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Enterprise Architecture - A Matter of Perspective

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Slidedeck for keynote at Enterprise Architektura conference, Prague, 2 November 2017 - http://archforum.eu/

A unique reflection on different views of architecture. How to eliminate fears of change, work with cultural stereotypes, and how architecture is related to Czech black-humour and why we have a tendency, as architects, to cut ourselves down. Also, how the architect should prepare the 'battle-plan' and how to succeed in the fight itself.

(Description above adapted from original Czech text in the conference programme, via Google Translate - see http://archforum.eu/agenda/ .)

Published in: Business

Enterprise Architecture - A Matter of Perspective

  1. 1. A MATTER OF PERSPECTIVE Tom Graves Tetradian Consulting KONFERENCE ENTERPRISE ARCHITEKTURA 2017
  2. 2. Hi. (maybe I should update my profile-photo...?) I’m Tom. I’ve been around the EA scene for a while now.
  3. 3. These days I’d describe myself as a maker of tools for change – all sorts of tools...
  4. 4. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date VersionHolomap shared-enterprise / indirect-context includes community, government, non-clients, anticlients, others includes investors, beneficiaries market / direct-context includes competitors, regulators, recruiters, trainers, journals, others transactional-context includes suppliers / providers, customers / consumers, transactional partners prospect prospectsupplier / provider partner client / consumer partner organisation service-in-focus …such as this…
  5. 5. …and this…
  6. 6. …and this…
  7. 7. Sales- pitch! https://leanpub.com/tb-changes/ New book!
  8. 8. …enough of an intro? Okay, let’s get on with the show!
  9. 9. Perspectives on architecture
  10. 10. To make sense of this... © Josef Lada ...we’ll need some advice from someone you might know
  11. 11. As Švejk himself might ask: What’s the point? What’s the purpose? What are we striving for? (well, he might say something like that, anyway…)
  12. 12. Why architecture? What is its real purpose?
  13. 13. The aim of all architecture... Things work better when they work together, on purpose. (It’s about effectiveness.)
  14. 14. What are the keys to architecture?
  15. 15. The Architect’s Mantra… I don’t know… (but I know someone who does, or how to find out) It depends… (and I know what it depends on, and why) Just enough detail… (and I know what the right level of detail would be)
  16. 16. Everyone wants to sell us ready-made answers... ...yet the real challenge is to find the right questions ...“solutions!”
  17. 17. Finding the right questions can be even more important than finding the right answers (in part because questions tend to stay the same, whereas answers will change with time and context)
  18. 18. Architecture and its ‘experts’ © Josef Lada Anglo-dominated, IT-centric, hidden assumptions...
  19. 19. A matter of perspective ...in reality, the BDAT-stack is an arbitrary special-case
  20. 20. A matter of perspective ...further confused by misframed ‘Business Architecture’
  21. 21. A matter of perspective ...and even worse at whole-enterprise scope
  22. 22. In short, it’s a mess... ...which may be why management keep yelling at us? © Josef Lada
  23. 23. So how do we get out of this mess?
  24. 24. Expose the assumptions... If we change the perspective, we can expose, explore and highlight the hidden assumptions
  25. 25. Let’s ask Švejk for some help here? © Josef Lada (?)
  26. 26. Different cultures, different choices
  27. 27. in which case… What would EA look like if it were Czech?
  28. 28. © The Open Group EA as the adventures of Švejk? © Josef Lada
  29. 29. © The Open Group EA as procedure? or poetry(sort-of)? © Dušan Klein et al.
  30. 30. © The Open Group EA as metamorphosis? © Norton Books
  31. 31. © The Open Group EA as a trial? © Penguin
  32. 32. Trials indeed for Švejk... © Josef Lada ...carrying everyone’s load, under fire...
  33. 33. People, Process, Technology! Maybe the real problem is our usual approach:
  34. 34. Technology CC-BY-SA xdxd_vs_xdxd via Flickr Process People The usual architecture view
  35. 35. which gives us...
  36. 36. …yawn…
  37. 37. …“can I go to sleep now, please?”
  38. 38. No fun at all... © Josef Lada Could we just kick it all out?
  39. 39. So how do we find these ‘missing perspectives’? - and maybe have some fun doing it, too…
  40. 40. Short answer: Raid the kids’ toy-box!
  41. 41. https://www.amazon.co.uk/Viga-Wooden-Train-Set-49-Piece/dp/B00486QD0S/
  42. 42. Toy-train as service-metaphor…
  43. 43. …who or what are the various uses / users of the service?
  44. 44. …how do those uses intersect?
  45. 45. …how might those uses conflict?
  46. 46. …what decisions need to be made?
  47. 47. …what scheduling / prioritisation do you need?
  48. 48. …what infrastructure tolerances do you need?
  49. 49. …how does it interconnect with other services?
  50. 50. …what disruptions could careless users cause?
  51. 51. …what disruptions could the service cause for others?
  52. 52. …how, where, with what must it intersect without connecting?
  53. 53. …how might others impact your infrastructure?
  54. 54. …what impacts could that have on service-delivery?
  55. 55. …what are the hazards, potential sources of disruption?
  56. 56. …what happens when external risks eventuate?
  57. 57. …what happens when the service itself fails?
  58. 58. …what disruptions could failures cause?
  59. 59. …or, in other words…
  60. 60. …context, context, context!
  61. 61. Maybe we’ll give Švejk a medal... © Josef Lada
  62. 62. …which brings us back to… a matter of perspective! - yeah, which way we look at things does kinda matter here…
  63. 63. Perspectives and journeys Service-delivery is a journey of interactions where ‘inside-out’ (the organisation’s perspective) touches ‘outside-in’ (the customer’s / supplier’s perspective)
  64. 64. Outside-in… CC-BY Fretro via Flickr “Customers do not appear in our processes, we appear in their experiences” Chris Potts, recrEAtion, Technics, 2010
  65. 65. Every service has its own myriad of stakeholders Whose story?
  66. 66. A stakeholder is anyone who can wield a sharp-pointed stake in our direction… CC-BY-NC-SA evilpeacock via Flickr Who are the stakeholders? (Hint: there are a lot more of them than we might at first think…)
  67. 67. And as Švejk would remind us... © Josef Lada ...what connects people together is a story
  68. 68. All kinds of stories... SCRIPTED (simple rules and checklists) CC-BY The-Vikkodamus via Flickr CC-BY-SA seeminglee via Flickr IMPROVISED (guidelines and principles) ANALYSED (complicated algorithms) ADAPTED (complex patterns) PREDICTABLE UNPREDICTABLE
  69. 69. “All the world’s a stage”… Stories underpin every action…
  70. 70. Stories are fractal… …each story contains stories within stories CC-BY-NC-SA gjshepherd via Flickr
  71. 71. Stories within stories, everywhere…
  72. 72. …but to make this work... we’ll need a different approach to our architecture - a more story-oriented approach…
  73. 73. Technology CC-BY-SA xdxd_vs_xdxd via Flickr Process People The usual architecture view
  74. 74. Stage CC-BY-SA xdxd_vs_xdxd via Flickr Scene Actor ActorStage Stage Stage A narrative-oriented view Scene Scene Stage
  75. 75. So how to explore this with execs and others?
  76. 76. Short answer: Back to the toy-box!
  77. 77. http://www.pollocks-coventgarden.co.uk/index.php/pantomime-theatre-with-cinderella.html
  78. 78. http://www.pollocks-coventgarden.co.uk/index.php/pantomime-theatre-with-cinderella.html
  79. 79. …the architect as hero?
  80. 80. Let’s use a visual cheat-sheet to help us… - you could call it a Canvas, if you like…
  81. 81. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene actor / agent “Actor, scene, stage...”
  82. 82. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene actor / agent “Actor, scene, stage...”
  83. 83. Who are your actors? – everyone! Machines too can be actors (‘agents’) - though remember that your users are people, not machines!
  84. 84. …who are the actors?
  85. 85. …and also, why these actors?
  86. 86. …what changes if we change actor?
  87. 87. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene actor / agent / extras “Actor, scene, stage...”
  88. 88. Extras are kind of ‘active scenery’… - they’re not part of the story as such, but the scene won’t work well without them…
  89. 89. …scene without extras…
  90. 90. …what do extras add to the scene?
  91. 91. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene actor / agent “Actor, scene, stage...”
  92. 92. Each segment of a story is a scene… - each scene should have a distinct begin, middle, end and outcome…
  93. 93. …what’s the story in the scene?
  94. 94. Process as story Tom Graves, The Enterprise As Story, Tetradian, 2012 “Each traverse through a business-process is a self-contained story with its own actors, actions and events”
  95. 95. Scenes in the story Process-story as identifiable scenes, with begin, middle, end
  96. 96. Remember the screenwriters’ mantra: Show, don’t tell - each line of action must drive the story onward
  97. 97. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene / props actor / agent “Actor, scene, stage...”
  98. 98. The role of props: Each item has a place in the story, and drives the story onward (In a business context, another term for ‘prop’ is ‘asset’)
  99. 99. …what props do we need?
  100. 100. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene actor / agent “Actor, scene, stage...”
  101. 101. Scenery provides a backdrop for the story… - if we change the scenery or the lighting, we may change the ‘feel’ or the sense of the whole story…
  102. 102. …what difference with scenery?
  103. 103. …what difference with scenery?
  104. 104. …what difference with lighting?
  105. 105. Staging the story: infrastructure, systems etc as the stage Setting the mood: how does stage-set itself drive story forward? People have feelings: how does stage-set support the mood we need? Framing the action: in what ways does frame itself constrain the story?
  106. 106. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene actor / agent “Actor, scene, stage...”
  107. 107. Framing the stage: What do people see that surrounds the stage? What support is there for other senses? - sound, scent, texture, taste?
  108. 108. http://www.pollocks-coventgarden.co.uk/index.php/pantomime-theatre-with-cinderella.html
  109. 109. …what music should play? – to what effect?
  110. 110. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene actor / agent “Actor, scene, stage...”
  111. 111. ‘Backstage’: the invisible infrastructure that supports the story… …what state is that infrastructure in, behind the curtain?
  112. 112. Visible and invisible …what state is that infrastructure in, behind the curtain? CC-BY Princess Theatre via Flickr
  113. 113. …what state is that infrastructure in, behind the curtain? CC-BY-SA LanSmash via Flickr
  114. 114. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene actor / agent “Actor, scene, stage...”
  115. 115. The audience observe the story - they are not in the story... …that’s an important distinction!
  116. 116. …who are the audience?
  117. 117. …what are audience expectations?
  118. 118. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene actor / agent “Actor, scene, stage...”
  119. 119. We need management to guide: running (operation) of the story changing the story overall purpose of the story
  120. 120. …who manages the theatre?
  121. 121. How will you promote your identity? How will others find your story? Who would you want (or not-want) as clientele? How will you keep it busy? How will you keep it running?
  122. 122. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene actor / agent “Actor, scene, stage...”
  123. 123. What risks exist beyond the theatre? - activities of anticlients? - changes in social context? - what else? And also: what opportunities exist out there?
  124. 124. …who is an anticlient for theatre?
  125. 125. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date Version theatre-context theatre management stage / setting front-of-stage backstage audience scene / props actor / agent / extras “Actor, scene, stage...”
  126. 126. http://www.pollocks-coventgarden.co.uk/index.php/pantomime-theatre-with-cinderella.html
  127. 127. In short… …we must pay attention to the story as a whole! - not just the easy bits… Context, context, context…
  128. 128. “The world* is made of stories” • The enterprise is a story – an overarching theme • Enterprise as an ongoing story of relations between people – the actors of the story • Enterprise-story comprised of many smaller stories – the scenes or story-lines (aka ‘processes’) • Enterprise-story takes place in a setting – the stage and its context, location, props etc • Stories thrive on tension, conflict and uncertainty – whereas machines generally don’t… *‘the world’ including – perhaps especially – the business-world…
  129. 129. Though Švejk again reminds us... © Josef Lada ...where and how we tell stories will matter too!
  130. 130. It’s easier to engage people in exploring perspectives of the architecture if they can have fun whilst they’re doing it! The real punchline for this story:
  131. 131. Thank you!
  132. 132. Contact: Tom Graves Company: Tetradian Consulting Email: tom@tetradian.com Twitter: @tetradian ( http://twitter.com/tetradian ) Weblog: http://weblog.tetradian.com Slidedecks: http://www.slideshare.net/tetradian Publications: http://tetradianbooks.com and http://leanpub.com/u/tetradian Books: • The enterprise as story: the role of narrative in enterprise- architecture (2012) • Mapping the enterprise: modelling the enterprise as services with the Enterprise Canvas (2010) • Everyday enterprise-architecture: sensemaking, strategy, structures and solutions (2010) • Doing enterprise-architecture: process and practice in the real enterprise (2009) Further information: Support our work! – become a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/tetradian

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