Africa Washington, 13-15 May 2013 9
  9. 9. World Wide Web as Instrument of Empowerment Sir Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the Web: “Our success will be measured by how well we foster the creativity of our children. Whether future scientists have the tools to cure diseases. Whether people, in developed and developing economies alike, can distinguish reliable information from propaganda or commercial chaff. Whether the next generation will build systems that support democracy and accountable debate. I hope that you will join this global effort to advance the Web to empower people.”
  10. 10. Why the Semantic Web? • Information (from NGOs) in silos – Specific products – Specific communities • Lot of knowledge is lost due to lack of publication  Sharing (heterogeneous) knowledge is essential • LD is well-suited because of: – Language-agnostic – Interface-agnostic – De-centralised authoring • Slicing – Re-usability • Local • Global Img: flickr/elcovs
  11. 11. Why linked data (1/2) Slide stolen from Christophe Gueret
  12. 12. Why linked data (2/2) Slide stolen from Christophe Gueret
  13. 13. Web of Documents (WWW) Linked Documents
  14. 14. Web of Data Linked Data
  15. 15. Barriers to the Internet 1. Technology: The lack of connectivity and electricity, cost of devices and cost of connection are limiting the adoption and usage of new technologies; 2. Capacity: Lack of time and resources limits the participation in data sharing processes. There are also issues related to low education levels, low capacity to interpret data, and illiteracy; 3. Relevance: Power balance, culture, apathy, lack of incentives, lack of interest and dis-empowerment are also all threats to having citizens engage in data sharing. Stephane Boyera (SBC4D.com)
  16. 16. Sem.tech/Linked Data should be made 1. usable on small, affordable, hardware deployed in various connectivity contexts; 2. accessible to individuals with varied cultural backgrounds / literacy levels; 3. relevant and directly useful to the target public they aim to empower. Infrastructure Interface Relevancy
  17. 17. Infrastructure • • • • No internet, No bandwith, No computer, No electricity • Cost – Total cost of ownership
  18. 18. Interface • • • • Low literacy Low education Small languages low capacity to interpret data, and illiteracy;
  19. 19. Relevancy • No local content • No local ownership • Power balance, culture, apathy, lack of incentives, dis-empowerment Subsecretario de transparencia, Alcaldes y la gente http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0S3juRQXR0 Max Rodriguez
  20. 20. New ways of connecting to the (Semantic) Web
  21. 21. Mobile phones
  22. 22. Radio •No. 1 source of information •Interactive radio programs •Huge listening base
  23. 23. Low-powered hardware • OLPC XO laptop • Raspberry Pi • Sheevaplug etc.
  24. 24. With the mainstream • Dev.countries can leapfrog directly into the information age, – jumping many phases of immature technologies • Linked Data is mainstream computer science research. – Let’s worry about the 4.5 B unconnected prosumers now! Img: flickr/n3v3rv0id
  25. 25. Voice-based Web access in Africa
  26. 26. • Integrate local community radios and mobile ICT for knowledge sharing • Better support and integrate local languages in voicebased services – Development of appropriate speech elements (textto-speech and Speech recognition) • Develop a free and open source toolbox for local developers. – Investigate self-sustainability – Develop appropriate business models – In collaboration with local communities.
  27. 27. Bottom-up • Involvement of local communities – Trust and ownership – Co-creation • Bottom-up: field visits, workshops, demos, roadsh ows, etc • Local communities: innovation cocreation, “Living Labs” sociotechnical approach – Use case gathering – Observation and prototyping – Test, adapt
  28. 28. From 20 use cases to 3 voice systems 1 m-Milk ordering and delivery service of Tominian Milk producers and NGO 2 m-Tree protection alert service Sahel Eco Farmers and NGO 3 mobile-web Event organizer for vaccination of herds Farmers 4 m-Farmer-expert directory service Farmer organization 5 NGO info-line about legal issues in several languages Sahel Eco 6 Leave announcement or select your favourite song Radio 7 Shea butter and honey trading service Radio and Sahel Eco 8 Access radio programs and announcements on your phone Radio 9 Gourcy seed producers seed certification service Farmer organization 10 Radio questions and answers about agricultural issues Radio 11 m-collective purchase organizing service Local buyers 12 m-GIS regreening service Sahel Eco 13 m-Farmer social network Sahel Eco 14 mobile-web regional market system Farmer organization 15 Sahel Eco portal to Regreening and access to m-services Sahel Eco 16 m-event organizer for re-greening events Sahel Eco, farmers Market Information Citizen Journalism Event Organiser
  29. 29. Local market data Communiqué Web Interface Text-To-Speech GSM/Voice interface Sahel Eco operative Buyers Community radio
  30. 30. “Slot and Filler” Text-to-Speech Spoken Language Elements Repository Bambara: English: 15_ba.wav L_ba.wav Of_ba.wav 15 liters of honey offered by Zakari Diarra
  31. 31. VoiceXML <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <vxml version="2.0" lang="en"> <form> <prompt bargein="false"> Welcome to RadioMarche! <audio src=“audio/communique_1_bambara.wav"/> </prompt> <option dtmf="1" value=“1">Press one for X</option> <option dtmf=“2" value=“2">Press two for Y</option> ... </vxml> DTMF = Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling
  32. 32. Foroba Blon
  33. 33. Web for ALL. Using voice technologies and available tools… ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ … we make the benefits of the Web available to people who use simple mobile phones.
  34. 34. Results • RadioMarché -- Increased market for farmers. – Political, social, economical, ecological factors play a great role – Too successful: not the entire value chain is served • Foroba Blon -- Facilitating rural citizen journalism. – Privacy and security, – New business models Voice platform with reusable components for different use cases.
  35. 35. Linked Data for RadioMarche
  36. 36. http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/radiomarche
  37. 37. Linked Market Data • 1,952 RDF triples – 90 offerings – 19 contacts Local market data • Links to Data / communique layer – Data • DBPedia • GeoNames • Agrovoc Interface handler layer Web Email SMS GSM/Voice – Vocabularies • Foaf • GoodRelations Local radio Farmers (producers) Buyers (consumers)
  38. 38. Sharing across regions/NGOs Local market data Local market data Data / communique layer RadioMarché market information system Data / communique platform Web Interface handler layer Web Email SMS Email SMS GSM/Voice GSM/Voice Local radio Farmers (producers) Buyers (consumers) RadioMarché in second region Local radio Farmers (producers) Buyers (consumers)
  39. 39. Re-use: EcoMash Henk Kroon
  40. 40. Speakle voice labels rdfs:label rm:1000 “1000” speakle:voicelabel_ba rm:audio_1000_ba.wav speakle:voicelabel_nl rm:offering0001 rm:audio_1000_nl.wav rdfs:label rm:has_contact rm:kilo speakle:voicelabel_ba “kilo”@en rm:audio_kilo_ba.wav speakle:voicelabel_nl rm:audio_kilo_nl.wav rdfs:label “Amande de Karité”@fr “Shea Nuts”@en rdfs:label rm:shea_butter speakle:voicelabel_ba rm:audio_shea_ba.wav rm:Mazankuy_Diarra speakle:voicelabel_nl rm:audio_shea_nl.wav
  41. 41. https://github.com/biktorrr/speakle
  42. 42. Welcome Choose application and language 1 About which product (EN) 3 dtmf 2 About which product (NL) List all products (EN) dtmf 1..n dtmf 1..n List product offerings List product offerings Voice browser Tel: +31208080855 Skype: +990009369996162208
  43. 43. Current status • Linked Market Data – Locally created – Linked Data make re-use possible (NGO, others) – LD voice labels • Can be (re)used to develop voice applications with this data • To go beyond proof-of-concept – – – – More localization needed Local hardware/services (Emerginov / OfficeRoute) User testing More sophisticated translations (VoiceSPARQL)
  44. 44. Infrastructure Interface Relevancy
  45. 45. Icon-based interaction
  46. 46. Icon-based interaction NCR ATM interface for illiterate 'grammar' - ISOTYPE by Otto Neurath available at http://imaginarymuseum.org/MHV/PZImhv/NeurathPictureLanguage.html
  47. 47. Crowdsourcing voice fragment gathering
  48. 48. One Laptop Per Child (OLPC), Sugar and the Entity Registry System Bernie Innocenti, Walter Bender, Christophe Guéret,Claudia Urrea
  49. 49. OLPC mission and vision • Develop (and deploy) a low-cost laptop in order to revolutionize how we educate the world's children • What motivates learning is not carrots or sticks, but rather: – autonomy, – mastery, and – a sense of purpose. • A laptop makes learning more flexible: Children learn by teaching and actively helping each other; the teacher is free to focus expertise where it is needed
  50. 50. How is learning with the XO different? OLPC Computer for learning Student-centric Teacher as mentor Voice, text Learning to learn Critical thinking
  51. 51. Sugar • Operating system for XO laptops • Learner centric • Activities (Apps)
  52. 52. Different activities
  53. 53. The numbers (2012) • • • • • 2,000,000+ children with XOs 1,000,000,000 children w/o laptops 150+ language projects 40+ countries 500+ Sugar activities
  54. 54. Efficient Knowledge sharing with SemanticXO and ERS
  55. 55. Mesh VS Infrastructure network
  56. 56. Christophe Gueret
  57. 57. Christophe Gueret
  58. 58. Christophe Gueret
  59. 59. Christophe Gueret
  60. 60. Christophe Gueret
  61. 61. Christophe Gueret
  62. 62. Christophe Gueret
  63. 63. Christophe Gueret
  64. 64. Hybrid solution http://www.firstmilesolutions.com/documents/DakNet_IEEE_Computer.pdf
  65. 65. Sneakernet Latency Throughput “Never underestimate the bandwidth of a station wagon full of tapes hurtling down the highway.” —Andrew Tanenbaum
  66. 66. Infrastructure Interface Relevancy
  67. 67. Linked Data for Kasper Brandt Victor de Boer
  68. 68. Introduction - IATI “IATI is a voluntary, multi-stakeholder initiative that seeks to improve the transparency of aid in order to increase its effectiveness in tackling poverty.” Now: 180+ As of 2013, over 150 donors, NGOs and governments have registered to the IATIregistry.org by publishing their aid activities in this XML standard.
  69. 69. Introduction - IATI users • • • • Funders o Where is the money of my organisation spent? o Where do other organisations spend their money? Governments o How much money is spent in my country? o What are the budgets or planned disbursements for my country? Locals o What organisations are working in my area? o What projects are currently going on in my area? Public o Where is my tax money going? o What are the organisations doing with my donations?
  70. 70. Introduction - IATI model Activities Organisations
  71. 71. Introduction - Why IATI Linked Data? 1. Reusable vocabularies o Extract information automatically from the IATI data by making use of applications which are able to interpret standard vocabularies 2. Enrich IATI data o Link IATI data to external datasets in order to enrich the IATI data with additional information or metadata. 3. Donors can use their own Linked Data specification. o @Linked-data-uri attribute already exists in the IATI model.
  72. 72. Model and links based on requirements elicitated from experts Iterative Requirements Engineering Process Model by Loucopoulos and Karakostas
  73. 73. Linked Data model - Example iati:activity/GB-CHC-285776-CHA024 iati:activity-transaction iati:activity/GB-CHC-285776-CHA024/transaction/42737 . iati:activity/GB-CHC-285776-CHA024/transaction/42737 iati:transaction-tied-status iati:codelist/TiedStatus/5 .
  74. 74. Linked Data model - Provenance • • On file level o Not on activity level A named graph per file, e.g.:iati:graph/dataset/Worldb ank
  75. 75. Linked Data model - Vocabularies
  76. 76. Linked Data model - Triple store Python • • • • RDFLib Triples loaded into a ClioPatria triple store: o http://semanticweb.cs.vu.nl/iati/ o Sparql endpoint – Dereferenceable URIs (http://purl.org/collections/iati/codelist/Sector/11420) Total number of triples: 36,629,017 Total number of named graphs: 4,790 o Largest activities graph is UNOPS containing 1,231,896 triples Takes approximately 30 minutes to load all data into the triple store. RDF/Turtle
  77. 77. Linking datasets - Approach 1. In total, how much does a given country receive in aid? 2. A comparative index of aid versus the Human Development Index. 3. What is the geographic location of a project? How much aid went to a given province, constituency or village? o Is the aid spent in places where the need is highest? Is it well distributed across the country? o Can we attribute sub-national breakdowns for aid so we can see how much goes to different parts of recipient countries? 4. How does violent conflict in recipient countries affect aid activities? 5. How does aid spending as registered in the IATI standard compare to World Bank indicators?
  78. 78. Linking datasets
  79. 79. Linking Data applications - Approach 1. In total, how much does a given country receive in aid? 2. A comparative index of aid versus the Human Development Index. 3. What is the geographic location of a project? How much aid went to a given province, constituency or village? o Is the aid spent in places where the need is highest? Is it well distributed across the country? o Can we attribute sub-national breakdowns for aid so we can see how much goes to different parts of recipient countries? 4. How does violent conflict in recipient countries affect aid activities? 5. How does aid spending as registered in the IATI standard compare to World Bank indicators?
  80. 80. http://iati2lod.appspot.com/ 1. In total, how much does a given country receive in aid?
  81. 81. http://iati2lod.appspot.com/ 2. A comparative index of aid versus the Human Development Index.
  82. 82. http://iati2lod.appspot.com/ 4. How does violent conflict in recipient countries affect aid activities? 5. How does aid spending as registered in the IATI standard compare to World Bank indicators?
  83. 83. Links to DBPedia Theme:” Food aid emergencies ” IDS: document 0001 Theme:”Food Security” Analysis of approaches to understanding and addressing food security issues; examination of the structural causes of food insecurity and different policy responses “Voedselzekerheid”@NL DBPedia:”Food Security” Person:”David Pimentel” Organisation:”FAO”
  84. 84. Links to IATI Theme Education IDS: document 0003 Theme 'Higher education’ Degree and diploma programmes at universities, colleges and polytechnics; scholarships. IATI Sector:”Higher Education” Organisation : UN Habitat Activity: Multi donor fund to support civil society in democracy related issues
  85. 85. Linked Data for Landportal.info • The Land Portal is an easy access, easy-to-use platform to share land related information, to monitor trends, and identify information gaps to promote effective and sustainable land governance. [M.Sc. thesis by Alan Chavoshe]
  86. 86. Nichesourcing for pluvial data digitization for the Sahel [M.Sc. thesis by Binyam Tesfa]
  87. 87. Linked Data for Development (LD4D) Inst. of Development Studies LOD Sahel Pluvial data SemanticXO Citizen Journalism data DBpedia GeoNames Agrovoc RadioMarché Linked market data IATI data
  88. 88. Infrastructure Interface Relevancy
  89. 89. Take home • Knowledge sharing is a tool for development • Linked Data is well-suited because of – Language- and interface agnostic characteristics – Decentralizability – Reusability outside of original context • Downscaling – Interface – Infrastructure – Relevancy Img: flickr/TomJByrne
  90. 90. What we need from you? • Data • Cases – Transparency, Governance, Democracy – Economic development, Healthcare • Reflection – Ethics of ICT4D • Open Data • Linked Data Img: flickr/wetwebwork
  91. 91. More information? http://worldwidesemanticweb.org http://w4ra.org http://iati2lod.appspot.com/ http://victordeboer.com v.de.boer@vu.nl
  92. 92. The Tabale Platform Bomu yes don’t know Malian French NGO staff Record multiple messages in different languages Bambara no
  93. 93. VUI design (three languages)