The learning process- Fundamentals of Instruction


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The learning process- Fundamentals of Instruction

  1. 1. Flight Instructor ASE Ground Training Course Ground Lesson 2 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 1
  2. 2. What is Learning?  Learning has many definitions  Learning is a change in behavior of the learner as a result of experience. The behavior can be physical and overt, or it can be intellectual or attitudinal  The process by which experience brings about a relatively permanent change  The change in behavior that results from experience and practice 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 2
  3. 3. What is Learning?  Learning has many definitions  Gaining knowledge or skills, or developing a behavior, through study, instruction, or experience.  The process of acquiring knowledge or skill through study, experience, or teaching.  The instructor needs to understand the subject being taught, the student, the learning process, and the interrelationships that exist 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 3
  4. 4. Learning Theory  Learning theory is a body of principles advocated by psychologists and educators to explain how people acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 4
  5. 5. Behaviorism  Behaviorism is a school of psychology that explains animal and human behavior entirely in terms of observable and measurable responses to stimuli 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 5
  6. 6. Cognitive Theory  Cognitive theory focuses on what is going on inside the mind. It is more concerned with cognition (the process of thinking and learning)—knowing, perceiving, problem-solving, decision-making, awareness, and related intellectual activities—than with stimulus and response  Jerome Bruner advocated learning from the known to the unknown, or from concrete to the abstract. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 6
  7. 7. Cognitive Theory  Benjamin Bloom tried to classify the levels of thinking behavior thought to be important in the process of learning. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 7
  8. 8. Information Processing Theory  Information processing theory uses a computer system as a model for human learning. The human brain processes incoming information, stores and retrieves it, and generates responses to the information. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 8
  9. 9. Constructivism  A derivative of cognitive theory, constructivism is a philosophy of learning that can be traced to the eighteenth century. This theory holds that learners do not acquire knowledge and skills passively but actively build or construct them based on their experiences. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 9
  10. 10. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOT)  Commonly called aeronautical decision-making  Uses the last three categories of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning  Analysis, synthesis and evaluation  Teaching these skills are essential to judgment, decision-making and critical thinking 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 10
  11. 11. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)  To teach HOTS effectively involves several strategies and methods  Problem-based learning instruction  Authentic problems  Real world problems  Student-centered learning  Active learning  Cooperative learning  Customized instruction 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 11
  12. 12. Perceptions  All learning comes from perceptions, which are directed to the brain by one or more of the five senses 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 12
  13. 13. Perception  Factors that Affect Perception  Physical organism  Goals and Values  Self-concept  Time and opportunity  Element of threat 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 13
  14. 14. Acquiring Knowledge  Instructor’s job is to help the student acquire knowledge. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 14
  15. 15. Acquiring Knowledge  Memorization  A students first attempt to acquire knowledge about a new topic will result in memorizing facts about a procedure  Understanding  Ability to notice similarities and make associations between the facts and procedural steps learned  Concept Learning  Enhances students understanding 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 15
  16. 16. Laws of Learning  Readiness  The basic needs of the learner must be satisfied before he or she is ready or capable of learning. The instructor can do little to motivate the learner if these needs have not been met. This means the learner must want to learn the task being presented and must possess the requisite knowledge and skill.  Effect  All learning involves the formation of connections and connections are strengthened or weakened according to the law of effect. Responses to a situation that are followed by satisfaction are strengthened; responses followed by discomfort are weakened, either strengthening or weakening the connection of learning. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 16
  17. 17. Laws of Learning  Exercise  Connections are strengthened with practice and weakened when practice is discontinued, which reflects the adage “use it or lose it.” The learner needs to practice what has been learned in order to understand and remember the learning.  Primacy  Primacy, the state of being first, often creates a strong, almost unshakable impression and underlies the reason an instructor must teach correctly the first time and the student must learn correctly the first time. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 17
  18. 18. Laws of Learning  Intensity  Immediate, exciting, or dramatic learning connected to a real situation teaches a learner more than a routine or boring experience.  Recency  The principle of recency states that things most recently learned are best remembered. Conversely, the further a learner is removed in time from a new fact or understanding, the more difficult it is to remember. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 18
  19. 19. Domains of Learning  Cognitive  Affective Domain  Addresses a learner’s emotions towards the learning experience. It includes feelings, values, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes  Psychomotor Domain  Skill based learning and includes physical movement, coordination, and the use of motor-skills. Development of these skills require repetitive practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance and technique. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 19
  20. 20. Levels of Learning  Rote  The ability to repeat something back which was learned, but not understood.  Understanding  To comprehend or grasp the nature or meaning of something.  Application  The act of putting something to use that has been learned and understood.  Correlation  Associating what has been learned, understood, and applied with previous or subsequent learning. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 20
  21. 21. Characteristics of Learning  Learning if Purposeful  Each student has specific intentions and goals. Some may be shared by other students. Students learn from any activity that tends to further their goals. Their individual needs and attitudes may determine what they learn as much as what the instructor is trying to get them to learn. In the process of learning, the student’s goals are of paramount significance. To be effective, aviation instructors need to find ways to relate new learning to the student’s goals. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 21
  22. 22. Characteristics of Learning  Learning is a Result of Experience  A person’s knowledge is a result of experience, and no two people have had identical experiences. Even when observing the same event, two people react differently; they learn different things from it, according to the manner in which the situation affects their individual needs. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 22
  23. 23. Characteristics of Learning  Learning is Multifaceted  Each student approaches a task with preconceived ideas and feelings, and for many students, these ideas change as a result of experience. Therefore, the learning process may include verbal elements, conceptual elements, perceptual elements, emotional elements, and problemsolving elements all taking place at once. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 23
  24. 24. Characteristics of Learning  Learning is an Active Process  The instructor cannot assume that students remember something just because they were in the classroom, shop, or aircraft when the instructor presented the material. Neither can the instructor assume the students can apply what they know because they can quote the correct answer verbatim. For students to learn, they need to react and respond, perhaps outwardly, perhaps only inwardly, emotionally, or intellectually. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 24
  25. 25. Acquiring Skill Knowledge  Skill knowledge is acquired slowly through related experience  Three stages of skill knowledge acquisition  Cognitive Stage-The student must learn the facts  Associative Stage- The student must practice  Automatic Response Stage- As the student practices, procedures become more automated and second nature 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 25
  26. 26. Learning Plateaus  Learning Plateaus are normal in the learning process and are usually temporary.  Student may have reached ac capability limits  Instructors can over practice 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 26
  27. 27. Types of Practice  Once a student learns a skill, it is important to continue some practice to improve retention of the skill. But how much practice is the question?  Deliberate Practice  The student practices specific areas for improvement and receives specific feedback after the practice.  Students achieve better results with fewer distractions 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 27
  28. 28. Types of Practice  Blocked Practice  Practicing the same drill until the movement becomes automated  Can enhance current performance, it does not improve either concept learning or retrieval from long-term memory  Random Practice  Mixes up the skills to be acquired throughout the practice session.  Leads to better retention, students can recognize the similarities and differences between the skills 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 28
  29. 29. Evaluation Versus Critique  In the initial stages of skill acquisition, practical suggestions are more valuable to the student than a grade.  Overlearning of Knowledge is the continued study of a skill after initial proficiency has been achieved. The students performance is characterized less by understanding of concepts, but more by an automatic process 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 29
  30. 30. Putting it All Together  Mulitasking is the simultaneous execution of two or more task. A proficient pilot must be able to multitask  Attention switching, the student needs to be able to switch attention between two or more tasks during a flight  Performing several tasks at once, or simultaneous performance, is the second type of multitasking 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 30
  31. 31. Motivation  Motivation is the reason one acts or behaves in a certain way. An important part of an instructor’s job is to discover what motivates each student and use this information to encourage him or her to work hard.  Positive motivation is essential to true learning. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 31
  32. 32. Maintaining Motivation  Motivation is generally not something that can be transferred from one person to another. Instructors must be skillful at recognizing problems with motivations and at encouraging students to do their best  Rewarding Feedback  Positive feedback encourages students.  Presenting New Challenges  Keep pushing the student to do their best 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 32
  33. 33. Memory  Memory is the vital link between the student learning/retaining information and the cognitive process of applying what is learned. It is the ability of people and other organisms to encode (initial perception and registration of information), store (retention of encoded information over time), and retrieve (processes involved in using stored information) information. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 33
  34. 34. Memory  Sensory Memory  Sensory memory is the part of the memory system that receives initial stimuli from the environment and processes them according to the individual’s preconceived concept of what is important.  Short Term Memory  Short-term memory is the part of the memory system where information is stored for roughly 30 seconds, after which it may rapidly fade or be consolidated into longterm memory, depending on the individual’s priorities. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 34
  35. 35. Memory  Long-Term Memory  Long-term memory (LTM) is relatively permanent storage of unlimited information and it is possible for memories in LTM to remain there for a lifetime. What is stored in LTM affects a person’s perceptions of the world and affects what information in the environment is noticed. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 35
  36. 36. Usage of Knowledge  How we use the knowledge or skill affects how we retrieve it from memory  How often the knowledge has been used in the past  How recently the knowledge has been used 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 36
  37. 37. Memory  Forgetting- loss of a memory, typically involves a failure in memory retrieval  Retrieval Failure-the inability to retrieve information  Fading- a person begins to forget information that is not used for extended periods of time  Interference- a person can forget an experience, because another experience has overshadowed it  Repression- a memory is pushed out of reach, because a person does not want to remember 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 37
  38. 38. Retention of Learning  Praise Stimulates Remembering  Responses that gives a pleasurable return tends to be repeated  Recall is promoted by Association  Information or actions, need to be associated with something to be learned  Favorable Attitudes Aid Retention  People learn and remember only what they wish to know  Learning with all senses is most effective  A fuller understanding and greater chance of recall is achieved when a person uses all senses 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 38
  39. 39. Retention of Learning  Meaningful Repetition Aids Recall  3 to 4 repetitions provide the maximum effect  Students learn the most in the first 10-15 minutes  Mnemonics  A pattern of letters, ideas, visual images or associations to assist in remember information 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 39
  40. 40. Transfer of Learning  Transfer of Learning is broadly defined as the ability to apply knowledge or procedures learned in one context to a new context  Learning occurs more quickly and the learner develops a deeper understanding of the task if he or she brings some knowledge or skill from previous learning. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 40
  41. 41. Transfer of Learning  Habit Formation  The formation of correct habit patterns from the beginning of any learning process is essential to further learning and for correct performance after the completion of training  How understanding affects Memory  The ability to remember is greatly affected by the level of understanding of what has been learned  Remembering during Training  Remembering what is learned on a day-to-day basis is the first challenge students must meet. 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 41
  42. 42. Transfer of Learning  Remembering After Training  Continued practice of knowledge and skill is the only way to retain what they learned 6/14/2013 Holmes Aviation Training 42