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Look at the picture.
Why do you think the trees grow on the coastlines or even on river mouths?
Why can they grow in wetlands between land and sea where other plants cannot
grow?
MANGROVES
• trees along the coastlines.
• They are woody seed-bearing plants that grow in salty water.
• They are found not only in the Philippines but also in other places Mexico,
Florida, and Texas.
• an ecosystem between the land and sea of coastal settings like lagoons, bays,
creeks, and inlets.
• It is found along tropical seacoasts and in estuaries – water passages where
freshwater meets saltwater.
• It is usually muddy, with standing shallow water filled with mosquitoes,
snakes, spiders, and other animals.
MANGROVE SWAMPS
CHARACTERISTICS OF MANGROVES
SWAMPS
CHARACTERISTICS OF MANGROVES
SWAMPS
Mangrove trees and different animals live along riversides. These living things
compete with one another and interact with the nonliving things around them
for survival in mangrove swamps.
Mangroves are special plants that can survive in a muddy environment.
Most mangroves differ from other trees.
Api-api or pagatpat mangroves have breathing roots that stick out of the
grounds.
Bakau trees have roots called stilt roots that grow out and form branches
and trunks of mangrove trees. These roots are have lenticels – or holes that
allow gas exchange above the ground. The stilt roots support the
mangrove from strong winds and big waves.
Api-api or pagatpat Bakau mangroves
PLANT LIFE IN MANGROVE SWAMPS
PLANT LIFE IN MANGROVE SWAMPS
• Mangrove trees adapt themselves to the environment where they grow.
• Their root systems help them survive in the coastal setting or riverbanks.
• These trees have three types of root system:
1. Radiating cable roots
2. Nutritive roots
3. Prop roots
• Root system mangroves is adapted to absorb oxygen, water, and needed
nutrients in order to survive.
1. Radiating Cable Roots
• type of root that anchors mangrove
trees.
• It grows stilts that hold the trunk
and leaves above the water.
• It protects the trees from strong
tidal waves as this root holds tightly
to the ground to prevent the trees
from being washed away by the
waves.
2. Nutritive Roots
• grow just below the muddy surface.
• It absorbs nutrients from the rich
soil or mud to nourish the tree.
3. Prop Roots
• root system that has breathing
holes that collect air for the plant.
• It is branched, looping roots from
the trunk or lower branches.
• Mangrove trees have the ability to survive both in saltwater and freshwater.
• The water in mangrove swamps is often brackish – a mixture of freshwater and
saltwater.
• The roots of mangroves absorb saltwater and form salt crystals that are stored in
the leaves.
• The leaves have special glands that give off the salt they take in and a waxy
covering that keeps their own water from being lost.
• The mangroves get rid of the excess salt by shedding their leaves when they turn
yellow.
Red mangroves
- have arching
roots above the soil.
Different species of mangroves found in mangrove swamps
Black mangroves
- have long root
projections that supply
the plant with air.
White mangroves
- grow with no
visible aerial root
structure.
• Mangroves reproduce sexually.
• They bear flowers pollinated by insects.
• the flowers then release seeds inside
the capsule.
• Mangrove seed capsules called
propagules, contain the fruit, the seed,
and the hypocotyl.
• The capsule drops, floats, and is
deposited in the muddy soil.
• After sometime, shoots comes out and
becomes a new mangrove tree.
ANIMAL LIFE IN MANGROVE SWAMPS
• It is the breeding grounds of different
species of animals. Worms, barnacles,
and fish can be found here.
• The wet and muddy soil is a good
hiding place for them to grow and
multiply.
• Bacteria and other decomposers cause
decay that makes the soil rich for
mangroves.
• They feed on fish and shrimps that
support wading birds.
• Variety of invertebrates breed in
mangrove swamps: shrimps, prawns,
crabs, shellfish, and snails.
• They hide and breed on the thick
branches and leaves of mangroves
• Mangrove swamps are also rich in
organic matter such as decaying leaves,
buds, seeds, and barks that serve food
for the animals.
• Animals such as bonefish, tarpon,
mangrove snappers, mullet, and moles
also feed on the material found in
mangrove swamps.
• Mangrove swamps serve as the habitat
of different kinds of birds, reptiles,
mammals, and insects.
• Snowy egrets, herons, cuckoos, eagles,
and red-tailed hawks thrive here.
• Storks or large wading birds with long
bills and long legs, as well as
flamingoes that catch fish with their
long pointed bill, have adapted
themselves in the swamp.
• The egret stands motionless in swamps,
waiting to catch a fish with its long
sharp bill.
• Certain endangered crocodiles live in
mangrove swamps
• Mangrove monitor or monitor lizard that
feeds on fish, crabs, insects, and other
reptiles, also roams around the mangrove
swamps.
• Snakes found in swamps catching their
prey using their tail.
• Swamps is also a shelter to other animal
such as monkeys, and water buffalo. Large
bats that feed on fruit bats also live here.
There are also bees and other insects that
are useful n pollinating the flowers
(mangroves)
INTERACTIONS IN MANGROVE SWAMPS
• Animals depend on each other for food.
• Wading bird and monkeys eat fish, shrimps, and crabs, which are direct eaters of
mangrove leaves in swamps.
• Mangroves also interact with the physical conditions around the swamps. The
muddy environment makes the soil fertile and suitable for plant growth.
• Mangroves also have roots that are exposed to the air to absorb oxygen that it
needs.
• The mangrove leaves can undergo photosynthesis because of sunlight.
IMPORTANCE OF MANGROVE SWAMPS
- Good source of timber and other construction materials.
- Source of firewood and charcoal
- Act as wave barrier that protects coastline against storm and wave surge
(crowns, trunks, and stems serve as physical barrier that help break the force of
the winds and waves)
- Preserve the coastline and prevent soil erosion
- Capable of absorbing pollutants such as heavy metals, toxic substances, as well
as nutrients and other suspended matter
- Trap and filter sediments and poisonous materials that may flow farther to deep
waters
- Provide food and areas for nesting, nursing, and breeding for many vertebrates
- The decomposed leave and branches serve as food for young marine animals.
PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION
OF
MANGROVE SWAMPS
Indiscriminate actions of people that contribute to destruction of mangrove
swamps.
1. Converting mangrove swamps to give way to fishponds and shrimp
aquaculture industries.
2. Developing mangrove areas into housing projects, airports, and piers.
3. Throwing wastes like toxic materials, pesticides, and crude oil in mangrove
swamps.
4. Overcutting firewood to sustain charcoal industries.

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Mangrove swamps

  • 1.
  • 2. Look at the picture. Why do you think the trees grow on the coastlines or even on river mouths? Why can they grow in wetlands between land and sea where other plants cannot grow?
  • 3. MANGROVES • trees along the coastlines. • They are woody seed-bearing plants that grow in salty water. • They are found not only in the Philippines but also in other places Mexico, Florida, and Texas.
  • 4. • an ecosystem between the land and sea of coastal settings like lagoons, bays, creeks, and inlets. • It is found along tropical seacoasts and in estuaries – water passages where freshwater meets saltwater. • It is usually muddy, with standing shallow water filled with mosquitoes, snakes, spiders, and other animals. MANGROVE SWAMPS
  • 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF MANGROVES SWAMPS Mangrove trees and different animals live along riversides. These living things compete with one another and interact with the nonliving things around them for survival in mangrove swamps. Mangroves are special plants that can survive in a muddy environment. Most mangroves differ from other trees. Api-api or pagatpat mangroves have breathing roots that stick out of the grounds. Bakau trees have roots called stilt roots that grow out and form branches and trunks of mangrove trees. These roots are have lenticels – or holes that allow gas exchange above the ground. The stilt roots support the mangrove from strong winds and big waves.
  • 7. Api-api or pagatpat Bakau mangroves
  • 8. PLANT LIFE IN MANGROVE SWAMPS
  • 9. PLANT LIFE IN MANGROVE SWAMPS • Mangrove trees adapt themselves to the environment where they grow. • Their root systems help them survive in the coastal setting or riverbanks. • These trees have three types of root system: 1. Radiating cable roots 2. Nutritive roots 3. Prop roots • Root system mangroves is adapted to absorb oxygen, water, and needed nutrients in order to survive.
  • 10. 1. Radiating Cable Roots • type of root that anchors mangrove trees. • It grows stilts that hold the trunk and leaves above the water. • It protects the trees from strong tidal waves as this root holds tightly to the ground to prevent the trees from being washed away by the waves.
  • 11. 2. Nutritive Roots • grow just below the muddy surface. • It absorbs nutrients from the rich soil or mud to nourish the tree.
  • 12. 3. Prop Roots • root system that has breathing holes that collect air for the plant. • It is branched, looping roots from the trunk or lower branches.
  • 13. • Mangrove trees have the ability to survive both in saltwater and freshwater. • The water in mangrove swamps is often brackish – a mixture of freshwater and saltwater. • The roots of mangroves absorb saltwater and form salt crystals that are stored in the leaves. • The leaves have special glands that give off the salt they take in and a waxy covering that keeps their own water from being lost. • The mangroves get rid of the excess salt by shedding their leaves when they turn yellow.
  • 14. Red mangroves - have arching roots above the soil. Different species of mangroves found in mangrove swamps
  • 15. Black mangroves - have long root projections that supply the plant with air.
  • 16. White mangroves - grow with no visible aerial root structure.
  • 17. • Mangroves reproduce sexually. • They bear flowers pollinated by insects. • the flowers then release seeds inside the capsule. • Mangrove seed capsules called propagules, contain the fruit, the seed, and the hypocotyl. • The capsule drops, floats, and is deposited in the muddy soil. • After sometime, shoots comes out and becomes a new mangrove tree.
  • 18. ANIMAL LIFE IN MANGROVE SWAMPS
  • 19. • It is the breeding grounds of different species of animals. Worms, barnacles, and fish can be found here. • The wet and muddy soil is a good hiding place for them to grow and multiply. • Bacteria and other decomposers cause decay that makes the soil rich for mangroves. • They feed on fish and shrimps that support wading birds.
  • 20. • Variety of invertebrates breed in mangrove swamps: shrimps, prawns, crabs, shellfish, and snails. • They hide and breed on the thick branches and leaves of mangroves • Mangrove swamps are also rich in organic matter such as decaying leaves, buds, seeds, and barks that serve food for the animals. • Animals such as bonefish, tarpon, mangrove snappers, mullet, and moles also feed on the material found in mangrove swamps.
  • 21. • Mangrove swamps serve as the habitat of different kinds of birds, reptiles, mammals, and insects. • Snowy egrets, herons, cuckoos, eagles, and red-tailed hawks thrive here. • Storks or large wading birds with long bills and long legs, as well as flamingoes that catch fish with their long pointed bill, have adapted themselves in the swamp. • The egret stands motionless in swamps, waiting to catch a fish with its long sharp bill.
  • 22. • Certain endangered crocodiles live in mangrove swamps • Mangrove monitor or monitor lizard that feeds on fish, crabs, insects, and other reptiles, also roams around the mangrove swamps. • Snakes found in swamps catching their prey using their tail. • Swamps is also a shelter to other animal such as monkeys, and water buffalo. Large bats that feed on fruit bats also live here. There are also bees and other insects that are useful n pollinating the flowers (mangroves)
  • 24. • Animals depend on each other for food. • Wading bird and monkeys eat fish, shrimps, and crabs, which are direct eaters of mangrove leaves in swamps. • Mangroves also interact with the physical conditions around the swamps. The muddy environment makes the soil fertile and suitable for plant growth. • Mangroves also have roots that are exposed to the air to absorb oxygen that it needs. • The mangrove leaves can undergo photosynthesis because of sunlight.
  • 26. - Good source of timber and other construction materials. - Source of firewood and charcoal - Act as wave barrier that protects coastline against storm and wave surge (crowns, trunks, and stems serve as physical barrier that help break the force of the winds and waves) - Preserve the coastline and prevent soil erosion - Capable of absorbing pollutants such as heavy metals, toxic substances, as well as nutrients and other suspended matter - Trap and filter sediments and poisonous materials that may flow farther to deep waters - Provide food and areas for nesting, nursing, and breeding for many vertebrates - The decomposed leave and branches serve as food for young marine animals.
  • 28. Indiscriminate actions of people that contribute to destruction of mangrove swamps. 1. Converting mangrove swamps to give way to fishponds and shrimp aquaculture industries. 2. Developing mangrove areas into housing projects, airports, and piers. 3. Throwing wastes like toxic materials, pesticides, and crude oil in mangrove swamps. 4. Overcutting firewood to sustain charcoal industries.