Simplified IPv6 Subnetting. Understanding What’s What.


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As IPv6 address migration is catching up in all enterprise networks, we'll take a look at some of the operational best practices to migrate to and subnet IPv6 addresses.

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Simplified IPv6 Subnetting. Understanding What’s What.

  1. 1. Simplified IPv6 Subnetting Understanding What’s What IPv6 is here already, Are you prepared..??Simplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 1
  2. 2. AgendaAs IPv6 address migration is catching up in all enterprise networks,let’s take a look at some of the operational best practices tomigrate to and subnet IPv6 addresses.»IPv6 Allocation»IPv6 Subnet Masking  What Does an IPv6 Mask Look Like?  What Gets Masked?»IPv6 Subnetting Practices»Plan for your MigrationSimplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 2
  3. 3. IPv6 Address Allocation» The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority assigns IPv6 addresses in large blocks to the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs).» RIRs include:  AfriNIC, serving the African region  APNIC, serving the Asia Pacific region  ARIN, serving North America and several Caribbean and North Atlantic islands  LACNIC, serving Latin America and the Caribbean  RIPE NCC, serving Europe, the Middle East, and parts of Central Asia» The RIRs allocate addresses to internet service providers (ISPs), whose default allocation by the registry is /32. The ISPs, in turn, allocate /48 to customersSimplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 3
  4. 4. IPv6 Address Allocation (contd.)» The allocation process for IPv6 provides more bits than the IPv4 address space because the IPv6 address space is 128 bits (2128) in size, containing 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 IPv6 addresses.» The best practice is to get at least a /48 prefix from an ISP which gives you an address space of 2^80 bits to manipulate.» The IP space has 128 bits of which 48 bits cant be changed. This means you’ll get 80 bits to use (128 – 48 = 80 bits).Simplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 4
  5. 5. IPv6 Subnet Masking IPv6 subnet masking is similar to IPv4, but there are 2 key differences in the way the IPv6 masks looks and what gets masked.Simplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 5
  6. 6. 1 #1 What Does an IPv6 Mask Look Like?» IPv6 uses 128 binary digits for each IP address, as opposed to IPv4s 32 binary digits.» The 128 binary digits are divided into 16-bit words. Since using IPv4’s octet notation to represent 128 bits would be difficult, we use a 16-digit hexadecimal numbering system instead.» Each IPv6 set represents 16 bits (4 characters at 4 bits each), and each 4- digit hex word represents 16 binary digits, like the following examples:  Bin 0000000000000000 = Hex 0000 (or just 0)  Bin 1111111111111111 = Hex FFFF  Bin 1101010011011011 = Hex D4DB» So, an IPv6 128-bit binary address is represented by 8 hex words separated by colons:  FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFFSimplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 6
  7. 7. 2 #2 What Gets Masked?» In IPv4, every IP address comes with a corresponding subnet mask.» IPv6 also uses subnets, but the subnet ID is built into the address.  The first 48 bits are the network prefix – used for Internet routing.  The next 16 bits (49th t0 64th) are the subnet ID used for defining subnets.  The last 64 bits (65th to 128th) are the interface identifier, which is also known as the Interface ID or the Device ID.» For example, if you want to break your network into 64 subnets, the binary mask just for the subnetting range would be 1111110000000000, which translates to a hex value of FC00.» The full 128-bit hex mask would be FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FC00:0:0:0:0Simplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 7
  8. 8. IPv6 Subnetting Practices1. Every individual network segment requires at least one /64 prefix  The IPv6 equivalent of an IPv4 /24 subnet is a /64.  The customer should break their network segments into this space.  A /64 is an IPv6 subnet that has 64 network bits and 64 host bits.  Regardless of the number of hosts on an individual LAN or WAN segment, every multi- access network requires at least one/64 prefix.2. Subnet only nibble boundaries 1. Each character in an IPv6 address represents 4 bits (a nibble). 2. A nibble boundary is a network mask that aligns on a 4-bit boundary. 3. This makes it easier to understand and follow the IP address sequence, reducing incorrect configurations. 4. Since the smallest subnet mask used for multi-access networks is a /64, you can just count down in multiples of 4 to set the nibble boundary masks (e.g. 64, 60, 56, 52…4)Simplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 8
  9. 9. IPv6 Subnetting Practices (contd.)3. Implement a hierarchical addressing plan to allow for aggregation  In a 3-level hierarchy enterprise network having a site, region, and Autonomous System (AS), each site should receive one /48.  This is to accommodate additional aggregation points as the network grows. Autonomous System Region A Region B Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 44. Consider grouping your IP address by type of usage  In a large IP address spaces, grouping IP addresses by usage helps track them for allocation and management.  You can group your space by customer space, internal space, infrastructure space, etc.)Simplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 9
  10. 10. Plan Your IPv6 Migration» Planning is the key to unlocking hassle-free IPv6 migration.  Plan ahead in advance and identify your infrastructure needs.  Check whether your network hardware and software inventory are compatible with IPv6 and support applications on IPv6.  Also, try creating and testing migration scenarios before the actual implementation.» Migration  Execute the migration by studying the existing IPv4 hierarchy/architecture and translating the addresses to IPv6.  Migrate your routing configurations by identifying and changing the configurations wherever required.  Migrate your security policies – such as those on routing, load balancing, health checks, etc. – seamlessly so that the network security is intact during and after the migration.» Analyze your network performance after the migration check for any network performance issues and additional infrastructure needs.Simplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 10
  11. 11. Plan Your IPv6 Migration» Throughout the planning and migration process, keep in mind to assess risks and work out mitigation measures, and to minimize the cost overheads.» You can follow any of the popular migration approaches – dual stack, tunnels, and translation – but ensure to carry out a well-planed and resilient migration to IPv6 to not have the users, applications, network, IT infrastructure and business services impacted later on.» SolarWinds IP Address Manager (IPAM) can help you simplify creation of an IPv6 migration plan and prepares your infrastructure for IPv6 address space. With IPAM, you can  Plan your IPv4 to IPv6 migration by creating and testing multiple scenarios before implementation  Add, edit, and delete IPv6 addresses and subnets  Search for IPv4 or IPv6 addresses and find the “other side” address on dual-stack devices» IPAM will show you all “dual-stack” devices so that you can see which devices are already using IPv6.Simplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 11
  12. 12. IPv6 Migration Simplified with SolarWinds IPAM View IPv6 and IPv4 addresses side-by-side in SolarWinds IP Address ManagerSimplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 12
  13. 13. Key Features & Benefits of SolarWinds IPAM» Powerful, centralized DHCP management for Microsoft® DHCP services, monitoring for Microsoft DNS, and monitoring for Cisco® DHCP servers.» Intuitive web interface for simple, click-of-a-button management & IP address planning» Automated IP address scanning customizable to your needs» Global search feature to track down any IP in seconds along with historical address tracking» Real-time top 10 lists for “at-a-glance” visibility into your IP space» Role-based access control and detailed event recording to track who made what change» Quick and easy installation for deployment in under an hour Centralized IP Address Management Historical IP Address TrackingSimplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 13
  14. 14. Helpful Resources We invite you to learn more about SolarWinds IP Address Manager Free ToolSimplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What --- Click any of the links above --- 14
  15. 15. Thank You!Simplified IPv6 SubnettingUnderstanding What’s What 15