Assessment centeredteaching

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  • Tie in what was concluded in Module 2 -
  • Please complete the activities and discussion postings in the week they were assigned.
  • Assessment centeredteaching

    1. 1. Educational Psychology 1 Assessment-Centered Teaching
    2. 2. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 2 Introduction As we saw in Module 2, the practices of Sarah and Olive showed us that to effectively design environments for student learning, teachers need to learn from their practice. Teaching is an ongoing cycle of design- teach- assess- and re-design. Assessment is at the center of good teaching and learning, and as such, is one essential quality of powerful learning environments (i.e., assessment- centered). Teachers who build assessment systems into their practice construct an optimal corridor of adaptability for themselves as well as their students. Thoughtful classroom assessments display how learning is progressing as well as when it is not. To achieve a thoughtful design, it is helpful to have a model in your mind (mental model) of the learning that is to take place. In this module, we explore assessment-centered teaching in preparation for the final course project. We focus on the use of models to support your reasoning and analysis of student learning.
    3. 3. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 3 Learning Outcomes 1. Understand the importance of using models of cognition and learning to plan for learning and to design formative assessments. 2. Use a model of cognition to analyze potential student learning difficulties 3. Begin to define a learning progression in your topic area. 4. Continue to revise/refine Content Concept Map for the domain in which you wish to improve your formative assessment – focus question: What are the big ideas in my topic area (i.e., those that will facilitate the most efficient and broadest acquisition of knowledge for my students)?
    4. 4. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 4 Readings Effective teaching strategies – Chapter 2 Popham – Chapter 2 – Learning Progressions: Blueprints for the formative assessment process. Concept Map Instructions -- Download from the Course Concept Mapping page
    5. 5. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 5 Topics In this module, we will investigate the following concepts: 1. Model-Based Reasoning & Analysis 2. Formative Assessment & Learning Progressions 3. Creating Conceptual Models through Concept Mapping
    6. 6. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 1: Model Based Reasoning & Analysis Writing in 1910, John Dewey described a cyclical process that was a natural and fairly automatic way in which we think and problem solve in context. This process begins with a “felt difficulty” indicating that the usual course of action is not working. In responding to this unexpected difficulty, we attempt to define it more clearly. In doing so, mental associations come to mind. We make connections to other things that we know and draw upon them to elaborate our understanding of the unfolding events. In thinking it through in this elaborated way, we come to a fuller explanation for the events before us and this entails a plan for action. Drawing from this process of thinking we make adjustments in our actions and try something new. This is where experimentation begins. We examine the evidence of our actions as a means of testing our thinking. If the situation improves, we update our understanding from the experience and deepen our understanding of the phenomenon we have encountered. If the situation does not improve, the thinking cycle begins again. The concept map on the next slide provides a model of this thinking process. 6
    7. 7. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 1: Model Based Reasoning & Analysis 7
    8. 8. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 1: Model Based Reasoning & Analysis The thinking process defined by Dewey has been affirmed in more recent research and scholarly work. Schon’s (1983, 1985) description of the kind of reflection professionals do in action is one example. In his case studies, Schon illustrated thinking in action in a variety of professional practices. He observed that as professionals encountered challenging problems, they would engage in a reflective conversation with the situation to extend their perspective and the range of possible next steps. This model of thinking certainly applies within teaching as well. The cycle parallels what teachers do as they a) plan what/how students will learn in a unit/lesson, b) make adjustments in response classroom feedback, and c) reflect on the lesson/unit once its concluded. The “felt difficulty” or “tension” that teachers experience can be recognized as the gap between where their students are currently functioning and where they envision them given the goals of instruction. How do you think about this gap in your topic area? 8
    9. 9. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 1: Model Based Reasoning & Analysis Following the concepts in the thinking process concept map, instruction and assessment correspond to a teacher’s “experiment” or empirical test of his/her hypotheses about how students will progress in their skill or knowledge development. For this reason, instruction and assessment need to be carefully aligned with each other and with the teacher’s “hypotheses” of how students will/should progress as a result of instruction. The more carefully teachers align assessment and instruction and thoughtfully engage in formative assessment, the better their “reasoned explanation” or understanding of how students learn from their instruction. In this way, teachers will learn more from their teaching, better understand how their instruction worked, and more effectively plan next their steps. How do you think about the alignment of instruction and assessment in your topic area? What learning standards apply to the topic area you have selected? How might you use the Common Core Standards? 9
    10. 10. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 1: Model-Based Thinking Reasoning & Analysis For formative assessments to be most useful, they need to be based upon research on student learning in the domain, and if possible, how students typically progress through a unit of study (i.e. learning progression). In the absence of specific research on a particular topic, teachers can develop their expectations for a student learning using related research and/or a theoretical model of student learning that has been validated through research. Willingham (2009 – see article in this week’s course folder) provides an example of such a research based model. This model is a simple representation of the relationship between the environment, working memory, and long-term memory – The model shows that both the environment and the students’ background knowledge base impact what students are likely to hold in working memory at any point in time. The model further indicates that the information students hold in working memory (i.e., thinking) is likely to be retained in long-term memory. 10 Environment (assignment) Working Memory (awareness, thinking) Long Term Memory (knowledge base)
    11. 11. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 1: Model-Based Reasoning & Analysis Willingham’s model draws from research showing that information students spend time thinking about is what they will likely remember. A research based model of mind can help teachers to frame important questions to guide instruction and assessment. For example, Willingham’s model prompts teachers to consider the following: –What does my assignment get students to think about? –Are students thinking most about information I want them to remember and use later? –What might my students already know that might be useful to the assignment? Willingham’s simple model of mind could be further elaborated to better guide teaching by specifying the environment as a learning environment. For example, the model might then represent the features of quality instructional tools: Big ideas, conspicuous strategies, mediated scaffolding, strategic integration, primed background knowledge, and judicious review (as suggested in the text Effective Teaching Strategies). Teachers using such a research-based model would likely ask even more precise questions regarding the quality of their instructional and assessment plan. 11
    12. 12. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 1: Model-Based Reasoning & Analysis 12 We modified Willingham’s model of mind using CmapTools. The revised model represents the relationship between student thinking and metacognition. Research on metacognitive strategies indicates that they can help students focus their attention, organize their long-term storage of information, and support their retrieval of information from memory. In addition to the questions prompted by Willingham’s model , this model prompts additional questions. For example: •How is thinking visible in my classroom? Have I modeled how I think through this task ? •What do my students already know about the topic? How well did I prime this prior knowledge? •What features of my classroom support student thinking and remembering? •Are students aware of the strategies they use? Do they make good decisions about when to use them? •How do students organize the information that I want them to remember? •Are students aware of the mental connections they make? How can this mental model help to diagnose student learning struggles in your topic area? Can you think of other questions that this model of mind prompts?
    13. 13. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 1: Model-Based Reasoning & Analysis Powerful learning environments and activities help students to transfer their knowledge and skills to new environments. This entails their capacity to retrieve and use prior knowledge in novel contexts. Research indicates that the features of learning activities that facilitate students’ ability to transfer include the following: –Sufficient time to explore new ideas and practice skills –Activities that demand critical thinking and understanding as opposed to only memorization –Feedback that prompts effort and mastery as opposed to correct performances –Activities that allow students to apply knowledge to different cases or contexts –Activities that require students to develop an abstract representation of concrete examples –Activities that demand strategic thinking and metacognition How do the various features of learning environments impact student learning in your topic area? 13
    14. 14. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 14 Topic 2: Formative Assessment & Learning Progressions Formative assessment is defined as assessment for instruction, and contrasts with assessment of instruction.. The purpose and timing are different. National Research Council (as reported by Pelligrino, Chudowsky, and Glaser , 2001, in Knowing What Students Know ) stated the following definitions Formative assessment refers to those assessments used to assist learning – or assessments for learning They provide specific information on students’ strengths and difficulties in the process of learning within a particular domain. Teachers use them to design instruction to meet their students’ needs. Examples include familiar tools such as teacher-made quizzes, student writing, homework assignments, and journal entries. Other examples include the quality of student contributions in discussions, student participation in groups, interviews, and concept maps. A important feature of formative assessment is the two-way feedback process it can offer from student to teacher and from teacher to student. Summative assessments are assessments of learning. They refer o those assessments used to determine if students have obtained a certain level of competency after completing a particular phase of education (e.g. unit, semester, year). Familiar examples of this type include end of unit tests, letter grades, and capstone projects. Increasingly large-scale external assessments such as the ISAT are being used as summative assessments of learners. Although the purposes are different an alignment between these forms of assessment is essential for meaningful instructional decisions. Alignment necessitates unpacking learning standards in which key summative assessments are based and identifying sub-concepts and skills needed to achieve the learning standards. These sub-concepts and skills become the focus of formative assessment . If coherently organized they offer a conceptual model or a learning progression depicting how students progress toward the ultimate learning goal. Learning progressions align formative assessment and summative assessment to inform instructional decision-making.
    15. 15. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 2: Formative Assessment & Learning Progressions Formative assessment can range from informal interactions to carefully planned performance assessments. Regardless of the degree of formality, formative assessments all involve capturing and representing students’ understanding or skill competencies to reveal if learning is happening in the expected ways. Some typical ways that teachers capture student progress during an instructional unit include: –Conducting an error analysis –Reviewing reflection journals –Directly observing student performance using a checklist or rubric –Evaluating homework accuracy –Eliciting a demonstration of student knowledge or skill through a planned activity –Requiring students to describe or explain content that is graphically presented to them –Evaluating student questions and/or responses about the content To make sense of the evidence provided in any of these forms, teachers need to know what they are looking for in terms of progress, a model for student progress is referred to as a learning progression. 15
    16. 16. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 2: Formative Assessment & Learning Progressions Learning Progressions – an Essential Concept Underlying Good Formative Assessments A learning progression is a descriptive continuum of how students typically gain more sophisticated understandings in a topic or content area over time (Hess, 2010) Learning progressions inform the design of effective formative assessments and provide a model for instructional decision-making. The more teachers and researchers document the typical learning trajectories that children take as they gain particular skills and concepts, the more effectively teachers can design and use effective tools to monitor their students learning. Efforts are underway to document student learning progressions in a variety of content areas (see resources page at the end of this module). Hess (2010) articulates four guiding principles that have emerged in the literature on learning progressions. 1. Learning progressions are developed (and refined) using available learning research within a domain/topic area (e.g. concept of water; concept of celestial motion; phonological sensitivity, developmental spelling) 2. Learning progressions have clear binding threads that articulate core concepts and processes. 3. Learning progressions articulate movement toward increased understanding. 4. Learning progressions go hand-in-hand with well-designed formative assessments. 16
    17. 17. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 17 Topic 2: Formative Assessment & Learning Progressions The major assignments in this course are intended to help you think deeply about your own content knowledge in an area that you teach (Content Concept Map) and envision a student learning progression in your topic or content area (Learning Progression Framing Graphic). To develop your project focus further consider how you would answer these questions: •What do you want the assessment process to tell you (e.g., gaps in student understanding, effectiveness of an activity, students who need more time/help)? •What are the specific learning outcomes for students? Are they clearly defined? •How do you expect the students to progress in their learning? •What indicators suggest progress? What evidence can you collect to provide feedback? Clearly an important purpose of formative assessment is identifying the students who need more or different types of mediated scaffolding. In chapter 2 of Effective Teaching Strategies, the authors describe important areas to assess. These 4 areas are worth monitoring because they frequently distinguish successful from struggling students across different content areas. •Retention of the information on the topic •Learning strategies – use of particular strategies that facilitate learning of the topic •Vocabulary knowledge •Language coding In what ways are these 4 areas relevant to your chosen topic? How have you assessed your students’ progress in these areas within your topic area? How would these 4 areas fit into the model of thinking and memory previously described?
    18. 18. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 2: Formative Assessment & Learning Progressions 18 Description of beginning use of a learning strategy Description of a learner using a strategy with support Description of a when learner using a strategy independently Beginner Performance Practitioner Performance Expert Performance Learning Progressions: Make concepts & details associated with student learning progress explicit In making this sequence of performances explicit I know what to look for when I am teaching- it provides a map to guide my instructional decisions. The Framing Graphic Organizer (Ellis, 1998) provides a visual structure for drafting and representing a learning progression. This structure can be filled with concepts and details of what student learning looks like in your topic area at three different levels: novice or beginner, practitioner (capable with support), and independent or expert level. Descriptions of these levels in a learning progression can mirror a task rubric.
    19. 19. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 2: Formative Assessment & Learning Progressions 19 Beginning to define key concepts and sub concepts; links are incomplete Accurately links higher order concepts with sub-concepts; limited structure Reorganizes map as new information is acquired; coherence emerging Novice Concept Map Apprentice Concept Map Practitioner Concept Map KEY TOPIC: Concept Mapping Learning Goal: Create an integrated & hierarchical content concept map These different concept map performances are key indicators for differentiated prompts, feedback, and coaching – they indicate where a learner is in being able to independently use concept mapping as a metacognitive tool. In this example you can see the Framing graphic used to illustrate learning progression in concept mapping. The descriptions are based upon Hyerle’s (2009) analysis and on data collected in this course.
    20. 20. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 2: Formative Assessment & Learning Progressions The framing tool can be used to represent shorter or longer term learning progressions. The framing graphic below is designed to depict an expected learning progression within a single lesson: how students’ understandings or performances ought to look at the beginning, middle, and end of the lesson. 20 Beginning of the Lesson Middle of the Lesson End of the Lesson KEY TOPIC – Learning in this domain is about: So What? Why is this sequence important to understand student learning?
    21. 21. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 21 Discussion Activity Discussion Posting: Anticipating Student Learning Why is conceptualizing a student learning progression useful in teaching? How do your students progress in their mastery of the concepts and skills that you are including in your content concept map? What do they master most easily? Where are their struggles? How do you know?
    22. 22. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 4: Enhancing Models through Concept Maps In previous modules, we’ve discussed the role of concept mapping as a metacognitive tool to enhance learning. Concept maps help you organize the knowledge stored in long-term memory, integrate new information into your knowledge structures, and make your thinking visible to others. In the process you can examine how you have structured your knowledge and how you are thinking. As you build your adaptive expertise, you become better at self-monitoring your thinking and revising your knowledge structures as needed. Monitoring and reflecting on the learning process are essential for metacognition. For example, one reason for becoming more aware of the mental connections you make between ideas is so that you can better organize the information to facilitate retrieval and transfer. Becoming more aware of the learning strategies that you use can help you make conscious decisions about selecting the most efficient and effective strategies for a particular learning need. Now let’s apply these ideas to concept mapping. By examining the concept map that you created on a topic familiar to you, you can evaluate how you organized information about that topic. For example, how well did the concept map answer the focus question you posed? How well did you elaborate on the big ideas within that topic? How clear and meaningful are the linking phrases between concepts? What strategies did you use to create the concept map? Were there parts of the map that were easier to create than others? What parts of the process were most challenging? 22
    23. 23. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 4: Enhancing Models through Concept Maps (cont.) Challenges: Determining Appropriate Linking Phrases As described in the module on learning principles, one of the biggest challenges that people creating concept maps often face is determining the appropriate linking phrases to connect the concepts (Novak & Cañas, 2006). One reason that concept mappers often have this difficulty is that “they poorly understand the relationship between the concepts, or the meanings of the concepts, and it is the linking words that specify this relationship“ (Novak & Cañas, 2006, “Constructing Good Concept Maps”, para. 9). For example, if you do not understand how the concepts of “judicious review” and “transfer” are related, you might form propositions like the ones shown below that were created by a former teacher. In the example on the left, the teacher left in the “???” because she was not sure about the nature of the relationship. In the middle example, the teacher tried to disguise this gap in her understanding by hiding the “???”. In the example of the right, the teacher has shown that she knows that there is a relationship, but the use of “relates to” for the linking phrases tells us that she does not really understand how the two concepts are related. 23
    24. 24. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 4: Enhancing Models through Concept Maps (cont.) Hence, it is hard to form a meaningful proposition from two concepts if you don’t understand how the concepts relate to one another. Suppose that you had a formative assessment that prompted you to explain how judicious review facilitates transfer in the context of learning. How would you strengthen your understanding of the concepts? What propositions would you form from the concepts of “judicious review” and “transfer”? To answer these questions you might need to first review chapter 1 in the ETS text. As you reflect on what judicious review is, you should consider the critical elements as identified by Coyne, Kame’enui, and Carnine (2011). As you think about what transfer is, you should recognize that there is considerable overlap among the elements of judicious review and the definition of transfer of learning. For example, in thinking about the role of variety in the ways and contexts that you want to apply what you are learning, you might revise the initial (flawed) proposition into the following concept map. Notice how this representation helps you focus on the defining characteristics of both concepts and enables you to see the common elements. This example also shows how thinking about the essential elements of concepts can be helpful when trying to determine the linking phrases to explain how concepts relate to one another. 24
    25. 25. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 4: Enhancing Models through Concept Maps (cont.) Challenges: Selecting Appropriate Concepts Another reason that people creating concept maps sometimes have difficulty with linking phrases relates to the concepts that put in the map. Consider the discussion in HPL about the difference in the ways that experts in physics would solve physics problems versus the ways that novices would solve the problems. The experts would start by focusing on the “big ideas” in terms of the laws and principles embedded in the problem, whereas the novices would start by focusing on the equations (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000, pp. 36–38). You can apply this idea to concept mapping by thinking about how a novice and an expert might solve a learning dilemma. Suppose that you wanted to design a learning environment, and you were going to create a concept map to represent it. As a novice, you might start the map with a few concepts related to the learners, such as knowledge, skills, interests, and attitudes. In contrast, as an expert, you might start by thinking about the type of learning environment that you want to create (e.g., learner-centered, knowledge-centered, and/or assessment-centered) and the underlying learning principles. These starting concepts are shown below with the novice’s work on the left and the work of the expert on the right. 25
    26. 26. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 4: Enhancing Models through Concept Maps (cont.) Now consider how each concept map might evolve. As a novice you might continue the concept map by focusing on the students’ characteristics. When finished, your concept map would probably contain more information about specific learners than it would contain about specific concepts, principles, and strategies that would help you, as a teacher, engage the entire class in learning science. The propositions formed by the concepts and linking phrases would probably also be relatively weak, as shown in the sample concept map on the right. For example, consider the proposition formed by “interests”, “dislikes”, and “reading”. Does it mean that interests dislike reading? It is most likely that you (as the concept mapper) meant to convey a different proposition but needed to clarify your thinking about the concepts included in the map. 26
    27. 27. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 4: Enhancing Models through Concept Maps (cont.) As an expert you might focus on first defining the principles of learner-, knowledge-, and assessment- centered learning environments. Then you could indentify specific strategies that target each learning principle. Your map would be much more comprehensive, not just because it contains more concepts and linking phrases, but because you started with more big ideas and inclusive concepts, then differentiated them, and linked them with specific practices. By proceeding with the map in this type of systematic manner, it would also be easier for you to recognize other potential connections among the concepts as you continued to construct the map. 27
    28. 28. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology Topic 4: Enhancing Models through Concept Maps (cont.) Troubleshooting Your Concept Mapping If you found the concept mapping activities in the module on learning principles to be particularly challenging, try to isolate what parts of the process were most challenging. For example, did you have difficulty determining the focus question? Deciding which concepts to use? Linking the concepts? Once you have identified what posed the biggest challenge, try to determine how you can it. For example, if you had trouble deciding what to focus on in the concept map, you might need to set a narrower scope for your focus question. Remember that the focus question sets the context for the map and that the content of the map should answer the focus question (Novak & Cañas, 2008). If you used sentences as concepts, remember that a concept is a concise label given to an object or event. Putting too much information in a single concept makes it difficult to clarify the relationship between two concepts. 28 If you found it challenging to determine the right linking phrases, think about the concepts that you included in the map and what the essential elements of those concepts are. Then try to determine how the concepts are similar or different. Remember that linking phrases should signify how the concepts are related. For other tips for constructing concept maps, review the article titled “The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct and Use Them” (in the Concept Mapping folder on the course home page in Blackboard). Pay particularly close attention to the section of the article titled “Constructing Good Concept Maps”.
    29. 29. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 29 Activity Activity: Concept Map Review Review three to four of your colleagues concept maps in our course folder in Cmaps in Places. Continue to work on your content Concept Map for your learning segment domain. Make sure your have the Recorder turned on in Cmaps. This well be an aid in reflecting on your thinking process. Activity: Organize Assessment Data Identify an assessment from the learning segment that you taught this year. (This learning segment is also the focus of your concept map.) Begin to organize student data from this assessment. Identify the related learning standards. .
    30. 30. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 30 What are the Resources I need? Effective teaching strategies – Chapter 2 Popham – Chapter 2 – Learning Progressions: Blueprints for the formative assessment process. Concept Map Instructions -- Download from the Course Concept Mapping page Cmaps Tools – Download from links on Concept Mapping page http://cmap.ihmc.us/ Additional Learning Progression Resources Science: Covitt, B. A., Gunckel, K. L., & Anderson, C. W. (2009). Students' Developing Understanding of Water in Environmental Systems. Journal of Environmental Education, 40(3), 37-51. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Slough, Scott W., and William H. Rupley. "Re-creating a recipe for science instructional programs: adding learning progressions, scaffolding, and a dash of reading variety." School Science and Mathematics 110.7 (2010): 352+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. Hess, Karin K. "Using learning progressions to monitor progress across grades: a science-inquiry learning profile for preK-4 students." Science and Children 47.6 (2010): 57. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. Smith, C. L., Wiser, M., Anderson, C. W., & Krajcik, J. (2006). FOCUS ARTICLE: Implications of Research on Children's Learning for Standards and Assessment: A Proposed Learning Progression for Matter and the Atomic-Molecular Theory. Measurement, 4(1/2), 1-98. doi:10.1207/s15366359mea0401&2_1 Plummer, Julia D., and Joseph Krajcik. "Building a Learning Progression for Celestial Motion: Elementary Levels from an Earth-Based Perspective." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 47.7 (2010): 768-87. Education Abstracts. Web. 21 Dec. 2010. Rupley, W. H. & Slough, S. (2010). Building prior knowledge and vocabulary in science in the intermediate grades: Creating hooks for learning. Literacy Research and Instruction, 49, 99-112. Math: Baek, J.-M. "Children's Invented Algorithms for Multidigit Multiplication Problems." In The Teaching and Learning of Algorithms in School Mathematics, edited by L. J. Morrow and M. J. Kenney, pp.151-60. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1998. Technological literacy: Reed, P. A. (2007). The Journey Towards Technological Literacy for All in the United States--Are We There Yet?. Technology Teacher, 67(3), 15-22. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Reading: Pufpaff, L. A. (2009). A developmental continuum of phonological sensitivity skills. Psychology in the Schools, 46(7), 679-691. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
    31. 31. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 31 What are the Activities for the Module? Discussion Posting: Anticipating Student Learning Why is conceptualizing a student learning progression useful in teaching? How do your students progress in their mastery of the concepts and skills that you are including in your content concept map? What do they master most easily? Where are their struggles? How do you know? Activity: Concept Mapping Review three to four of your colleagues concept maps in our course folder in Cmaps in Places. Continue to work on your content Concept Map for the domain in which you wish to improve your formative assessment . Make sure your have the Recorder turned on in Cmaps. This well be an aid in reflecting on your thinking process. Activity: Organize Assessment Data Identify an assessment from the learning segment that you taught this year. (This learning segment is also the focus of your concept map.) Begin to organize student data from this assessment. Identify the related learning standards.
    32. 32. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 32 Reflection As you review the information that you have examined in this module, ask yourself (and answer) the following questions: How does Dewey describe the thinking process? How does this process relate to teaching? Why is it important for assessment and instruction to be aligned? What is unique about formative assessment? What learner characteristics has research shown to distinguish successful from struggling students? Why would these qualities be important to formatively assess during a unit? What is meant by the term learning progression? Why would knowledge of expected or typical student learning progressions be useful? Why would teachers use a research based model of mind to plan for instruction and analyze learning? What role does metacognition play in transfer of learning?
    33. 33. Assessment-Centered Teaching Educational Psychology 33 Module Index • Introduction • Learning Outcomes • Readings • Model Based Reasoning & Analysis • Formative Assessment & Learning Progressions • Enhancing Models through Concept Mapping • Resources • Activities • Reflections

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