I pv6

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I pv6

  1. 1. PROJECT REPORT ON IPv6 SUBMITTED TO MIT PUNE’s MIT SCHOOL OF TELECOM MANAGEMENT Under the Guidance of Prof. Suman Verma BY UDIPTO GHOSH PRN: 11041 Batch: 2011-2013 IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFPOST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT (PGDM) TELECOM SPECIALIZATION: SYSTEM Page | 1
  2. 2. CONTENTSr. No. Content Page No. 1 Introduction 2 Internet Protocol Version 6 3 IPv6 Return on Investment 4 Innovation 5 IPv6 Transition Issues 6 Challenges & Opportunities 7 Application 8 Advantages & Disadvantages 9 Conclusion 10 Recommendation Page | 2
  3. 3. IntroductionIP (short for Internet Protocol) specifies the technical format of packets and theaddressing scheme for computers to communicate over a network. Most networkscombine IP with a higher-level protocol called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP),which establishes a virtual connection between a destination and a source.IP by itself can be compared to something like the postal system. It allows you toaddress a package and drop it in the system, but theres no direct link between you andthe recipient. TCP/IP, on the other hand, establishes a connection betweentwo hosts so that they can send messages back and forth for a period of time.There are currently two version of Internet Protocol (IP): IPv4 and a new versioncalled IPv6. IPv6 is an evolutionary upgrade to the Internet Protocol. IPv6 will coexistwith the older IPv4 for some time.Nearly a decade after IPv6 was finalized, the network industry has yet to embrace thenew protocol. That‟s because a forklift upgrade to IPv6 is too expensive and timeconsuming for a carrier or enterprise, with little measurable return. Instead, the networkindustry anticipates a gradual transition to IPv6, which will likely run side by side withIPv4 for many years to come.Internet Protocol Version 6IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) is also called IPng (Internet Protocol next generation)and it is the newest version of the Internet Protocol (IP) reviewed in the IETF standardscommittees to replace the current version of IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4).IPv6 is the successor to Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). It was designed as anevolutionary upgrade to the Internet Protocol and will, in fact, coexist with the older IPv4for some time. IPv6 is designed to allow the Internet to grow steadily, both in terms ofthe number of hosts connected and the total amount of data traffic transmitted. Page | 3
  4. 4. IPv6 is often referred to as the "next generation" Internet standard and has been underdevelopment now since the mid-1990s. IPv6 was born out of concern that the demandfor IP addresses would exceed the available supply.The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) recognized in the early 1990s that therewas a high probability that the address space would be exhausted by the rapid growthof the Internet, and it concluded several years of debate and analysis with the design ofa new, extended address format called IPv6. (IPv5 was an experiment in streamapplications that did not scale and was abandoned.) IPv6 had a small number of newfeatures and a format intended to expedite processing, but its principal advantage was128 bits each of source and destination host addresses.While increasing the pool of addresses is one of the most often-talked about benefit ofIPv6, there are other important technological changes in IPv6 that will improve the IPprotocol:No more NAT (Network Address Translation)Auto-configurationNo more private address collisionsBetter multicast routingSimpler header formatSimplified, more efficient routingTrue quality of service (QoS), also called "flow labeling"Built-in authentication and privacy supportFlexible options and extensionsEasier administration (say good-bye to DHCP) Page | 4
  5. 5. IPv6 Return on InvestmentMany features of IPv6, taken separately, do not provide, at this time, sufficient ROI tojustify a full upgrade, end-to-end, of the network, the operating systems and theapplications. Each feature has an equivalent fix in IPv4. Large legacy installed base (IPv4-only) The combination of IPv6 features help provide a better ROI, but still usually not sufficient. Choices: Upgrade the whole network, OS, apps. Provides all the good features of IPv6 Incremental deployment Get the good features of IPv6 Lower cost for deployment Risk is manageable. Outcome is positive. Wait until the very last minute Do not benefit IPv6 features behind. Difficult to catch up market. Loose market share.InnovationA dual-stack IMS must address the scenario of an IPv4 end user establishing aconnection with an IPv6 user. The issues with IPv4/IPv6 interoperability are similar tothose with NAT traversal to support IPv4 private addresses [3, 6]. ICE can be used tosolve both NAT traversal and IPv4/IPv6 interoperability issues. In ICE, peers determineavailable addresses from each realm to which they belong and select a preferredaddress. ICE requires extensions to the SDP [10], listing “candidates” under a media oftype IPv4 or an additional media of type IPv6. ICE can be used in conjunction with Page | 5
  6. 6. alternative network address types (ANAT) [8], which supports SDP extensions foralternative addresses of different types, IPv4 or IPv6. Thus, ICE supports the transitionto IPv6. For the scenario where an IPv4-only user connects to an IPv6-only user,protocol translation cannot be avoided and an IMS ALG is required. Page | 6
  7. 7. IPv6 Transition IssuesThe worldwide transition from IPv4 to IPv6 has already begun, with IPv6 existing side-by-side with IPv4. It is likely that this transition will occur at different rates in differentregions of the world. Some regions are already moving aggressively to support IPv6.The following issues affect the transition strategy: The end-user address allocation and proxy discovery mechanism must be able to determine whether to default to IPv6 or IPv4 for access to a dual-stack IMS There must be IPv4/IPv6 interoperability support (i.e., decisions must be made as to whether to support NAT-Protocol Translation (NAT-PT) [19] and how to support the domain name server [DNS] in a dual-stack environment) There must be 3GPP UMTS access point name (APN) flexibility. (IMS can be configured as a service under its own APN.) The IP version of the transport network must be determined. The 3GPP supports IPv6 privacy extensions to the PDP address [4, 11]; for IMS, the IPv6 privacy extension should be prohibited to avoid invoking a re-registration at the IMS. Page | 7
  8. 8. Challenges & OpportunitiesNeed IPv6 application to deploy to home networks. Support issues and reachability to end nodes are veryimportant. IPv4 networks Traceability/Anti-spoofing (legal considerations)Solution IPv6 in IPv4 tunnels with NAT traversal AAA with permanent addressing for users. Prefix delegation TSP client in either home gateway or in end node.Applications Need to be converted to IPv6. Change of network API. Operating system: Need to be IPv6 enabled Network:Lan, enterprise, edge, access, distribution, core, exchange, Internet, exchange, core, distribution, access, edge, enterprise, Routers, firewalls, DNS, VPN servers, network management, Servers It is only when all pieces are IPv6 enabled that an IPv6. Page | 8
  9. 9. Advantages of IPv6 IPv6 offers the potential to build a much more powerful Internet, with vastly larger scale compared to the current situation. Addresses in IPv4 have only 32 bits, allowing for only about 4 billion addresses compared to 128-bit IPv6, with some 340 trillion, trillion, trillion addresses. Complexity has been introduced into the way that IP based-networks are already implemented because of address space shortage. IPv6 has a new feature called auto configuration. This feature allows a device to generate an IPv6 address as soon as it is given power. Using this link local address, there is no immediate need for any other infrastructure to allow that device to begin communicating via IPv6 on its local network, including communications with another local host or router. While some of the new features possible in IPv6 based networks are currently possible in IPv4 based networks, the critical exception is that they do not support the scale that IPv6 does, making it difficult or impossible to use them to meet current and future business requirements. IPv6 address allocation is done by the device itself and can occur independently of a server, or in conjunction with an IPv6 enabled router, as appropriate.Disadvantage of IPv4 Rapid Growth of the Internet and the Exhaustion of the IPv4 Addressing. IPv4 Security at IP Level. Internet Backbone Maintaining Large Routing Tables. Quality of Service Concern in IPv4. Page | 9
  10. 10. ConclusionIPv6 is an important part of the evolution to next generation telecommunicationssystems. Not only do standards specify the change, but industry projections oflimitations, such as those enumerated above, that would be solved by IPv6 will dictatethe changeover in the market. Once the hurdles of resistance to change and lack ofexperience with IPv6 are overcome, the transition will accelerate in both wireless andwire line networks. IPv6 ROI needs incremental deployment for most cases Incremental deployment enables low upfront cost and early service availability. TSP Tunnel Broker is a technology for incremental deployment and ubiquitous IP.RecommendationIPv4 address space is depleted. People who have been ignoring IPv6 for years need tostart paying attention. It is real—and really important. IPv6 deployment projects seem tobe revealing two successful patterns and one unsuccessful pattern. The unsuccessfulpattern is to scream that the sky is falling and ask for permission to upgrade“everything.”The lessons we have learned:1. Proposals to convert everything sound crazy and get rejected. There is no obviousbusiness value in making such a conversion at this time.2. Work from the outside in. A load balancer that does IPv6-to-IPv4 translation will letyou offer IPv6 to external customers now, gives you a “fast win” that will bolster futureprojects, and provides a throttle to control the pace of change. Page | 10
  11. 11. References1. Google IPv6 Conference. IPv6, Nokia, and Google (2008);shttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o5RbyK0m5OY.2. Miller, R. The billion-dollar HTML tag(2009);http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2009/06/24/the-billion-dollar-html-tag/3. J. Rosenberg and H. Schulzrinne, “An Extension to the Session Initiation Protocol(SIP) for Symmetric Response Routing,” IETFRFC 3581, Aug. 20034. www.ietdl.org5. Pack, S.: „Relay-based network mobility support in proxy mobile IPv6 networks‟. Proc.IEEE CCNC 2008, January 2008 Page | 11

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