IPv6 128-bit IPv6 Address 3FFE:085B:1F1F:0000:0000:0000:00A9:12348 groups of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers separated by “:” Leading zeros can be removed 3FFE:85B:1F1F::A9:1234:: = all zeros in one or more group of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers
IPv616 bit 16 bit 16 bit 16 bit 16 bit 16 bit 16 bit 16 bit IP = =340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456
#1) IPv6 provides a substantially largerIP address space than IPv4
#2) IPv6 provides better end-to-endconnectivity than IPv4• The most exciting applications to emerge in recent days are peer-to-peer applications such as multi-player online games, video-conferencing (streaming media), file sharing and VoIP.• As mentioned earlier, the shortage of addresses caused by IPv4 has been overcome to some extent by using NAT How does IPv6 provide a solution? IPv6 with its large address space no longer requires NAT and can ensure true end-to-end connectivity. This means peer-to-peer applications like VoIP or streaming media can work very effectively and efficiently with IPv6.
#3)IPv6 has better ability for autoconfiguring devices than IPv4• Whenever a node plugs in and wants to be part of a network, IP address information and router information is required to properly configure the node and get it running.• In the past, when there were fewer devices and computers in a network running IP, almost all of them were statically configured and IP addresses were manually assigned. How does IPv6 provide a solution? • IPv6 offers automatic configuration and simple configuration mechanisms. Known as plug-and-play autoconfiguration. • IPv6 offers DHCPv6, which is an autoconfiguration similar to IPv4 DHCP and offers stateful address autoconfiguration • IPv6 also offers stateless or serverless address autoconfiguration • In stateless autoconfiguration, a host can automatically configure its own IPv6 address and does not need any assistance from a stateful address serve.
#4) IPv6 contains simplified HeaderStructures leading to faster routing ascompared to IPv4 vers hlen TOS total length identification flags flag-offset 20 TTL protocol header checksum bytes source address destination address options and padding IPv4 vers traffic class flow-label payload length next header hop limit 40 source address bytes destination address IPv6
#5) IPv6 provides better security than IPv4 for applications and networks• Because of end-to-end model, IPv4 was designed with almost no security in mind and assumes that the required security will be provided at the end nodes.• For example, consider an application such as email that may require encryption services.• Network Address Translation (NAT) and Network Address Port Translation (NAPT) were used to provide some level of protection against some of the threats mentioned above using methods such as firewalls. How does IPv6 provide a solution? • In IPv6, IPSec is a major protocol requirement and is one of the factors in ensuring that IPv6 provides better security than IPv4. • IPSec contains a set of cryptographic protocols for ensuring secure data communication and key exchange. The main protocols used are:
#5) IPv6 provides better security thanIPv4 for applications and networks 1.Authentication Header (AH) protocol, which enables authentication and integrity of data. 2.Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) protocol, which enables How authentication and integrity of data as well as privacy of data. both does IPv6 provide a solution? •3.Internet IPSec is a major protocol requirement and is onehelps to In IPv6, Key Exchange (IKE) protocol. This protocol suite of the initially set up and negotiate the securitybetter security than IPv4. factors in ensuring that IPv6 provides parameters between two •end points. It then alsoof cryptographic protocols for ensuring the IPSec contains a set keeps track of this information so that communication stays secure tilland key exchange. The main secure data communication the end. protocols used are:
#6) IPv6 gives better Quality of Service(QoS) than IPv4• The present IP uses a Datagram service to transfer packets of data between point to point using routers• The IPv4 packet header structure contains 20 bytes of data. How does IPv6 provide a solution? • QoS is given a special boost in the IPv6 protocol with the IPv6 header containing a new field, called Flow Label field. • This ensures a high degree of QoS especially for peer-to-peer applications like VoIP and other real-time applications.
#7) IPv6 provides better Multicast andAnycast abilities compared to IPv4 • This multicast is useful when streams of information have to be made available to a wide variety of connected devices and not just one single destination. • E.g. Relay audio data, video data, news feeds, financial data feeds
#7) IPv6 provides better Multicast andAnycast abilities compared to IPv4Multicast in IPv4 is possible only on subnets and most Internetrouters are not configured to support IPv4 multicast. For effective use of multimedia applications it should be possible to address different hosts, which belong in different subnets. How does IPv6 provide a solution? • IPv6 extends the multicasting capabilities of IPv4 by offering a large multicast address range. • IPv6 also improves dramatically on the concept of anycast services, which is available, though in a very minimal form in IPv4. • In anycast services, packets are not sent to all the nodes in the network but only to the nearest reachable member.
#8) IPv6 offers better mobility featuresthan IPv4Mobile devices, which can change their location but would like to retainexisting connections.Mobile networks that provide mobility to a group of devicesAd-hoc networking in which some of the devices stay connected to thenetwork or in the vicinity of the network only for the short duration of acommunications session
#8) IPv6 offers better mobility featuresthan IPv4• Mobile IPv4 requires a special router in the location of the mobile node to properly receive calls.• Route optimization is available to mobile IPv4 only through an optional set of extensions How does IPv6 provide a solution? • With IPv6, mobility support is mandatory by the use of Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6). • There is no ingress-filtering problem in Mobile IPv6 because the correspondent node uses the care-of address as the source address. • IPv6 through its large address space ensures that each mobile device can have its own unique IP address.
#9) IPv6 offers ease of administrationover IPv4With an IPv4 network, all the work ofnetwork renumberingand assigning of new address schemeswould have had to be done manually. How does IPv6 provide a solution? 1. IPv6 provides capabilities so that network renumbering can happen automatically. 2. Multihoming technique: In this simultaneous connections are established to two ISPS. (There is more than one path from the host to the destination.)
#10) IPv6 follows the key design principles of IPv4,thereby permitting a smooth transition from IPv4. • Using Dual IPv4/IPv6 Stack