An engineer or an architect usually hasa blueprint of the bridge or building to beconstructed. And a teacher also needs a blueprint of what he intends to build – whether this be attitudes, habits, skills or knowledge. The lesson plan is the teacher’s blueprint.
A lesson planis anindispensable toolto a teacher.
“A lesson plan is a statement ofachievements to be realized and thespecific means by which these are tobe attained as a result of the activitiesengaged in day by day under theguidance of the teacher.” - Nelson Bossing
Why is a lesson plan important?1. A pupil’s educational growth depends on the selection of subject matter, activities, experiences and methods adapted to his interests, needs, abilities and level of maturity.2. A lesson plan includes framing objectives and choosing subject matter, procedures, materials and evaluation techniques. A teacher who has to do all these things is forced to prepare and organized his lessons well.
3. Making a lesson plan involves foreseeing what is likely to happen and choosing experiences that will change children for the better.4. A lesson plan serves as a guide to the apprentice teacher. With so many things on his mind, the student teacher may forget the subject matter or its sequential organization. The lesson plan serves as a reminder.
5. Planning prevents waste of time that usually accompanies unorganized or haphazard teaching. A lesson plan helps the teacher to be systematic and orderly. It also helps him determine what is to be taken up so that it will neither be too broad nor too limited.6. A lesson plan prevents wandering away from the subject matter by making the teacher conscious of what he has to accomplish for the day.
7. A lesson plan gives a feeling of security especially to the beginning teacher who usually feels nervous and tense.8. The principle of self-activity applies to the learning of both teachers and pupils.9. Lesson plans are of use not only to teachers but also principals and supervisors.10. Past lesson plans will be of use to a substitute teacher who may take over in an emergency.
Parts of a Lesson PlanI. ObjectivesII. Subject MatterIII. MaterialsIV. ProceduresV. Assignment
OBJECTIV ESProvides goals to be attained,give direction to the classdiscussion, and call for whatoutcomes to expect.
Characteristics: S pecific M easurable A ttainable R esult Oriented T ime Bounded
A. General – usually broad in scope and may be the objective of the course, subject or semester. It cannot be attained in one lesson.B. Specific – usually attainable in a specific lesson and contributes to the accomplishing of the general aim.
SUBJECT MATTER Should be stated in the lessonplan. Its sources are textbooks,library references, etc.
MATERIALSMaterials are necessary aid to teachingand should be included in the lessonplan. Materials include teaching aids anddevices, such as maps, graphs, flashcards, pictures, objects, slides, radio,TV and movies.
PROCEDURESIt is a very importantpart of the lessonplan. This includesboth teacher andpupil activity in thedetailed plan.
ASSIGNMENTA lesson plan is incompletewithout the assignment. A good assignment insures a goodrecitation because it tells definitelywhat is to be done, how it is to bedone, and why it must be done.
Suggestions in Making Lesson Plans1.The lesson plan is an aid to teaching. -It should not be a bible to be followed to the letter.2. A lesson plan should not be too detailed. -Numerous details may obscure the main points and cause confusion.
3. Lessons should be planned within the time allotment for the subject. -Beginning teachers sometimes cover too much ground resulting in teaching becoming superficial and the class does not learn much.4. The textbook should not be regarded as infallible. - After all, textbooks are made by human beings who are also subject to mistakes.
5. The lesson plan may serve as a basis for future plans and a means of evaluating the success of learning. -A lazy teacher who teaches the same subject year after year may continue using the same plan.
“The greater the structure of a lesson and the more precisethe directions on whatis to be accomplished, the higher the achievement rate.” -Harry Wong
Teaching StrategiesPREDICTIONSOverview: This is a fascinating way to helpstudents become acquainted with oneanother. It is also an interestingexperiment in first impressions.
Procedure:1.Form subgroups of 3 or 4 students who are relative strangers to each other.2.Tell students that their job is to predict how each person in their group would answer certain questions you have prepared for them. Here are some all-purpose possibilities. a. What type of music do you enjoy? b. How many hours do you usually sleep nightly? c. How many siblings do you have and where are you in the sibling order? d. Where did you grow up?
e. Are your parents strict or lenient? f. What jobs have you had?3. Have subgroups begin by selecting one person as its first “subject.” Urge group members to be specific as possible in their predictions about that person. Tell them not to be afraid of bold guesses! As they guess, ask the “subject” to give no indication of the accuracy of the prediction attempted. When others finish their predictions about the “subject,” the “subject” should then reveal the answers to each question about him or herself.4. Have each group to take a turn as the focus person.
WHO’S IN THE CLASS?Overview: This popular icebreaker is a scavengerhunt for classmates rather than for objects.The hunt can be designed in a number ofways and for a class of any size. It fostersteam building and gets physical movementgoing right at the beginning of a class.
Procedure:1.Devise 6 to 10 descriptive statements to complete the phrase: Find someone who…2. Include statements that identify personal information and/or class content.
Use some of these beginnings:Find someone who… likes/enjoys _____ knows what a _____ is thinks that _____ is good at _____ has already _____ believes that _____ dislikes _____ has previously learned _____ owns a _____ wants or doesn’t want _____
THE POWER OF TWOOverview: This activity is used to promotecooperative learning and reinforce theimportance and benefits of synergy – that is,that two heads are better than one.
Procedure:1.Give the students one or more questions that require reflection and thinking.2. Ask the students to answer the questions individually.3. After the students have completed their answers, arrange into pairs and ask them to share their answers with each other.4. Ask the pairs to create a new answer to each question, improving on each individual’s response.5. When all pairs have written new answers, compare the answers of each pair to the others in the class.
LOOP-A-WORDOverview: To add to the variety of activities in theclassroom, an educational game can beused. It will also provide interest to thestudent as they perform a learning activity.
Procedure:1.Encircle a word or group of words in the grid which are spelled horizontally, vertically or partly horizontal and vertical. A student should encircle only a word or group of words that he or she should explain.
L I N E A P X T M ZD N O W C Q U I LQ R A P B R S I D EM E P O T M A V P DE F U I H B N I O UP L A N E R G C I CJ E F T O H L W N SV X V E R T E X T KK I G O E N S J D HY U L T M F X G Z E
CYCLE MAPOverview: A cycle concept map is a special type ofevents chain map. In a cycle concept map,the series of events does not produce a finaloutcome. Instead, the last event in the chainrelates back to the initiating event.
Cycle Map For Photosynthesis Plants undergoing Photosynthesis which has been use released by CarbonOxygen Dioxide in the which is presence of released by Respiration in animals & plants
As in the events chain map, you firstdecide on an initiating event and then listeach event in order. Since there is nooutcome and the last event relates back tothe initiating event, the cycle repeats itself.
GROUP-TO-GROUP EXCHANGEOverview: In this strategy,different assignmentsare given to differentgroups of students.Each group then“teaches” what it haslearned to the rest ofthe class.
Procedure:1.Select a topic that includes different ideas, events, positions, concepts, or approaches to assign. The topic should be that promotes an exchange of views or information (as opposed to a debate).2. Divide the class into groups. Give each sufficient time to prepare how they could present the topic they have been assigned.
3. When the preparation phase is completed, ask groups to select a spokesperson. Invite each spokesperson to address the other groups.4. After a brief presentation, encourage students to ask questions of the presenter or to open their own views. Allow other members of the spokesperson’s group to respond.5. Continue the remaining presentations so that each group has given its information and has responded to audience questions and comments. Compare and contrast the views and information that were exchanged.