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Whole-enterprise architecture

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Slidedeck from Conferenz IT&EA Conference, Auckland, New Zealand, July 2016; also an extended version of slidedeck for IASA Architecture Summit, Dublin, Ireland, July 2016

This provides an overview of whole-enterprise architecture, and how it differs from and extends classic IT-centric 'enterprise'-architecture. It also provides a practical overview of methods, including three worked-examples.

Published in: Business

Whole-enterprise architecture

  1. 1. How to re-think a business from scratch, with Whole-enterprise architecture Tom Graves, Tetradian Consulting Conferenz IT & Enterprise Architecture Forum Auckland, July 2016
  2. 2. Hi. (That’s all the introductions that we need!)I’m Tom.
  3. 3. Let’s start with the hard question…
  4. 4. What is enterprise-architecture? (yeah, lots of arguments about this…)
  5. 5. Well, yes, IT is a key part of EA… CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr
  6. 6. all the technology that’s around IT, that’s part of EA too… CC-BY-ND garylerude via Flickr
  7. 7. and uses of IT – such as in mobile… CC-BY Highways Agency via Flickr
  8. 8. social (sort-of)… CC-BY artotemsco via Flickr
  9. 9. …or just plain daft… CC-BY jimlegans via Flickr
  10. 10. Yet what is enterprise-architecture, really? …it’s the architecture of the enterprise. (yeah, I know, should be kinda obvious…)
  11. 11. The aim of all architecture… Things work better when they work together, on purpose. (It’s about effectiveness.)
  12. 12. …and enterprise is “a bold endeavour” (Enterprise as “a large commercial organisation” is valid too, but it’s merely one narrow subset of a broader whole.)
  13. 13. So this is EA, too…
  14. 14. …and this…
  15. 15. …and this… CC-BY Igor Schwarzmann via Flickr
  16. 16. “It’s not not about the technology” (Andrew McAfee) (because technology is an enabler that makes the enterprise possible)
  17. 17. …but it’s always about people… CC-BY AllBrazilian via Wikimedia (look! – technology in use!)
  18. 18. Technology is a means Enterprise is the ends Don’t mix them up!
  19. 19. What’s the current situation with our frameworks for enterprise-architecture?
  20. 20. What are we facing in EA? • Cloud and other infrastructure changes • Internet of Things, smart-cities and more • Mobile, wearables, embedded-devices • Technology-disruption, blockchain, materials • Business-disruption, customer-centrism • Spiralling complexity – any scope, any scale
  21. 21. What do we need from frameworks? • Agility, speed, adaptability, simplicity • Consistency of methods, models, frames • Consistency across any scope, any scale • Address all forms of complexity, dynamics etc • Address all aspects of context, including human • Practice-oriented, results-oriented
  22. 22. …but…
  23. 23. What do our EA frameworks give us? • Most are built for classic big-IT only • Cumbersome, inconsistent, needlessly verbose • Most oriented to documentation, not practice • Most require top-down Waterfall-type style • No awareness of people-as-people • No methods (TOGAF is almost the only exception)
  24. 24. • Most are built for classic big-IT only • Cumbersome, inconsistent, needlessly verbose • Most oriented to documentation, not practice • Most require top-down Waterfall-type style • No awareness of people-as-people • No methods (TOGAF is almost the only exception) a great big clunky outdated mess… What do our EA frameworks give us?
  25. 25. WAAAAHHH!!!
  26. 26. …or, more politely, not much use at all.
  27. 27. What do our EA toolsets give us? • Most are built for those big-IT frameworks • Cumbersome, unwieldy, often user-hostile • Most oriented to documentation, not practice • Most assume top-down Waterfall-type style • In most, no awareness of people-as-people • Almost no support for methods (except TOGAF, again)
  28. 28. • Most are built for those big-IT frameworks • Cumbersome, unwieldy, often user-hostile • Most oriented to documentation, not practice • Most assume top-down Waterfall-type style • In most, no awareness of people-as-people • Almost no support for methods (except TOGAF, again) a great big clunky outdated mess… What do our EA toolsets give us?
  29. 29. WAAAAHHH!!!
  30. 30. …or, more politely, not much use at all.
  31. 31. #facepalm… CC-BY xxdr_zombiexx via Flickr …they copied the same mistakes “because we thought that’s what the market would want…”
  32. 32. (image source not known) If we can’t fix this… …our prospects could be somewhat bleak…
  33. 33. What can we do about it?!? CC-BY Editor B via Flickr
  34. 34. Short answer: start again from scratch…
  35. 35. …and this time, do it properly, by starting from a whole-enterprise view.
  36. 36. Don’t panic! – it’s not as hard as it sounds… BY Nate Steiner via Flickr
  37. 37. …it’s using what we already know, going back to first-principles, and applying architecture to architecture itself.
  38. 38. ‘Whole enterprise’ doesn’t need to mean whole-of-enterprise, every time… …instead, it’s more about doing every item of architecture always in context of the whole. (which means we first need to understand that whole…)
  39. 39. Understanding the scope… ‘Classic’ EA covers only the mid-range of abstraction, and often IT-only; for most real-world EA, we need more range – top-down and bottom-up.
  40. 40. Linking architecture and design… Architecture emphasis on Why and Who Design emphasis on How and What / Where / When
  41. 41. Understanding the process… Damien Newman’s ‘the Squiggle’, as a description of the development process
  42. 42. About disciplines of sensemaking… (a favourite book)
  43. 43. “The art of scientific investigation” Preface to WIB Beveridge, The Art of Scientific Investigation, Norton, 1957 “Elaborate apparatus plays an important part in the science of today, but I wonder if we are not inclined to forget that the most important instrument in research is the mind of [the researcher]. https://archive.org/details/artofscientifici00beve “We need to pay more attention] to the technicalities of making the best use of the [mind] … the practice and mental skills - the art - of scientific investigation.”
  44. 44. About structure and story… (another favourite book)
  45. 45. “Two points of view on architecture” • Architecture is an exercise in truth A proper building is responsible to universal knowledge and is wholly honest in the expression of its functions and materials • Architecture is an exercise in narrative Architecture is a vehicle for the telling of stories, a canvas for relaying societal myths, a stage for the theatre of everyday life Chapter 84, in Matthew Frederick, 101 Things I Learned In Architecture School, MIT Press, 2007 - architecture is about structure - architecture is about story
  46. 46. Core concepts for whole-enterprise architecture
  47. 47. From plan to planning, from architecture to architecting… CC-BY – Paul – via Flickr
  48. 48. Enterprise is ecosystem-with-a-purpose… CC-BY Fretro via Flickr
  49. 49. People are always people, themselves… CC-BY andré luís via Flickr
  50. 50. …never as mere projections of the machine… CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  51. 51. Scope is always ‘the everything’… (every context is within a greater context) CC-BY Matt Brown via Flickr …yet we get to choose effective scope-boundary…
  52. 52. Recursive and fractal… CC-BY-NC-SA sharman via Flickr every point describes every other point…
  53. 53. VUCA is everywhere… Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, Ambiguity… CC-BY soldiersmediacenter via Flickr
  54. 54. Architecture is non-functional first Two bridges: The function is the same for both; the non-functionals make the difference CC-BY-ND ernieski via FlickrCC-BY hansfransen via Flickr
  55. 55. There is no ‘The Solution’… CC-BY art_es_anna via Flickr…every context changes dynamically over time…
  56. 56. The Architect’s Mantra… I don’t know… (but I know someone who does, or how to find out) It depends… (and I know what it depends on, and why) Just enough detail… (and I know what the right level of detail would be)
  57. 57. Building a method for whole-enterprise architecture
  58. 58. Start from a linear project-sequence… (Tuckman’s classic Group Dynamics project-lifecycle) Forming (Purpose) 1 2 3 4 5 Performing (Process) Storming (People) Norming (Preparation) Adjourning (Performance)
  59. 59. Bring in the Squiggle… Architecture Design
  60. 60. Map phases onto the Squiggle… Forming (Purpose) Storming (People) Norming (Preparation) Performing (Process) Adjourning (Performance) Architecture Design
  61. 61. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Reframe as Five Elements cycle… Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Start here
  62. 62. What Process (Performing …and make it fully fractal Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning)
  63. 63. Five Elements as strategy-action cycle (overall cycle and relationships need to be kept in balance)
  64. 64. Use the cycle for any scope, any scale, any duration, any depth of detail, nested fractally to any depth… start a new nested iteration anywhere… but always do the whole cycle (because if not, it will probably fail…)
  65. 65. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Fail #1: skip People, go direct to plan… Why Purpose (Forming) How Preparation (Norming) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Storming!
  66. 66. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Fail #2: jump straight into action… Why Purpose (Forming) What Process (Performing) Storming!
  67. 67. There are good reasons why we do the Five Elements cycle always in that sequence… …don’t try to skip over or avoid any of the phases!
  68. 68. More detail on method…
  69. 69. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Phase 1: Purpose (Why) Why Purpose (Forming) • Establish, clarify and refine the business- question for review • Identify applicable scope • Identify underlying vision and values • Identify success-criteria for this iteration
  70. 70. Why vision and values matter… NOW! before certain uncertain (depends on personal connection, personal trust) (depends on sensing, feeling, an often-literal ‘being in touch’) PLAN ACTION edge of action situational awareness (realities – What) commander’s intent (guidance – Why)
  71. 71. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Phase 2: People (Who) Who People (Storming) • Identify who is likely to have knowledge we need • Identify stakeholders for the business-question, and their drivers • Identify and assess any underlying politics…
  72. 72. Who are the stakeholders? A stakeholder is anyone who can wield a sharp-pointed stake in our direction… CC-BY-NC-SA evilpeacock via Flickr (Hint: there are a lot more of them than we might at first think…)
  73. 73. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Phase 3: Preparation (How) How Preparation (Norming) • Identify frames and methods that match criteria for the current business-question • Create context-specific methods for action • Build action-plan
  74. 74. The Start Anywhere principle: everything connects to everything else… everything depends on everything else… - so we can start anywhere and arrive at the same place!
  75. 75. Start from context… Typical visual-checklist: Holomap (part of Enterprise Canvas suite)
  76. 76. Start from services… Typical visual-checklist: Enterprise Canvas (and 20+ related maps in the ECanvas suite)
  77. 77. Start from complexity… Typical visual-checklist: SCAN (with any of its 80+ overlays and crossmaps)
  78. 78. Start from capability and strategy… Typical visual-checklist: SCORE (and other maps in the strategy suite)
  79. 79. Start from structural content… Typical visual-checklist: Service Content (and 20+ related maps in the ECanvas suite)
  80. 80. Start from value-flows… Typical visual-checklist: Service Cycle (and 20+ related maps in the ECanvas suite)
  81. 81. Start from story… Typical visual-checklist: NOTES (with active narrative / story-exploration)
  82. 82. Start from effectiveness… Typical visual-checklist: SEMPER (power-dynamics and ‘ability to do work’)
  83. 83. Start from governance… Typical visual-checklist: Backbone & Edge (dynamics, pace-layering, dependencies and more)
  84. 84. Start from architecture-maturity… Typical visual-checklist: Maturity Model (recommended tactics at varying maturity-stages)
  85. 85. The Start Anywhere principle shows us that ‘where to start’ doesn’t matter all that much.. …what does matter is that we do get started!
  86. 86. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Phase 4: Process (What / Where / When) What Process (Performing) • Enact the action-plan • Engage with stakeholders during the action • Apply governance as needed for the context • Capture architectural information as required
  87. 87. Remember that enterprise-architecture is not solution-architecture… …we need the right toolset for each type of work – but are there any good tools yet for EA?
  88. 88. Solution-architect’s toolset
  89. 89. Enterprise-architect’s toolset
  90. 90. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Phase 5: Performance (Outcome) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) • Assess benefits-realised and value-delivered from the iteration, as per the criteria from Why-phase • Assess lessons-learned from the iteration • Set up for further actions
  91. 91. Don’t skimp on this phase! – it’s how we establish and prove that we’ve delivered real business-value… and how we build competence, expertise and maturity in enterprise-architecture
  92. 92. A real example: transform organisation’s operating-model (duration: five weeks elapsed-time)
  93. 93. Transformation – 0: Setup • Business question: “How can we turn round into profitability?” • Refined to: “How do we enhance operational effectiveness, to become more profitable?” • Initial enquiry-iteration indicates competence for this resides with operations-staff Initial enquiry and setup Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning)
  94. 94. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Transformation – 1: Purpose (Why) Why Purpose (Forming) • Business question: Refine business-processes to enhance effectiveness • Use organisation vision and values as focus- criteria • Success-criteria: Set of feasible / achievable change-projects
  95. 95. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Transformation – 2: People (Who) Who People (Storming) • Put out a call for volunteers who have the likely experience, knowledge and commitment • Engage senior-management in commitment to change • (but warning-signs of equivocation from some senior managers…)
  96. 96. Our volunteers were excited about possibilities… CC-BY-ND alanclarkdesign via Flickr
  97. 97. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Transformation – 3: Preparation (How) How Preparation (Norming) • Run a set of training- workshops with the volunteers, to learn the methods for whole- enterprise architecture and design • Create context-specific methods for action • Build action-plans
  98. 98. Methods for whole-enterprise architecture…
  99. 99. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Transformation – 4: Process (What etc) What Process (Performing) • Volunteers start to enact their action-plans, to develop detailed business-cases • but senior-managers pull back on support for front-line staff • Middle-managers bully their staff about ‘wasting time’… • Volunteers lose their commitment…
  100. 100. Our volunteers lost commitment and hope… CC-BY-ND alanclarkdesign via Flickr
  101. 101. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Transformation – X: Failure…? • With commitment lost, the transformation fades to nothing: – “The greatest danger for an organisation is when its passionate people fall silent” • There is now neither means nor time for needed transformation – so the blame-games start… • Right now, the most likely outcome is that the organisation will have to be sold or closed Storming!
  102. 102. We can’t avoid the politics… POLITICS NO POLITICS! Always be careful of the politics – it’s a crucial aspect of EA, but it can kill business-transformation and more if not done well…
  103. 103. A real example: assess Gartner’s Bimodal-IT (duration: two days) See also: http://weblog.tetradian.com/towards-a-whole-enterprise-architecture-standard-worked-example/
  104. 104. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Bimodal-IT – 1: Purpose (Why) Why Purpose (Forming) • Business-question: “should we adopt Bimodal-IT?” • Refined to “What IT- governance do we need?” • Success-criteria: clarity on the decision, and guidance on what to do next
  105. 105. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Bimodal-IT – 2: People (Who) Who People (Storming) • Stakeholders: operations, developers, service- management; also marketing, PMO etc • IT-vendors, consultancies, trade-journals; also various independent practitioners • Vendors, consultancies etc have vested interests…
  106. 106. Use Holomap to map stakeholders… (Context-specific version of Holomap instantiated from Holomap metatemplate, to summarise the overall broader context for the business’ IT-organisation)
  107. 107. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Bimodal-IT – 3: Preparation (How) How Preparation (Norming) • Literature-review identifies real doubts… • Assessment shows deep- complexity in criteria for governance • Build action-plan to explore ideas on meta-governance
  108. 108. Assess with Backbone & Edge… (Backbone & Edge visual-checklist with crossmap to Simon Wardley’s ‘Pioneers, Settlers, Town-Planners’ model – includes example data- types to illustrate ‘spectrum of governance of governance’) domain CRM product catalogue sales process backbone person- definition business standards standard ops procedures edge CRM experiment sales/ purchase portal Agile product-dev domain ERP facilities mgmt procurement process Agile-type governance of dependencies Waterfall-type governance of dependencies ≈ “Town-Planners” ≈ “Settlers” ≈ “Pioneers” (spectrum of ‘governance of governance’)
  109. 109. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Bimodal-IT – 4: Process (What etc) What Process (Performing) • Internal stakeholders do acknowledge need for governance – including for shadow-IT • Complexities of dynamics etc are a real concern • Many stakeholders openly deride Bimodal-IT as an extreme over-simplification: – “it’s worse than useless…”
  110. 110. Stakeholder views on ‘Bimodal-IT’… “exactly what not to do for viable governance…”
  111. 111. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Bimodal-IT – 5: Performance (Outcome) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) • Benefits-realised: clear advice – some form of meta-governance needed, but not Bimodal-IT • Value-delivered: probable cost- avoidance of c.$10m-$100m • Lessons-learned: beware of big- consultancy hype… • Further actions: explore future needs and criteria for systematic meta-governance
  112. 112. The moral of this tale: beware of ‘solutioneering’! – someone else’s supposed ‘best practice’ is rarely an exact best-practice for our own business-context…
  113. 113. A real example: restructure a design-firm’s business-model (duration: two hours) See also: http://weblog.tetradian.com/2015/11/30/using-score-to-reframe-the-business-model/
  114. 114. “Where do we start?”, he said…
  115. 115. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Business-model: Why (Purpose) Why Purpose (Forming) • Refine the business- question to “Finding more and better clients” • Key value: “Design-work that I like doing” • Success-criterion: a viable business-model
  116. 116. Another view of the Squiggle… Architecture DesignConcept Visuals
  117. 117. Initial idea-sketches…
  118. 118. Full concept-sketch… https://www.behance.net/gallery/34644071/Lotus-2016-Geneva-Motor-Show-concept
  119. 119. Preliminary model… https://www.behance.net/gallery/34644071/Lotus-2016-Geneva-Motor-Show-concept
  120. 120. Fully-rendered model… https://www.behance.net/gallery/34644071/Lotus-2016-Geneva-Motor-Show-concept
  121. 121. Fully-rendered model…
  122. 122. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Business-model: Who (People) Who People (Storming) • Assess feedback from clients and other contacts • Review of own implicit ‘A/B tests’ on portfolio- sites such as Behance.net • Look inside oneself for inner knowing…
  123. 123. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Business-model: How (Preparation) How Preparation (Norming) • Need for a simple precursor to Business Model Canvas • Use SCORE frame for capability/strategy mapping as precursor – http://weblog.tetradian.com/2013/ 06/29/checking-the-score/ • Build action-plan
  124. 124. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date VersionSCORE strengths Strengths / Services / Support (existing capabilities and resources, potential for synergies) challenges Challenges / Capabilities-needed (‘weaknesses’ indicate needed capabilities and resources) options Options / Opportunities and risks (opportunity is also risk, risk is also opportunity) responses Responses / Returns / Rewards (probable or emergent consequences of action or inaction) effectiveness default: efficient, reliable, elegant, appropriate, integrated focus-question
  125. 125. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Business-model: What etc (Process) What Process (Performing) • Enact the action-plan: Use SCORE frame to explore the context, opportunities, challenges etc • “SWOT is just bits - SCORE is a path, connected, adaptable” • Continue iterating, to collect Just Enough Detail…
  126. 126. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0). To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/Tetradian www.tetradian.com Project By Date VersionSCORE strengths Strengths / Services / Support (existing capabilities and resources, potential for synergies) challenges Challenges / Capabilities-needed (‘weaknesses’ indicate needed capabilities and resources) options Options / Opportunities and risks (opportunity is also risk, risk is also opportunity) responses Responses / Returns / Rewards (probable or emergent consequences of action or inaction) effectiveness default: efficient, reliable, elegant, appropriate, integrated “Finding more and better clients” not enough income; not enough work I like good at 3D modelling need more expensive software? I like doing research are clients interested in research – I assume not… jobs with research in them have often gained me new work research is important to me I’m good at textures, ‘realness’ is there a market for ‘realness’? A/B test shows there is a market for ‘realness’ ‘realness’ is important to me not many people do what I do real business-opportunity for concepts/visuals with research and ‘realness’ my current software is enough next task: clarify details of new business-model! JC3DVIS business-model Tetradian
  127. 127. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Business-model: Outcome (Performance) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) • Benefits-realised: Clear preparation and content for Business Model Canvas • Lessons-learned: “Stuff I’d thought was of no value turns out to be the opposite – things like research, and realness” • Set up for further actions
  128. 128. “Portraying the realness of things…”
  129. 129. Revised business-activity model… “some people just want concept-sketches, others want full visuals, but some clients do want both…”
  130. 130. How architecture really works… “When we started, I wanted a [predefined] framework, but this has given me far more, helped me to think. It’s a lot more exciting, to be honest.” “What was useful was you set off sparks of thought that got me connecting the dots.” (And when we do it right, architecture can indeed be exciting!)
  131. 131. Your real example: EA in 5 minutes
  132. 132. Remember the Architect’s Mantra… I don’t know… (but I know someone who does, or how to find out) It depends… (and I know what it depends on, and why) Just enough detail… (and I know what the right level of detail would be)
  133. 133. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Phase 1: Why (Purpose) Why Purpose (Forming) • Establish, clarify and refine the business- question for review • Identify applicable scope • Identify underlying vision and values • Identify success-criteria for this iteration
  134. 134. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Phase 2: Who (People) Who People (Storming) • Identify who is likely to have knowledge we need • Identify stakeholders for the business-question, and their drivers • Identify and assess any underlying politics…
  135. 135. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Phase 3: How (Preparation) How Preparation (Norming) • Identify frames and methods that match criteria for the current business-question • Create context-specific methods for action • Build action-plan
  136. 136. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Phase 4: What / Where / When (Process) What Process (Performing) • Enact the action-plan • Engage with stakeholders during the action • Apply governance as needed for the context • Capture architectural information as required
  137. 137. Why Purpose (Forming) Who People (Storming) How Preparation (Norming) What Process (Performing) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) Phase 5: Outcome (Performance) Outcome Performance (Adjourning) • Assess benefits-realised and value-delivered from the iteration, as per the criteria from Why-phase • Assess lessons-learned from the iteration • Set up for further actions
  138. 138. What do we learn from this? (Quick comments, anyone?)
  139. 139. Wrapping up…
  140. 140. Summary • Whole-enterprise architecture aims to create effectiveness, always in context of the whole • Methods and frames are consistent everywhere, – consistent at every scope, scale and duration – consistent pattern: Why, Who, How, What, Outcomes • Address all aspects of context, including human • Address all forms of complexity, dynamics etc • Always oriented to real-world practice and results
  141. 141. Thank you!
  142. 142. Contact: Tom Graves Company: Tetradian Consulting Email: info@tetradian.com Twitter: @tetradian ( http://twitter.com/tetradian ) Weblog: http://weblog.tetradian.com Slidedecks: http://www.slideshare.net/tetradian Publications: http://tetradianbooks.com Books: • Real enterprise architecture: Beyond IT to the whole enterprise (2008) • Bridging the silos: Enterprise architecture for IT architects (2008) • Power and response-ability – the human side of systems (2003/2008) • SEMPER and SCORE: Enhancing enterprise effectiveness (2008) • The service-oriented enterprise: Enterprise architecture and viable services (2009) • Doing enterprise-architecture: process and practice in the real enterprise (2009) • Everyday enterprise-architecture: sensemaking, strategy, structures and solutions (2010) • Mapping the enterprise: modelling the enterprise as services with the Enterprise Canvas (2010) • The enterprise as story: the role of narrative in enterprise-architecture (2012) Further information:

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