Lecture 4 Review 1

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History of Architecture Lecture for SSAA
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Lecture 4 Review 1

  1. 1. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 History of Architecture-II (AP-313) Review 1 LECTURE 4 Nipesh P Narayanan
  2. 2. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 REVIEW 1 • Neoclassical Architecture (Early 19th Century) – French Revolution and the age of enlightenment • Arts and Crafts Movement (Late 19th Century) – Industrial revolution and mass production • Art Nouveau (Late 19th Century) – New Art, against the traditional • Indo Saracenic Architecture (Late 19th Century till Early 20th Century) – Architecture for the Empire
  3. 3. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 FRENCH REVOLUTION (1750 –1840) "Liberty leading the People" by Eugène Delacroix, 1830 ImageSourcehttphttp://www.rjgeib.com/thoughts/french/liberty.jpg[ONLINE]
  4. 4. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 FRENCH REVOLUTION (1750 –1840) - RADICAL SOCIAL UPHEAVAL IMMANUEL KANT “Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-incurred immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one's own understanding without the guidance of another. …The motto of enlightenment is therefore: Sapere aude! Have courage to use your own understanding!” ImageSource:http://www.constitution.org/img/jean_jacques_rousseau.jpg &http://www.marxists.org/glossary/people/k/pics/kant.jpg[ONLINE] JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU “….the arts, literature and the sciences, less despotic though perhaps more powerful, fling garlands of flowers over the chains which weigh them down. They stifle in men’s breasts that sense of original liberty, for which they seem to have been born; cause them to love their own slavery, and so make of them what is called a civilised people.”
  5. 5. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 NEO CLASSICISM REVIVAL OF THE CLASSICAL Plato & Classic Ideas “Ideal Form” Archaeology Johann Joachim Winckelmann Excavation of Pompeii & Herculaneum 18th Century France and the age of enlightenment Jacque Louis David Immanuel Kant Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  6. 6. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 FRENCH REVOLUTION (1750 –1840) - ARCHITECTURE OF REASON “ The person who guided solely by reason can accept a God as creator, but not as a guide. From now on architecture no longer served religion and even less so the feudal ruler. It was believed that the built environment could be used to have a positive influence on the spirit of the people, and inspire them to behave in a manner based on reason and morality” ~ The Story of Architecture, From Antiquity to the Present “ Honest Architecture” ~ Abbot Laugier, Essai sur l'Architecture, 1753
  7. 7. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 WHAT IS HONEST ARCHITECTURE?
  8. 8. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 WHAT IS HONEST ARCHITECTURE? “ Honest Architecture” ~ Abbot Laugier, Essai sur l'Architecture, 1753 Faults E.g. - Use of Pilaster - Incorrect proportions ImageSource:http://covers.openlibrary.org/b/id/6789435-M.jpg[ONLINE]
  9. 9. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 KARL FRIEDRICH SCHINKEL ALTES MUSEUM ImageSource:http://www.greatbuildings.com/gbc/images/cid_1123537651_00338v.jpg[ONLINE] Berlin, Germany , 1830
  10. 10. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 KARL FRIEDRICH SCHINKEL ALTES MUSEUM ImageSource:http://www.greatbuildings.com/gbc/images/cid_altes_rh_002.jpg[ONLINE] Berlin, Germany , 1830
  11. 11. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 KARL FRIEDRICH SCHINKEL ALTES MUSEUM ImageSource:http://data.greatbuildings.com/gbc/drawings/Altes_Plan_2.jpg[ONLINE] Berlin, Germany , 1830
  12. 12. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 KARL FRIEDRICH SCHINKEL ALTES MUSEUM ImageSource:http://data.greatbuildings.com/gbc/drawings/Altes_Section_A.jpg[ONLINE] Berlin, Germany , 1830
  13. 13. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 KARL FRIEDRICH SCHINKEL ALTES MUSEUM ImageSource:http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbi.cgi/Altes_Museum.html/cid_altes_jag_001.html[ONLINE] Berlin, Germany , 1830
  14. 14. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 PRINCIPLES OF ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT HONESTY Design Unity Joy in Labour Individualism Regionalism
  15. 15. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 PHILIP WEBB RED HOUSE William Morris, Kent, England (1859) ImageSource:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/The_Red_House%2C_Bexleyheath.JPG[ONLINE]
  16. 16. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 PHILIP WEBB RED HOUSE William Morris, Kent, England (1859) ImageSource:http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbc-drawing.cgi/The_Red_House.html/Red_House_Plan_2.jpg [ONLINE]
  17. 17. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 PHILIP WEBB RED HOUSE William Morris, Kent, England (1859) ImageSource:http://khan.smarthistory.org/assets/images/Images2/Red%20House%20plan.JPG[ONLINE]
  18. 18. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 PHILIP WEBB RED HOUSE "The Arts and Crafts, together with the English Free Style of architecture, has its origins in this joint work by Morris and Webb which took the format of William Butterfield's Gothic Revival vicarage and used its general character as the point of departure for the short-lived but influential Pre-Raphaelite domestic style...For Webb,...the Red House was merely the first of a series of houses in which he endeavoured to engender an authentic ahistorical style, through the direct expression of local materials and craftsmanship. Webb adopted the Gothic Revival syntax of Pugin and Butterfield, that is, clay tiling, corbelled brick work, rubbed brick arches and circular openings, as a way of articulating an open-ended form of vernacular expression.“ — Kenneth Frampton and Yukio Futagawa. Modern Architecture 1851-1945. p22
  19. 19. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 PHILIP WEBB RED HOUSE William Morris, Kent, England (1859) ImageSource:http://khan.smarthistory.org/assets/images/Images2/RedHouseBackbySCadman.jpg[ONLINE]
  20. 20. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 PHILIP WEBB RED HOUSE William Morris, Kent, England (1859) ImageSource:http://www.victorianweb.org/art/architecture/webb/6.jpg[ONLINE]
  21. 21. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 PHILIP WEBB RED HOUSE William Morris, Kent, England (1859) ImageSource:http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-LVkv3ehCWXQ/TcGXt9djGQI/AAAAAAAAFZA/U8rD6u_qcCo/s1600/7.jpg[ONLINE]
  22. 22. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 ART NOUVEAU DIFFERENT FROM ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT? Use of New Materials Protest against the traditional “William Morris was the theoretician whose beliefs more than those of anyone else initiated the Art Nouveau movement”
  23. 23. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 VICTOR HORTA HOTEL VAN EETVELDE ImageSource:http://www.wasaweb.net/photographs/Brussels-Hotel-van-Eetvelde-1.jpg[ONLINE] Brussels, Belgium (1895)
  24. 24. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 ImageSource:http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbc-drawing.cgi/Hotel_van_Eetvelde.html/van_Eetvelde_1st_Plan.jpg [ONLINE] Brussels, Belgium (1895) VICTOR HORTA HOTEL VAN EETVELDE
  25. 25. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 ImageSource:http://www.greatbuildings.com/cgi-bin/gbc-drawing.cgi/Hotel_van_Eetvelde.html/van_Eetvelde_Section.jpg [ONLINE] Brussels, Belgium (1895) VICTOR HORTA HOTEL VAN EETVELDE
  26. 26. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 ImageSource:http://blog.best-bookings.com/en/files/2013/02/Bruxelles_Victor_Horta_copertina.jpg[ONLINE] Brussels, Belgium (1895) VICTOR HORTA HOTEL VAN EETVELDE
  27. 27. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE BRITISH IN INDIA ImageSource:http://www.wayfarersbookshop.com/catalogues/catalogue9-8.jpg[ONLINE]
  28. 28. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 THE QUESTION OF STYLE “We ought, like the Romans and the Mohammedans, to take our national style with us….we shall be likely to succeed best if we are not too anxious to incorporate much of the art or style of the country with our own” ~ Roger Smith Emerson pointed out that, on contrary, Islamic architecture in India is notable for its degree of adaptation to local conditions. That was the procedure which he urged the British to Follow.
  29. 29. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 EDWIN LUTYENS, RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN ImageSource:http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_MOoxUPoilo4/SyjSDrdqMnI/AAAAAAAAAKw/sl1MF3U-VIs/s400/rashtrapati- bhavan-india-picture-photo.jpg[ONLINE] New Delhi, 1912-29
  30. 30. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 EDWIN LUTYENS, RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN ImageSource:http://static.indianexpress.com/m- images/Mon%20Apr%2015%202013,%2002:12%20hrs/M_Id_376247_FP.jpg[ONLINE] New Delhi, 1912-29
  31. 31. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 EDWIN LUTYENS, RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN ImageSource:http://www.cs.jhu.edu/~bagchi/delhi/pics/95.jpg[ONLINE] New Delhi, 1912-29
  32. 32. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 EDWIN LUTYENS, RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN ImageSource:http://yourbudgethotel.com/images/bhawan.jpg[ONLINE] New Delhi, 1912-29
  33. 33. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 EDWIN LUTYENS, RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN ImageSource:http://media.tripplan.com/images/2013/03/28/rashtrapati-bhavan-1-l.jpg[ONLINE] New Delhi, 1912-29
  34. 34. History of Architecture - II (AP-313) – Review 1 REVIEW 1 • Neoclassical Architecture (Early 19th Century) – Ideology to Architecture • Arts and Crafts Movement (Late 19th Century) – Architecture as a reaction • Art Nouveau (Late 19th Century) – Architecture as a revolt • Indo Saracenic Architecture (Late 19th Century till Early 20th Century) – Architecture as suppression tool

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