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VU ICT4D symposium 2017 Gayo Diallo Towards a Digital African Traditional Healthcare using Semantic Web


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VU ICT4D symposium 2017
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VU ICT4D symposium 2017 Gayo Diallo Towards a Digital African Traditional Healthcare using Semantic Web

  1. 1. Gayo DIALLO University of Bordeaux BPH INSERM 1219 – Team ERIAS LaBRI UMR 5800 - MABioVis Towards a Digital AfricanTraditional Healthcare using Semantic Web 4th International Symposium « Perspectives on ICT for Development (ICT4D) » 18 May 2017 - VU Amsterdam
  2. 2. University of Bordeaux – Environment ➔ The city of Bordeaux (South West of France), a UNESCO World Heritage Site ➔ The University of Bordeaux welcomes over 50,000 students and nearly 6,000 staff members. About 6,000 students come from abroad ➔ The University of Bordeaux has one of the largest campuses (260 hectares) in Europe 17 mai 2017 University of Bordeaux2 Source: google® In 2006 Lonely Planet says Bordeaux is world's best city to visit!
  3. 3. University of Bordeaux ➔ Multidisciplinary study program › The University of Bordeaux offers 245 curricula leading to national degrees, organized around four major scientific fields: › Science and Technology › Law, Political Science, Economy, Management › Life and Health Sciences › Social and Human Sciences › A large range of qualifications are possible including: 180 master specialties, 115 national diplomas in health, a national diploma in oenology... 17 mai 2017 University of Bordeaux3
  4. 4. University of Bordeaux ➔ Cutting-edge research › The field of research is a driving force of the University of Bordeaux. The excellence of its competencies in all scientific fields (Science & Technology, Life & Health, Social & Human) was recognized in July 2011 when the university was awarded with the “Initiative of Excellence”. This award consists of an endowment of 700M€ to support the growth and development of research. › The university welcomes almost 2,000 PhD students, currently has 220 joint thesis (co-tutelle) agreements running, participates in over 60 projects in the FP7, as well as 7 associated international laboratories and 5 international research groups. 17 mai 2017 University of Bordeaux4 Source:
  5. 5. Bordeaux Population Health INSERM Centre 1219 17 mai 2017 ERIAS Research Group5
  6. 6. LaBRI: Laboratoire Bordelais de Recherche en Informatique: UMR CNRS 5800 ➔ Research Teams › Combinatorics and Algorithmic › Image and Sound › Formal Methods › Models and Algorithms for Bio-informatics and Data Visualisation › Programming, Networks and Systems › Supports and Algorithms for High Performance Numerical Applications › Transversal axis: Big Data 17 mai 2017 LaBRI6
  7. 7. Research Topics ➔ Our work is focused both on Fundamental and Applied Research ➔ Main Topic: Knowledge and Data integration in Healthcare › providing methods and tools for facilitating high accurate (and massive) data integration › enabling their efficient secondary use (epidemiology, clinical research, public health, etc.) ➔ Sub-topics › Healthcare related Knowledge Modelling › Semantic Information Retrieval › Semantic Data Integration › ICT4D mainly healthcare related
  8. 8. The context of African traditional medicine
  9. 9. Traditional Medicine ➔ Traditional medicine (TM) is the oldest form of healthcare delivery ➔ The World health organization (WHO) estimates that about 80% of people use it in Africa ➔ In High Income Countries (HIC), about 50% of people have used complementary or alternative medicine at least ones 18 mai 20179 TM is the total sum of knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health and in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness. Source: WHO African Traditional Medicine (ATM) has a holistic view on healthcare involving extensive use of physiotherapy and herbalism sometimes combined with some aspects of African spirituality. People are treated by traditional practioners or healers
  10. 10. ATM: observations ➔ ATM is the first line of treatment for several pathologies › Due to wide availability of plants accessible to people and expensive cost of conventional drugs ➔ ATM knowledge is mostly tacit and therefore largely shared in informal manner and disseminated orally › Lack of formalisation and regulation and lack of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) monitoring ➔ Conventional medicine and ATM co-exists in parallel with a minimal cooperation › The integration of ATM into the conventional health system is limited. About 25% of modern medicines are made from plants ➔ Many ATM users are underserved people › Rural people with low education (lack of literacy), low infrastructure18 mai 201710
  11. 11. ATM: opportunities ➔ The WHO TM Strategy 2014–2023 has recognized the growing use of TM › identifies need for harnessing the potential contribution of TM to health, wellness and people-centred healthcare ➔ 36 out of 46 African countries have approved the WHO regional strategy and its resolution AFR/RC50/R3 › ATM identified as a research priority ➔ Africa is experiencing a high mobile penetration rate › Africa is the first continent to have more mobile phone subscribers than fixed-line subscribers 18 mai 201711
  12. 12. How ATM practices are evaluated by experts 17 mai 201712 Source: Kamsu-Foguem, B., Diallo, G., Foguem, C. Conceptual graph-based knowledge representation for supporting reasoning in African traditional medicine. Eng. Appl. of AI 26(4): 1348-1365 (2013)
  13. 13. Example for the treatment of Malaria Name of the plant in local language (Fulani) Scientific name of the species Prescription Poore Lammu Sungala, Boyle, Kassia, Kiidi, piya Nete, Kassia Jabbhe, Meeko, Kassia Gumbambe Landolphia heudelotii Harungana madagascariensis, Urena lobata, Cassia siamea, Jatropha curcas, Persea gratissima or americana Parkia biglobosa, Cassia siamea Tamarindus indica, Dialium guineense Cola cordifolia Crush the fruit of Landolphia heudelotii, salt and drink Boil, drink and wash yourself Boil, wash yourself and drink Mix the leaves of Tamarindus indica, Dialium guineense and thin leaves of Cassia siamea. Boil, wash yourself and drink Brew the leaves of Cola codifolia (fresh or dried) and drink 17 mai 201713
  14. 14. Example for plants documentation (extract, Guinean context) 18 mai 201714 Species Family Expression in Fulany Expression in Susu Part of the plant used as drug Jatropha curcas Euphorbiaceae Kiidi Bakhini Leaves Hymenocardia acida Hymenocardiaceae Pellitoro Barambaran Leaves Nauclea latifolia Rubiaceae Dundukhe Dundakhe Roots Carica papaya Caricaceae Buudi Darridhi Fofiya Bark of trunk or roots
  15. 15. Plants evaluation ➔ Effectiveness evaluation › Monitoring groups of people ➔ Toxicity evaluation › Laboratory test ➔ Pharmacological effetcs 17 mai 201715
  16. 16. Enabling better ATM usage through ICT/Semantic Web Technologies
  17. 17. The main question How can we introduce ICT to the ATM domain in order to help the above mentioned issues? àA multidisciplinary Horizon 2020 project approach 18 mai 201717
  18. 18. Objective Develop a cohesive and integrative ICT approach, which will allow patients, tradi- practitioners, healthcare practitioners and wider stakeholder groups, as government and local authorities to access and use ATM in a safe and effective manner 17 mai 201718 O1: To collect, formalise and digitalise the ATM knowledge and practices for a set of target diseases O2: To deliver end-user services that overcome the barriers which prevent local population from taking profit of ATM O3: To monitor effectiveness of ATM and increase safety in relation to its use O4: To initiate the integration and regulation of ATM in the national health systems
  19. 19. Partnerships 17 mai 201719 HTKM CRVPM MPTEN WAHO
  20. 20. Services which address end users needs 18 mai 201720
  21. 21. Overall workflow 18 mai 201721
  22. 22. High level architechture 18 mai 201722
  23. 23. ATM Knowledge formalization ➔ ATM Knowledge graph ➔ Which relies on › Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) for handling multilingual issue › Ontology Web Language (OWL) for capturing the structure of ATM domain knowledge › Iconic language to overcome partly lack of literacy ➔ Instanciated and stored in a Resource Description Framework (RDF) triple store ➔ Delivered as a Linked Open Data è Voice based querying 18 mai 201723
  24. 24. Example of Iconic visualization in the medical domain 18 mai 201724 Source: VCM language, Lamy et al.
  25. 25. Issues ➔ Ethics › Ensure that only patients who signed a consent form are included in the study ➔ Intellectual property › Ensure that only traditional practitioners who accept to share their experience are included in the study ➔ Sustainability › What business model for such a project with high societal impact 18 mai 201725
  26. 26. Conclusion ➔ ATM usage could be leveraged thanks to ICT based solutions, in particular Semantic Web technologies ➔ Facilitating inclusion of end users through local languages enabling ➔ As most of ICT4D projects, taking care about multi-cultural aspects is an important issue ➔ Relevant business model to ensure sustainability is important 18 mai 201726
  27. 27. Thank you