•We will learn the plant classification
•We will learn to label the parts of a plant
•We will learn that plants produce flowers
which have male and female organs.
•We will learn that seeds are formed when
pollen from the male organ fertilises the
•And finally, we will learn how plants get
nutrients and how they reproduce
There are more than 250.000 plant species
on Earth. They can be classified into two
groups: non- flowering plants and flowering
Non flowering plants are the smallest group. They
never produce flowers or seeds. They reproduce
1. Mosses: are very short plants with tiny stems,
leaf and root structures. They live on rocks, on
tree trunks and on the ground.
2. Ferns are much longer than mosses. They have
thick, underground stems and large leaves.
Non- flowering plants grow in dark, humid forests.
Flowering plants are the most numerous. They
produce flowers and seeds to reproduce. They can
be classifies into two groups:
1. Gymnosperms: have small, simple flowers. They
don’t produce fruit. The seeds are grouped
together in cones.
Most gymnosperms are trees which have leaves all
year. As a result, they are called evergreen.
Cypress trees, pines are gymnosperms.
2. Angiosperms have large, beautiful flowers.
They produce seeds and fruit
This is the largest plant group. It includes
trees, bushes and grasses. Chestnuts trees
are angiosperms. Angiosperms which lose all
their leaves in autumn are called deciduous
Plants are autotrophs:
they make their own
food. Plants need
sunlight, air, water and
minerals to make food.
To use this food, plats
breath all the time, day
How do nutrients enter plants?
Plants absorb the water from the
soil through their roots and
tiny root hairs. These
nutrients, called raw sap, then
travel up the stem to the
leaves through long tubes
called xylem vessels.
Photosynthesis is the process which
enables plants to manufacture food
from water, carbon dioxide and sunlight.
It takes place in the leaves and other
green plant cells.
Chlorophyll is the green substance in the
leaves which traps sunlight.
Plants give off oxygen
How does pollination take
• Pollen grains brush against the insect, it flies
to another plant, the grains rub on the stigma
• The grain of pollen grows a tube, which goes
down the style until it reaches the ovary
• The male part joins with the female part to
form a seed. This is called fertilisation.
• After fertilisation the petal drop off because
they are no longer needed
• Sometimes the wind blows pollen from small,
less attractive flowers.
When the pollen grains
reach the ovary, the
flower begins to change
into a fruit. Then the
petals fall off. The ovary
grows much larger, and
finally turns into a fruit
with seeds inside
Seeds need special
conditions to germinate.
moist soil and relatively
Many plants can reproduce without
flowers or seeds. This is called
Asexual reproduction uses tubers,
bulbs or stolons
1. Tubers: are subterranean stems.
A part of the stem grows above
ground and other part grows
2. Bulbs are also
subterranean stems. Onions
3. Stolons: they extend above
ground. When a stolon
touches the ground , it
develops roots. Soon a new
plant develops. Strawberry
plant reproduce this way