(That‟s all of the PR stuffout of the way...)(...so let‟s go straight into practice?)
Practice-sectionsPractice-sections look like this slide:• work in pairs, if possible• work fast – 3-5mins for each item• record as you go, with notes or sketchesGet pen-and-paper or tablet ready now…(There are four practice-sections in this session.)
Current EA emphasises structure...So, here‟s a structure...
CC-BY Avodrocc via FlickrIt‟s called the Sambadromo...Which doesn‟t really tell us anything.To make sense of a structure,we need the story...and the processes that use it,
CC-BY Boban021 via Flickr…here, the story of Carnaval.
CC-BY sfmission via Flickr…it‟s one huge city-wide party…
CC-BY-SA adriagarcia via Flickr…and yes, it really is city-wide…
CC-BY sfmission via FlickrBut when the party‟s over,and it‟s time to head home...
CC-BY otubo via FlickrSomeone must be there to clean up...- because that‟s part of the story too.
CC-BY jorgeBRAZIL via FlickrProcess, assets, data, locations....- all the usual stuff of EA and BPM......all those necessary detailsof organisation.
CC-BY Avodrocc via FlickrOrganisation focusseson structure and process…
CC-BY Boban021 via Flickryet the enterprise is the story.
Structure and process existbecause of the story.
CC-BY SheilaTostes via FlickrA key task here, for EA and BPMis to rememberand design for that fact,maintaining the balancebetween structure, process and story.
CC-BY SheilaTostes via FlickrWhat we dois about structure, and process.What, how, why;structure, process, story.We need them all, to make it all happen.What it‟s foris about the purpose, the story.
“We create an architecturefor an organisation,but about an enterprise.”Tom Graves, Mapping the Enterprise, Tetradian, 2010Whose architecture?Organisation aligns with structure, enterprise with story.We need a balance of both for the architecture to work.
A useful guideline:“The enterprise in scopeshould be three steps largerthan the organisation in scope.”Tom Graves, Mapping the Enterprise, Tetradian, 2010Which architecture?
If the organisation says it „is‟ the enterprise,there‟s no shared-story - and often, no story at all.Whose story?
The minimum real enterprise is the supply-chain- a story of shared transactions.Whose story?
The organisation and enterprise of the supply-chain takeplace within a broader organisation of the market.Whose story?
The market itself exists within a context of „intangible‟interactions with the broader shared-enterprise story.Whose story?
Inside-in…CC-BY Myrmi via Flickralwaysat risk ofdrowning inthe detail…
Inside-out…CC-BY – Paul – via FlickrWe create an architecturefor an organisation,but about a broader enterprise.
Outside-in…CC-BY Fretro via Flickr“Customersdo not appearin our processes,we appear intheir experiences.”Chris Potts, recrEAtion, Technics, 2010
CC-BY Matt Brown via FlickrOutside-out…There‟s always a larger scope…
Practice: PerspectiveWhat changes as you change perspective?• Inside-in• Inside-out• Outside-in• Outside-outWhat do these differences imply? To whom?
“An organisation is bounded byrules, roles and responsibilities;an enterprise is bounded byvision, values and commitments.”Tom Graves, Mapping the Enterprise, Tetradian, 2010What architecture?Organisation aligns with structure, enterprise with story.We need a balance of both for the architecture to work.
A myriad of „guiding stars‟ out there……choose one that looks right to you.Use it as your guiding-star. Everywhere.Example (TED conferences): “Ideas worth spreading”
“An architecturedescribes structureto support a shared-story.”Why architecture?Organisation aligns with structure, enterprise with story.We need a balance of both for the architecture to work.Tom Graves, The Enterprise As Story, Tetradian, 2012
That „guiding star‟ or „vision‟- the core for the enterprise story -has a distinctive three-part format:Concern.Action.Qualifier.
Concern: the focus ofinterest to everyone inthe shared-enterprise“Ideas worthspreading”CC-BY UK DFID via Flickr
“Ideas worthspreading”Action: what isbeing done toor with or aboutthe concernCC-BY US Army Africa via Flickr
“Ideas worthspreading”Qualifier:the emotivedriver for actionon the concernCC-BY HDTPCAR via Flickr
(Note: „making money‟ isnot a meaningful vision in this sense.It‟s a measurement, not a vision– at best, a desirable side-effect.Don‟t get misled by that mistake!)
Practice: PurposeWhat guiding-star for the enterprise?• Concern• Action• QualifierHow to link organisation with enterprise?How to use it as your enterprise-story?
ProductCC-BY Kiran Kodoru via FlickrProduct is static…
ServiceCC-BY Igor Schwarzmann via FlickrServiceimpliesaction… …actionimpliesservice
CC-BY AllBrazilian via WikimediaIt‟s also always about people……„service‟ means thatsomeone‟s needs are served
Assertion:Everything in the enterpriseis or represents a service.(If so, we can describe everythingin the same consistent way.)
A tension exists between what is, and what we want.The vision describes the desired-ends for action;values guide action, describing how success would feel.Why anything happens
A service represents a means toward an end – ultimately,the desired-ends of the enterprise-vision.The nature of service
Services exchange value with each other, to help eachservice reach toward their respective vision and outcome.Relations between services
Services serve.(That‟s why they‟re called „services‟…)What they serve is the story,via exchange of value.(And if we get that right,they can sometimes make money, too.)
Each service sits at an intersection of values (vertical)and exchanges of value (horizontal)Values and value
Interactions during the main-transactions are preceded byset-up interactions (before), and typically followed by otherwrap-up interactions such as payment (after).We can describe „child-services‟ to support each of these.value-add(self)customer-facingsupplier-facingIn more detail
Services link together in chains or webs, asstructured and/or unstructured processes, to delivermore complex and versatile composite-services.Supply-chain or value-web
Use the Viable System Model (direction, coordination,validation) to describe service-relationships to keep thisservice on track to purpose and in sync with the whole.Keeping on track
These flows (of which only some types are monetary)are separate and distinct from the main value-flows.Investor and beneficiary
value-flow(„how‟,„with-what‟)These are distinct flows – don‟t mix them up!values(„why‟)moneyValues, value-flow, money
“Let‟s do a quick SCAN of this…”Making sense for action
“Insanityis doingthe same thingand expectingdifferent results”(Albert Einstein)ORDER(rules do work here)Take control! Impose order!
“Insanityis doingthe same thingand expectingdifferent results”(Albert Einstein)“Insanityis doingthe same thingand expectingthe same results”(not Albert Einstein)ORDER(rules do work here)UNORDER(rules don‟t work here)Order and unorder
A quest for certainty:analysis, algorithms,identicality, efficiency,business-ruleengines, executablemodels, Six Sigma...SAMENESS(IT-systems do workwell here)UNIQUENESS(IT-systems don‟t workwell here)Same and differentAn acceptance ofuncertainty:experiment, patterns,probabilities, „design-thinking‟, unstructuredprocess...
THEORYWhat we plan to do, in the expected conditionsWhat we actually do, in the actual conditionsPRACTICETheory and practice
algorithm guidelinerule principleSensemaking creates clarity for actionMaking sense with SCAN
What parts of each service are:How to ensure using the right methods for each?How to switch appropriately between methods?Practice: Order and unorder•Simple and straightforward?•Complicated but controllable?•Ambiguous but actionable?•Not-known – always unique or unknowable?
ORDER(a sense of „the known‟)UNORDER(a sense of „the unknown‟)We need to adapt to work with the fullspectrum.A spectrum of uncertainty
One of the hardest partsof working with uncertaintyis to build the right balancebetween known and unknown- between backbone and edge.
order(rules do work here)unorder(rules don‟t work here)fail-safe(high-dependency)safe-fail(low-dependency)analysis(knowable result)experiment(unknowable result)BACKBONE EDGEWaterfall(„controlled‟ change)Agile(iterative change)Backbone and edge
Choices:everything we place in the backboneis a constraint on agility;anything we omit from the backbonemay not be dependable.It‟s not an easy trade-off…
Vision and valuesare always part of the backbone:values as „shared-services‟.
A spectrum of servicesalso impliesa spectrum of governance:governance of governance itself.
Whether „backbone‟ or „edge‟,every service needs to maintainits connection with the story.
Where would each type of service belong?What governance do you need for each?What governance of governance itself?Practice: Design for change•What needs to be in the backbone (core)?•What needs to be in domains (complexity)?•What needs to be at the edge (change)?•What interfaces does each service need?
What did you discover in doing this?What will you do different on Monday morning?Practice: Your insights• Perspective (Inside-out and outside-in)• Purpose (Concern, action, qualifier)• Design for uncertainty (Same and different)• Design for change (Backbone and edge)
Contact: Tom GravesCompany: Tetradian ConsultingEmail: firstname.lastname@example.orgTwitter: @tetradian ( http://twitter.com/tetradian )Weblog: http://weblog.tetradian.comSlidedecks: http://www.slideshare.net/tetradianPublications: http://tetradianbooks.com and http://leanpub.com/u/tetradianBooks: • The enterprise as story: the role of narrative in enterprise-architecture (2012)• Mapping the enterprise: modelling the enterprise asservices with the Enterprise Canvas (2010)• Everyday enterprise-architecture: sensemaking, strategy,structures and solutions (2010)• Doing enterprise-architecture: process and practice in thereal enterprise (2009)Further information: