Adult learners


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Adult learning

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Adult learners

  1. 1. Learning Objectives:<br />At the conclusion of this workshop, you’ll be able to:<br /><ul><li>Explain the difference between Andragogy and Pedagogy
  2. 2. Identify the characteristics of adult learners
  3. 3. Determine the factors that serve as a source of motivation for adult learners
  4. 4. Discuss three critical learning strategies for effective instructors</li></ul>2933700328295238760067945YOU0YOU<br />520700273685Adult Learning ModelAndragogyCharacteristics0Adult Learning ModelAndragogyCharacteristics2178050267335QuestionsWhat Strategies are we using?Are they working?0QuestionsWhat Strategies are we using?Are they working?3879850267335StrategiesResearch Based Best PracticesTools to Enhance YourTEACHING0StrategiesResearch Based Best PracticesTools to Enhance YourTEACHING45720001339850116840013398500116840013398500<br />Difference between Andragogy and Pedagogy<br />PedagogyAndragogyThe learnerDependent. Teacher directs what, when, how a subject is learned and tests that it has been learnedMoves towards independence. Self-directing.Teacher encourages and nurturethis movementThe learner's experienceOf little worth. Hence teaching methods are didacticA rich resource for learning. Hence teaching methods include discussion, problem-solving etc. Readiness to learnPeople learn what society expects them to. So that the curriculum is standardizedPeople learn what they need to know, so that learning programmes organised around life application. Orientation to learningAcquisition of subject matter. Curriculum organized by subjectsLearning experiences should be based around experiences, since people are performance centred in their learning<br />Adults as Learners:<br />Autonomous and Self-directed. They need to be free to direct themselves. Their instructors must actively involve adult participants in the learning process and serve as facilitators to them. The instructors should get participants’ perspectives about what topics they cover and let them work on projects that reflect their interest<br />Accumulated foundation of life experiences and knowledge that may include work related activities, family responsibilities, and previous education. They need to connect learning to this knowledge experience. Instructors should draw out participants’ experience and knowledge experience which is relevant to the topic. Instructors could relate the theories to concepts to the participation and recognize the value of experience in Learning.<br />Goal-oriented. Upon enrolling in the class they usually know what goal they want to attain. Students therefore, appreciate an educational program that is organized and has clearly defined elements. Instructors need to show how their class will help them attain the student’s goals.<br />Relevancy-oriented. Adults must see a reason for learning; how it applies to their work or other responsibilities that are important to them. This means instructors must identify their objectives of adult participants before the course begins .This also means that theories and concepts must be related to a familiar setting to participants. This need can be fulfilled by letting the participants choose projects that reflect their own interest.<br />Practical. The material presented must be useful to the participants. Most adults will not be interested in knowledge for knowledge sake. Interests are generally impacted by the topic’s usefulness to their jobs. It is important that the instructor demonstrates how the material is going to be used in practical application.<br />Four Critical Elements of Learning<br />There are four critical elements of learning that instructors need to keep in mind.<br />Motivation: If the participant does not recognize the need for the information, the instructor’s efforts to assist the participant to learn will be in vain. The instructor must establish rapport and prepare participants for learning. Participants need feedback and rewards (not necessarily monetary) on the results of their learning.<br />Reinforcement: Reinforcement is a very necessary part of the teaching/learning process; through it, instructors encourage correct modes of behaviour and performance. Reinforcement should be part of the teaching-learning process to ensure correct behaviour. Instructors need to use it on a frequent and regular basis early in the process to help the students retain what they have learned. Then, they should use reinforcement only to maintain consistent, positive behaviour.<br />Retention: Students must retain information from classes in order to benefit from the learning. The instructors' jobs are not finished until they have assisted the learner in retaining the information. In order for participants to retain the information taught, they must see a meaning or purpose for that information. The must also understand and be able to interpret and apply the information. This understanding includes their ability to assign the correct degree of importance to the material.<br />The amount of retention will be directly affected by the degree of original learning. Simply stated, if the participants did not learn the material well initially, they will not retain it well either.<br />Transference: Transfer of learning is the result of training -- it is the ability to use the information taught in the course but in a new setting .Transference is most likely to occur in the following situations:<br /><ul><li>Association -- participants can associate the new information with something that they already know.
  5. 5. Similarity -- the information is similar to material that participants already know; that is, it revisits a logical framework or pattern.
  6. 6. Degree of original learning -- participant's degree of original learning was high.
  7. 7. Critical attribute element -- the information learned contains elements that are extremely beneficial (critical) on the job.</li></ul>Essential Question<br /> HOW WOULD YOU LIKE YOUR STUDENT TO REMEMBER YOUR CLASS USING THESE ADJECTIVES?<br /><ul><li>Lifelong
  8. 8. On-going
  9. 9. Outstanding
  10. 10. Impressive
  11. 11. Brilliant
  12. 12. Remarkable
  13. 13. ORIGINAL
  14. 14. Fresh</li></ul>Factors that Influence Attention for Learning<br />3390900108585RequiredDirected 100% , no student inputresources restricted working alone.RequiredDirected 100% , no student inputresources restricted working alone.228600108585ChoicesProvide: choices, content,Timing, partners, projects,process environment, or resourcesChoicesProvide: choices, content,Timing, partners, projects,process environment, or resourcesVS<br />3390900111760IrrelevantImpersonal, useless, out of context, and only to pass a test.IrrelevantImpersonal, useless, out of context, and only to pass a test.228600105410RelevantMake it personal: relate to family,life stages , etc.RelevantMake it personal: relate to family,life stages , etc.VS<br />234950869950EngagingMake it emotional, energetic, make it physical, use learner imposed deadlines, and peer pressure.0EngagingMake it emotional, energetic, make it physical, use learner imposed deadlines, and peer pressure.<br />3397250224155PassiveDisconnected from the real world, low interaction, lecture, seat work, video0PassiveDisconnected from the real world, low interaction, lecture, seat work, videoVS<br />Effective Strategies<br /><ul><li>Jigsaw
  15. 15. Think Pair Share
  16. 16. Questioning
  17. 17. Engaged Lecture
  18. 18. Focus
  19. 19. KWL</li></ul>Jigsaw is a cooperative learning strategy in which participants become experts about the topic or sub topic and share their learning within a group setting so that all members learn the content.<br />How to Play:<br /><ul><li>a general topic is divided into smaller, interrelated pieces (e.g., the puzzle is divided into pieces); each member of a team is assigned to read and become an expert on a different piece of the puzzle (e.g., one person is given a Team Building Issues puzzle piece/article, another the Team Composition & Roles piece/article, and so on);
  20. 20. after each person has become an expert on their piece of the puzzle, they teach the other team members about that puzzle piece; and, finally,
  21. 21. After each person has finished teaching, the puzzle has been reassembled and everyone in the team knows something important about every piece of the puzzle. Functioning as a successful team requires the integration of many different activities. If any piece of the puzzle is missing, the team is generally a group and not a team.</li></ul>Corners<br />The leader of the day places content (or flipchart with question) in each corner of the room. Groups of 3-6 people move from corner to corner and discuss answer(s) to each posed question. The groups develop a consensus and write their answer directly on each flipchart. When the flipchart has an answer already written by a previous group, the next group revises/expands/ illustrates that response with additional information, if possible. Different colored markers can be used for each group to see what each group wrote for each question.<br />Question and Answer Pairs<br />The objective here is to engage individuals with readings and then to pair them to answer particular questions. This helps to deepen the level of analysis of presentations/readings, and helps engage participants in explaining new concepts, as well as considering how/where to apply the concepts to their own thinking/work setting. Approximate time: five to ten minutes. <br />The procedure: <br /><ul><li>participants respond to a presentation (video, panel, readings) and compose one or two questions about it; they may do this in class or you may ask students to bring questions with them;
  22. 22. the participants pair up; A asks a prepared question and B responds; then B asks a prepared question and A responds;
  23. 23. the leader may ask for a sampling of questions and answers in order to bridge to a full group discussion.