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Where do people fit within enterprise architecture?


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Slide-deck from talk at BAEA EA Cafe, Heverlee, Belgium, 26 September 2013

Where do people fit within enterprise-architecture? This slidedeck explores why we need to include people-issues and people-themes in our EA, and gives a set of practical exercises on how to do this, using standard EA methods.

Published in: Technology, Business

Where do people fit within enterprise architecture?

  1. 1. Where do people fit within enterprise-architecture? Tom Graves, Tetradian Consulting BAEA Architect-Café, Heverlee, September 2013 the futures of business
  2. 2. Hi. (yeah, I’m that guy.) (that’s the PR done, now let’s get straight to it?)
  3. 3. How many people here work for an enterprise that consists only of information? Question…
  4. 4. If you answered ‘I do!’ you’ve just cancelled your own job… (a gentle hint…)
  5. 5. If there’s more to an enterprise than only information… then why does anyone assume that enterprise-architecture is only about IT? In which case…
  6. 6. Hmm… CC-BY-ND-SA ores2k via Flickr
  7. 7. …need to think about this one… CC-BY-ND alexsemenzato via Flickr
  8. 8. …or, in this case, right at the bottom… Let’s start this again, right from the top…
  9. 9. Yes, this is EA… (well, part of it, anyway…) CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …and yes, IT-infrastructure is where current EA started (back with frameworks like TOGAF versions 1-7)
  10. 10. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr Yet to understand the IT-infrastructure (TOGAF versions 1-7) we need to understand the applications and the data in those applications… (TOGAF version 8)
  11. 11. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …to understand the applications and data (TOGAF version 8) we need to understand the business use and meaning of the data… (TOGAF version 8.1)
  12. 12. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …to understand the business use of data (TOGAF version 8.1) we need to understand quite a bit more about the business itself… (TOGAF version 9)
  13. 13. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …and to understand the business (TOGAF version 9) we need to understand the broader context in which the business operates… (TOGAF X, we hope?)
  14. 14. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …because, in short, everything in the enterprise depends on everything else (yes – even the IT)
  15. 15. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …which gives us the real reason for enterprise-architecture: things work better when they work together, on purpose. (A lot simpler and more straightforward than most definitions for EA…)
  16. 16. …what is enterprise? Yet to understand enterprise-architecture, we also need to ask…
  17. 17. …enterprise is… In classical economics…
  18. 18. …“the animal-spirits of the entrepreneur” CC-BY-ND archaeon via Flickr
  19. 19. …it’s about people, doing things, together… CC-BY-SA Nationalmuseet via Flickr
  20. 20. …but where are the people in this business-story? CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr
  21. 21. Zachman has a ‘Who’ column… CC-BY-NC-SA knnkanda via Flickr …but it’s mainly about ‘users’…
  22. 22. …who somehow seem to look like this. CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  23. 23. TOGAF does talk about… Graphic: © The Open Group …but again, people here are mostly described as ‘users’… ‘Business Architecture’…
  24. 24. …who somehow seem to look like this. CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  25. 25. In Business Model Canvas… CC-BY Alex Osterwalder / Alan Smith et al …we do have ‘Customer Segments’…
  26. 26. …who can even look like real people… CC-BY Fretro via Flickr
  27. 27. …but inside the organisation… CC-BY Alex Osterwalder / Alan Smith et al …in ‘Key Activities’ and ‘Key Resources’…
  28. 28. …we’re back to ‘users’ again… CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  29. 29. …at best, possibly-human… CC-BY via Flickr
  30. 30. …or maybe not… CC-BY aleutia via Flickr
  31. 31. In any case, a lot more like this… CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  32. 32. …than like this. CC-BY andré luís via Flickr
  33. 33. So how come it’s so different to outside when they’re often the same people? from inside
  34. 34. Hmm… CC-BY-ND-SA ores2k via Flickr
  35. 35. …gonna hafta think about this one… CC-BY-ND alexsemenzato via Flickr
  36. 36. How does your enterprise engage with its people - its employees? (in other words, you!) An EA challenge…
  37. 37. 1. As-is 2. Drivers 3. To-be 4. Roadmap Let’s do this as an everyday-EA exercise:
  38. 38. “What’s the story?” Step 1: As-is
  39. 39. Step 1: As-is What name for the ‘people-service’? What does it do? (people, process, technology) What is its structure? (what, how, where, who, when, why) Create a sketch-diagram of this service and its structures, content and actions
  40. 40. “What’s the story?” Step 2: Drivers
  41. 41. …or, why do we need people, anyway? A question of skill…
  42. 42. A question of skill SCRIPTED (simple rules and checklists) TRAINEE / machine-automation CC-BY The-Vikkodamus via Flickr CC-BY-SA seeminglee via Flickr IMPROVISED (guidelines and principles) MASTER (can’t automate) ANALYSED (complicated algorithms) APPRENTICE / IT-analysis ADAPTED (complex patterns) JOURNEYMAN / pattern-IT
  43. 43. “Let’s do a quick SCAN of this…” Making sense of skills
  44. 44. “Insanity is doing the same thing and expecting different results” (Albert Einstein) ORDER (IT-type rules do work here) Take control! Impose order!
  45. 45. “Insanity is doing the same thing and expecting different results” (Albert Einstein) “Insanity is doing the same thing and expecting the same results” (not Albert Einstein) ORDER (IT-type rules do work here) UNORDER (IT-type rules don’t work here) Order and unorder
  46. 46. A quest for certainty: analysis, algorithms, identicality, efficiency, business-rule engines, executable models, Six Sigma... SAMENESS (IT-systems do work well here) UNIQUENESS (IT-systems don’t work well here) Same and different An acceptance of uncertainty: experiment, patterns, probabilities, ‘design- thinking’, unstructured process...
  47. 47. THEORY What we plan to do, in the expected conditions What we actually do, in the actual conditions PRACTICE Theory and practice
  48. 48. Why we need skills order unorder fail-safe (high-dependency) safe-fail (low-dependency) plan actual Waterfall (‘controlled’ change) Agile (iterative change) analysis (knowable result) experiment (unknowable result)
  49. 49. Machines and people order (rules do work here) unorder (rules don’t work here) fail-safe (high-dependency) safe-fail (low-dependency) analysis (knowable result) experiment (unknowable result) MACHINES PEOPLE Waterfall (‘controlled’ change) Agile (iterative change)
  50. 50. Why skills are needed… What is always going to be uncertain or unique? (‘Messy’ – politics, management, wicked- problems, ‘should’ vs ‘is’, etc.) What will always be ‘messy’? Wherever these occur, you’re going to need human skill…
  51. 51. algorithm guideline rule principle We can’t manage uncertainty or uniqueness without real people making human judgements Why we need people
  52. 52. …why would anyone want to be involved in this enterprise? Motivations…
  53. 53. CC-BY quaziefoto via Flickr “Money makes the world go round”?
  54. 54. Research: money-alone only motivates for ‘robotic’-type (non-skilled) work… CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  55. 55. …for skilled-work, relying on money alone as a motivator can often make things worse. CC-BY andré luís via Flickr
  56. 56. To motivate skills-work… What research shows will work, for individuals: • Autonomy (decision-making at the point of action) • Mastery (development of personal skill) • Purpose (guidelines to assess personal achievement) (Note: in Taylorism, all of the above are explicitly blocked or forbidden) …and at the collective level: • Fairness (socially-determined) • Shared-purpose (vision/values etc ‘greater than self’)
  57. 57. …whose story is this, really? - who can have impact on the enterprise? - what could their impacts be? (direct, or indirect?) Stakeholders…
  58. 58. “An organisation is bounded by rules, roles and responsibilities; an enterprise is bounded by vision, values and commitments.” Tom Graves, Mapping the Enterprise, Tetradian, 2010 Whose enterprise? Organisation aligns with structure, enterprise with story. We need a balance of both for the architecture to work.
  59. 59. A useful guideline: “The enterprise in scope should be three steps larger than the organisation in scope.” Tom Graves, Mapping the Enterprise, Tetradian, 2010 Whose enterprise?
  60. 60. Whose enterprise? If the organisation says it ‘is’ the enterprise, there’s no shared-story - and often, no story at all.
  61. 61. Whose enterprise? The minimum real enterprise is the supply-chain - a story of shared transactions.
  62. 62. Whose enterprise? The organisation and enterprise of the supply-chain take place within a broader organisation of the market.
  63. 63. Whose enterprise? The market itself exists within a context of ‘intangible’ interactions with the broader shared-enterprise story.
  64. 64. A stakeholder in the story is anyone who can wield a sharp-pointed stake in your direction… CC-BY-NC-SA evilpeacock via Flickr Stakeholders in the enterprise (Hint: there are a lot more of them than you might at first think…)
  65. 65. …what story would be a ‘guiding star’, to bring all of these stakeholders together? Vision and values… What works best is a three-part ‘story’ : -shared-concern (‘What’) -action (‘How’) - qualifier (‘Why’)
  66. 66. A myriad of ‘guiding stars’ out there… …choose one that looks right to you. Use it as your guiding-star. Everywhere. Example (TED conferences): “Ideas worth spreading”
  67. 67. Concern: the focus of interest to everyone in the shared-enterprise “Ideas worth spreading” CC-BY UK DFID via Flickr
  68. 68. “Ideas worth spreading” Action: what is being done to or with or about the concern CC-BY US Army Africa via Flickr
  69. 69. “Ideas worth spreading” Qualifier: the emotive driver for action on the concern CC-BY HDTPCAR via Flickr
  70. 70. We can view employees in many ways: - resource - customer - supplier - investor - associate Perspectives…
  71. 71. Perspective: ‘Resource’ Viewing employees as ‘resources’ or ‘production-units’ may well block their access to motivation and skill.
  72. 72. Perspective: Customer Employees are actually the ‘customers’ for the organisation’s ‘people-unit’ services.
  73. 73. Perspective: Supplier Viewing employees as suppliers enables access to skill, but without link to enterprise-story, motivation may be lost.
  74. 74. Perspective: Investor Viewing employees as investors – stakeholders in the shared-story – is useful but often politically-problematic.
  75. 75. Perspective: Associate For an employee-engagement model that works well, most organisations will need some mix of all perspectives.
  76. 76. …names can be important! - a misplaced metaphor can have very unfortunate unintended-consequences… Choose the right name for it…
  77. 77. is when they are slaves… CC-BY-NC-ND littlejoncollection via Flickr Choose metaphors wisely… - the only time that people are ‘assets’ “Our people are our greatest asset!”
  78. 78. Choose metaphors wisely… (probably best not to show a literal image for ‘Human Resources’…) “Human Resources” CC-BY-SA shockinglytasty via Flickr
  79. 79. Step 2: Drivers In what ways do all of these themes - skills, motivation, stakeholders, story, perspectives, name - apply in your enterprise? What do they imply for your ‘as-is’ systems for employee-engagement?
  80. 80. “What’s the story?” Step 3: To-be
  81. 81. The ‘as-is’ tells you what you have… …your choice of how to respond to the drivers tells you what you need… …where do you go from here? Design the ‘to-be’ systems…
  82. 82. Step 3: To-be What name for the ‘people-service’? What does it do? (people, process, technology) What is its structure? (what, how, where, who, when, why) Create a sketch-diagram of this service and its structures, content and actions
  83. 83. “What’s the story?” Step 4: Roadmap
  84. 84. This is where things tend to get really, uh, interesting… From here to there…
  85. 85. Step 4: Roadmap What are the gaps between as-is and to-be? How will you bridge those gaps? What change-projects will you need? Over what time-scales? How will you tackle all the politics of this…?
  86. 86. What do you see differently now? CC-BY Gulltaggen via Flickr
  87. 87. It’s all about the experience! What can you do in your enterprise-architecture to create engagement in the ‘people-side’ of the enterprise?
  88. 88. “What’s the story?” Thank you!
  89. 89. Contact: Tom Graves Company: Tetradian Consulting Email: Twitter: @tetradian ( ) Weblog: Slidedecks: Publications: Books: • The enterprise as story: the role of narrative in enterprise- architecture (2012) • Mapping the enterprise: modelling the enterprise as services with the Enterprise Canvas (2010) • Everyday enterprise-architecture: sensemaking, strategy, structures and solutions (2010) • Doing enterprise-architecture: process and practice in the real enterprise (2009) Further information: