Flowering plants have different
adaptations to enable their seeds
to be dispersed as far away as
The different methods of seed
Reproduction in plants — getting the seeds dispersed
At a glance…
Adaptations for reproduction
Dispersal by Wind
• Some seeds are carried to a new
place by the wind. These seeds are
• The seeds of the orchid are almost
as fine as dust.
• Many have hairy growths which act
like little parachutes and carry the
seeds far away from the parent
• The seeds of the dandelion are
carried by the wind.
Dispersal by Water
• Water lily and the coconut palm are
carried by water.
• Coconuts can travel for thousands of
kilometres across seas and oceans.
• The original coconut palms on South
Sea islands grew from fruits which
were carried there from the mainland
by ocean currents.
Dispersal by Animals
• The animal eats the fruit but only the juicy
part is digested.
• The stones and pips pass through the
animal's digestive system and are excreted
to form new plants. This can be far away
from the parent plant.
• Blackberry, cherry and apple seeds are
dispersed in this way.
• Birds also like to eat fruit and they help to
disperse seeds to other areas through their
• Squirrels collect nuts like acorns and bury
them for winter food, but they often forget
where they have buried them and these
grow into new trees.
• Some fruits like that of the burdock plant
have seeds with hooks.
• These catch on the fur of animals and are
Dispersal by Explosion
• Some plants have pods that
explode when ripe and shoot
out the seeds.
• Lupins, gorse and broom
scatter their seeds in this
• Pea and bean plants also
keep their seeds in a pod.
When the seeds are ripe
and the pod has dried, the
pod bursts open and the
peas and beans are
• Natural resources : Natural resources are the resources available in
a nature like air, water, sunlight, soil, minerals, forests, wild life etc.
• Natural resources are of two main types.
• Renewable natural resources :- are the resources which can be replenished in a short period of time
like air, water, sunlight, forests etc.
– non renewable natural resources
• ii) Non renewable natural resources :- are the resources which cannot be replenished in a short period
of time like minerals (coal, petroleum, natural gas, metals etc.) because they take millions of years to
• Human activities produce a lot of waste materials which are thrown
away into the environment. These wastes cause pollution of natural
resources like air, water and soil.
• There are mainly four types of pollution
– Air Pollution
– Water Pollution
– Land Pollution
– Noise Pollution
Types of Pollution
Air Pollution Water Pollution
Noise Pollution Land Pollution
The Three R’s to save the
• The three R’s to save the environment are
Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.
– Reduce :- means using less of natural resources and
avoiding wastage of natural resources.
– Recycle :- means the materials like paper, plastic,
glass, metals etc. used for making things can again
be used for making new things instead of
synthesizing or extracting new paper, plastic, glass or
– Reuse :- means using things again and again like the
plastic bottles in which we buy jams, pickles etc can
be again used for storing things in the kitchen.
Conservation of forests
• Forests can be conserved by
• Afforestation – planting of more
• Preventing or reducing
• By setting up wildlife sanctuaries,
national parks, biosphere reserves
• Undertaking social forestry
programs like Van Mahotsav,
Chipko movement for planting and
protecting trees on a large scale.
Conservation of wildlife
• Preserving the natural habitats of animals
• Banning poaching of animals
• Protecting endangered species of animals.
• Setting up of wildlife sanctuaries, national parks,
biosphere reserves etc.
Conservation of Water
• Water is a basic necessity for all living things. We use water for our
daily needs, for agriculture, transportation, construction of buildings,
roads, dams etc.
• Water is a natural habitat for aquatic organisms. Human activities
are affecting the availability of water and causing pollution of water
• Dams : Advantages of dams :- i) Irrigation of crops. ii) Producing
electricity. iii) Supplying water to towns and cities. iv) To control
floods. Disadvantages of dams:- i) Social problems :- It displaces a
large number of people who have to be rehabilitated. ii) Economic
problems :- It is expensive and uses a huge amount of public
money. iii) Environmental problems :- It causes deforestation and
loss of biodiversity.