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Cameron - TMO IPv6 Norway Meeting


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Cameron - TMO IPv6 Norway Meeting

  1. 1. T-Mobile USA IPv6 DeploymentIPv6-only Mobile Perspective November 2011 1
  2. 2. Agenda1. What is strategy?2. Quick Review on Mobile Architecture3. T-Mobile USA‟s Path4. Network IPv6 Readiness5. IPv4 Literals on the Internet 2
  3. 3. Strategy? Problem: Global IPv4 exhaustion Target: End to end IPv6 End to end IPv6 + End to end IPv6 NAT64/DNS64 for ~50% of flows (Possible today)Squat-space IPv4 + End to end IPv6 +NAT44 (Yesterday) NAT64/DNS64 for long tail 3
  4. 4. The Long-tail Google, Yahoo, Facebook… Grandma‟s blog 4
  5. 5. You can’t get there from here 3 February 2011 APNIC Out2002 FreeBSD, Solaris,Linux, Windows all have IPv6 support 31 January 2011 IANA Out Confidential and Proprietary Information of T-Mobile USA 5
  6. 6. Confidential and Proprietary Information of T-Mobile USA 6
  7. 7. Everyone agree IPv4 is a dead-end for“strategy”?• Mobile• Grid (m2m)• CloudFAST GROWING EDGES THAT CAN ONLY GROW ON IPV6 Confidential and Proprietary Information of T-Mobile USA 7
  8. 8. Amazon is big, and Google has a howmany servers? Confidential and Proprietary Information of T-Mobile USA 8
  9. 9. Machine-to-Machine Traffic toIncrease 40-Fold Between 2010 and2015 Confidential and Proprietary Information of T-Mobile USA 9
  10. 10. 7000 Millions Mobile Subs6000500040003000 Mobile Subs20001000 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Confidential and Proprietary Information of T-Mobile USA 10
  11. 11. Mobile Traffic Growth Confidential and Proprietary Information of T-Mobile USA 11
  12. 12. Review• Mobile• Grid• CloudFAST GROWING EDGES THAT CAN ONLY GROW ON IPV6We all have to engineer for IPv4-only, IPv6-only, and Dual-stack users and services Confidential and Proprietary Information of T-Mobile USA 12
  13. 13. Total of 4.3 Billion IPv4 Addresses? Confidential and Proprietary Information of T-Mobile USA 13
  14. 14. So, what should we do about this problem of already having 4x more connected devices than IPv4 addresses? 14
  15. 15. Dual-stack is not bad… but ... An imperfect AnalogyHybrid 44/44 $24k Tesla all-electric Model S(52% premium over base) No gas, $50k, 0-60mph in 4.5 seconds “Compared to a vehicle like the BMW 535i, Model S will save its owners approximately $8,000 over five years Standard 28/39 $15.8k in fuel costs alone.” 15
  16. 16. Quick Architecture Briefing IP Anchor Gn Aggregation + Mobility Gb Cell Site 16
  17. 17. IPv6 is a Priority All T-Mobile users, with few exceptions, have non-routable addresses and NAT44 to the Internet  Very difficult to scale and manage NAT44 capacity, AJAX and other web technologies driving hundreds of sessions per user (see NTT report …)  Large operators have to choose between BOGONs or overlapping RFC1918 space, each have pros and cons T-Mobile USA has limited public addresses  VZW has 30x the public IP space that T-Mobile USA has, but T- Mobile is very good at LSN  NAT44 and can sustain current session growth for another ~5 year CGN/LSN is a risk to Femto cells, UMA, and FMC in general IPv6 is needed to continue growth and avoid scaling issues on NAT44 17
  18. 18. 20 Connections 18
  19. 19. 15 Connections Buy Now 19
  20. 20. The IP Address Environment IPv4 end-point addressing is exhausted, majority of TMO mobile data users have BOGON addresses with NAT44 to keep pace with mobile data subscriber growth Smartphones are driving a very large amount of network signaling as they create and teardown bearers Data subscribers keep growing as well as the amount of time a subscriber is attached to the data network (always-on) EOY 2012, projections indicate ~50% of user traffic can be served by IPv6 end-to-end -- World IPv6 Week ? Any change to handsets drives substantial cost and drives out lead time There is no traditional business case for IPv6, have to rely on less compelling story about business continuity and exposure to upside of innovation in IPv6 combine with low cost to deploy Leaders like Google and Comcast have shown IPv6 is relevant 20
  21. 21. T-Mobile USA’s Path to IPv6(as a new service, incrementally per handset model deployment) Dual-stack + NAT44  Drives 2x the PDP and thus 2x the cost directly via contract or indirectly via utilization (bearer setup, mobility events …)  Relies on IPv4 addresses that legitimately are not available  Two different transports make troubleshooting at the user level more difficult, harder to isolate the variablesIPv6-only + NAT64/DNS64  Cost neutral for packet core (single PDP) and drives down cost of NATs as IPv6 content goes up (AAAA)  Familiar architecture to today (1 PDP + NAT function)  Enhances current NAT with DNS64 load steering functionality, NAT no longer must be “on path”  Positively incentivizes use of IPv6 in the content network to by- pass NAT 21
  22. 22. Brief on how NAT64 / DNS64 22
  23. 23. Impact to Network Entities Generate IPv6 AAAA record from IPv4 A Per subscriber PDPDual Stack UE capable record Type to be changed to of IPv4 and IPv6 IPv6 Used for accessing IPv4 content on Internet. Constructs IPv4 addresses from HLR last 32 bits of IPv6 address DNS 64 IPv4 No Change Content NAT64 RAN SGSN IP Backbone GGSN Inter net No Change Test APN setting to be IPv6 „IPv6 on User Plane‟ changed to allocate Content feature to be activated IPv6 addresses 23
  24. 24. Friendly User Trial Pr oduction Networ k Lab Networ kChange HLR profile manually for FUTusers and allow IPv6 access. HLR DNS 64 IPv4 Content NAT64RAN SGSN IP Backbone GGSN Inter net IPv6 Content Activate IPv6 Feature 24
  25. 25. FUT FindingsGood User Experience Broken Email (Live, Gmail, GMX,  Skype, Qik, Google Video Comcast, Exchange, Ovi) Chat, Tango … Web (Nytimes, Live, iGoogle, ESPN, CNN, Yahoo). Symbian Ironic that p2p video apps Browers and Opera gain a lot from IPv6, yet Applications: Gmail, Nokia don’t work Podcast, Facebook, Accuweather, Ovi Store, Ovi Maps, Mail for Exchange, Google Maps, Youtube App, Bloomberg News, Opera Mobile, Mobbler (, NRK Radio, F-Secure, Locago, Vingo, Lesson: Applications of Nokia Music Explorer, Shazam, AP near every variety can be Mobile made to work with IPv6 (and NAT64) 25
  26. 26. Deployment Lessons• Make business case based on risk • The business understands scarce resource, and they understand RIR rejections have hurt us before • The business likes bling, IPv6 is bling. “Google, Facebook, and [Your Name Here] is deploying IPv6” • Quantify it as much a possible. The case is that we can do a little effort over 18-24 months to bring-up IPv6 at a low cost and reduce our corporate risk profile and IPv4 exhaustion exposure. Or, we can do a rush job in 24 to 36 months and pay dearly• Engage the enthusiast • Engineers wants to work on impactful projects, “upside of innovation” • Build a lab and a beta offering, better to learn with somebody who cares about IPv6, vs someone who only cares that IE being broken• Create a roadmap, create an executive steering committee, track progress • Saying we need everything yesterday seldom works, especially without customers demanding it • RIPE 501? CPE/UE? Training? 26
  27. 27. Things to Keep in Mind Content, Applications, and Services will be better served via end-to-end IPv6, not NAT44 or NAT64. In 3GPP networks, the UE always request IPv4, IPv6, or v4v6 at the start of each sessions. All 3 types can coexist which allows migration to IPv6 on a device by device basis IPv4 Literals are a bad practice and will break our shared customers  IPv4 address embedded in HTML / XML or applications, issue explained well, but no good solution  Commonly found in video streaming content  IPv4 Literals represent major breakage in the IPv6-only network.  PLEASE USE FQDNs SO DNS64 CAN WORK, FQDNS ARE EASY AND NOBODY WANTS CONTENT TO BREAK Customers will not tolerate broken content, they will move on to content that works. Best for the content owner to control the IPv6 experience by providing native IPv6 services, and not depend on CGN / LSN Must be mindful of security, but security != stateful network firewall Digital divide considerations 27
  28. 28. Opt-in vs. Opt-out of IPv6 IPv6-Only has limitations today for legacy applications on advance handsets, netbooks and laptops like Skype But, it is a good choice for basic data devices that focus on web and email IPv4 is not going away. IPv4-only + NAT44 will be maintain as long as needed, but we need to start the migration to IPv6-only where it fits. We cannot let corner cases stop the progress of IPv6. We cannot wait perfect. 28
  29. 29. Backup Slides 29
  30. 30. What will you do with all thoseaddresses? SmartGrid? M2M? 30
  31. 31. The Face Of IPv4 Literals 31
  32. 32. But innovation marches on Confidential and Proprietary Information of T-Mobile USA 32
  33. 33. IPv6 is a requirement for LTE backhaul networks, andwill open opportunities for truly flat mobile networks Internet Border Border Router Router MME MME IMS S and P- GW GGSN RAN RAN Mobile Switching AGG01 AGG02 Office t rne the ul Gi er E a , S X2 Fib Back h S1 d an SGi Cell site router with integrated S / P-GW and Local Internet NAT64 function (GPON …) 33
  34. 34. Lots of things work well via NAT64 …, more 34
  35. 35. And remember how we talked about innovation andrestoring the e2e principle 35
  36. 36. The T-Mobile USA beta 36