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The Enterprise Is The Story

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Keynote from Australasian Enterprise Architecture Conference, Sydney, 19 October 2015

http://enterprisearchitectureconference.com.au/

What is it that makes an enterprise into an enterprise? The answer is a story…

Most current approaches to enterprise-architecture start from technology – which works well enough if you are only working on the technology itself. But as enterprise-architecture expands outward into the business, or we need to work on ‘digital transformation’ where people and their needs necessarily come to the fore, a technology centred approach starts to show its limitations.

This lively session introduces a complementary, more people-oriented approach to enterprise-architecture, built around a concept of ‘the enterprise as story’. We’ll explore:
• what story is, in the context for enterprise-architecture
• how story acts as a unifying theme for the architecture
• how to identify and develop the enterprise-story
• how story underlies enterprise values and principles
• how story provides guidance and governance for information-architecture, technology-architecture, digital-transformation and service-design

After this session, you’ll see your architecture with new eyes – open to new possibilities and new ways to engage with all of your stakeholders in the broader business. Share and Enjoy!

Published in: Business

The Enterprise Is The Story

  1. 1. The enterprise is the story Tom Graves, Tetradian Consulting Australasian Enterprise Architecture Conference Sydney, 19 October 2015
  2. 2. Hi. I’m Tom Graves. (enterprise-architect, business-anarchist, confusionist, nuisance, that kind of stuff…)
  3. 3. “What’s the story?”Why enterprise- architecture?
  4. 4. What is enterprise-architecture? (lots of arguments about this…)
  5. 5. …it’s the architecture of the enterprise. What is enterprise-architecture? (yeah, I know, kinda obvious, really…)
  6. 6. …why enterprise-architecture? Perhaps more usefully… (what’s the point? why bother?)
  7. 7. “Enterprise architecture is done to build better enterprises, not merely better IT systems.” One useful suggestion… (Pallab Saha: ePragati) [Andhra Pradesh State Enterprise Architecture]
  8. 8. …it’s Not A Good Idea… Why architecture? “the purpose of the system is [expressed in] what it does” Without architecture as anchor, what we’d get is a random mix of POSIWID:
  9. 9. Yes, this is EA… (well, part of it, anyway…) CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …and yes, IT-infrastructure is where current EA started (back with frameworks like TOGAF versions 1-7)
  10. 10. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr Yet to understand the IT-infrastructure (TOGAF versions 1-7) we need to understand the applications and the data in those applications… (TOGAF version 8)
  11. 11. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …to understand the applications and data (TOGAF version 8) we need to understand the business use and meaning of the data… (TOGAF version 8.1)
  12. 12. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …to understand the business use of data (TOGAF version 8.1) we need to understand quite a bit more about the business itself… (TOGAF version 9)
  13. 13. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …and to understand the business (TOGAF version 9) we need to understand the broader context in which the business operates… (TOGAF X, we hope?)
  14. 14. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …because, in short, everything in the enterprise depends on everything else (yes – even the IT)
  15. 15. CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr …which gives us the real reason for enterprise-architecture: things work better when they work together, on purpose. (kinda straightforward, yes?)
  16. 16. …what is enterprise? Yet to understand enterprise-architecture, we also need to ask…
  17. 17. …enterprise is… In classical economics…
  18. 18. …“a bold endeavour …the animal-spirits of the entrepreneur” CC-BY-ND archaeon via Flickr
  19. 19. …it’s about people, doing things, together… CC-BY-SA Nationalmuseet via Flickr
  20. 20. …but where are the people in the usual EA story? CC-BY-SA MysteryBee via Flickr
  21. 21. Hmm… CC-BY-ND-SA ores2k via Flickr
  22. 22. Zachman has a ‘Who’ column… CC-BY-NC-SA knnkanda via Flickr …but it’s mainly about ‘users’…
  23. 23. …who somehow seem to look like this. CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  24. 24. TOGAF does talk about… Graphic: © The Open Group …but again, people here are mostly described as ‘users’… ‘Business Architecture’…
  25. 25. …who somehow seem to look like this. CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  26. 26. In Business Model Canvas… CC-BY Alex Osterwalder / Alan Smith et al …we do have ‘Customer Segments’…
  27. 27. …who can even look like real people… CC-BY Fretro via Flickr
  28. 28. …but inside the organisation… CC-BY Alex Osterwalder / Alan Smith et al …in ‘Key Activities’ and ‘Key Resources’…
  29. 29. …we’re back to ‘users’ again… CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  30. 30. …at best, possibly-human… CC-BY Vlima.com via Flickr
  31. 31. …or maybe not… CC-BY aleutia via Flickr
  32. 32. In any case, a lot more like this… CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  33. 33. …than like this. CC-BY andré luís via Flickr
  34. 34. So how come it’s so different to outside when they’re often the same people? from inside
  35. 35. Hmm… CC-BY-ND-SA ores2k via Flickr
  36. 36. …gonna hafta think about this… CC-BY-ND alexsemenzato via Flickr
  37. 37. “What’s the story?” What’s the story?
  38. 38. (a favourite book)
  39. 39. “Two points of view on architecture” • Architecture is an exercise in truth A proper building is responsible to universal knowledge and is wholly honest in the expression of its functions and materials • Architecture is an exercise in narrative Architecture is a vehicle for the telling of stories, a canvas for relaying societal myths, a stage for the theatre of everyday life Chapter 84, in Matthew Frederick, 101 Things I Learned In Architecture School, MIT Press, 2007
  40. 40. • Architecture is an exercise in truth A proper building is responsible to universal knowledge and is wholly honest in the expression of its functions and materials • Architecture is an exercise in narrative Architecture is a vehicle for the telling of stories, a canvas for relaying societal myths, a stage for the theatre of everyday life The TL;DR version... - architecture is about structure - architecture is about story
  41. 41. Current EA emphasises structure... So, here’s a structure...
  42. 42. CC-BY Avodrocc via Flickr It’s called the Sambadromo...
  43. 43. CC-BY Avodrocc via Flickr Which, on its own, doesn’t really tell us anything... That’s the problem with structure. To make sense of a structure, we need the story...
  44. 44. CC-BY Boban021 via Flickr ...here, the story of Carnaval.
  45. 45. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr For this city, a huge shared-story...
  46. 46. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr Full of colour, sound, spectacle...
  47. 47. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr ...and occasional extremes...
  48. 48. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr But it’s more about exuberance, and pride...
  49. 49. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr The young(er)...
  50. 50. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr The old(er)...
  51. 51. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr The whole community...
  52. 52. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr Yet when the party’s over, and it’s time to head home…
  53. 53. CC-BY otubo via Flickr Someone must be there to clean up... - because that’s part of the story too.
  54. 54. CC-BY jorgeBRAZIL via Flickr Process, assets, data, locations.... - all the usual structure-stuff... ...all those necessary details of organisation.
  55. 55. CC-BY Avodrocc via Flickr Organisation focusses on structure
  56. 56. CC-BY Boban021 via Flickr yet the enterprise is the story.
  57. 57. The structure happens because of the story.
  58. 58. Structures may be re-used for other stories, but the structure itself is not the story.
  59. 59. CC-BY SheilaTostes via Flickr A key task of enterprise-architecture is to remember and design for that fact, Architecture is about structure. Architecture is also about story. We need both, to make it all happen. maintaining the balance between structure and story.
  60. 60. “What’s the story?” Who’s in the story?
  61. 61. Whose architecture? Some of the ‘cast’ - stakeholders - in the Carnaval story.
  62. 62. “An architecture describes structure to support a shared-story.” Whose architecture? Organisation aligns with structure, enterprise with story. We need a balance of both for the architecture to work. Tom Graves, The Enterprise As Story, Tetradian, 2012
  63. 63. “We create an architecture for an organisation, but about an enterprise.” Tom Graves, Mapping the Enterprise, Tetradian, 2010 Whose architecture? Organisation aligns with structure, enterprise with story. We need a balance of both for the architecture to work.
  64. 64. “An organisation is bounded by rules, roles and responsibilities; an enterprise is bounded by vision, values and commitments.” Tom Graves, Mapping the Enterprise, Tetradian, 2010 Whose architecture? Organisation aligns with structure, enterprise with story. We need a balance of both for the architecture to work.
  65. 65. A useful guideline: “The enterprise in scope should be three steps larger than the organisation in scope.” Tom Graves, Mapping the Enterprise, Tetradian, 2010 Whose architecture?
  66. 66. Whose story? If the organisation says it ‘is’ the enterprise, there’s no shared-story - and often, no story at all.
  67. 67. Whose story? The minimum real enterprise is the supply-chain - a story of shared transactions.
  68. 68. Whose story? The organisation and enterprise of the supply-chain take place within a broader organisation of the market.
  69. 69. Whose story? The market itself exists within a context of ‘intangible’ interactions with the broader shared-enterprise story.
  70. 70. A stakeholder in the story is anyone who can wield a sharp-pointed stake in your direction… CC-BY-NC-SA evilpeacock via Flickr Stakeholders in the enterprise (Hint: there are a lot more of them than you might at first think…)
  71. 71. “Customers do not appear in our processes... ...we appear in their experiences.” Chris Potts, recrEAtion, Technics, 2010 Whose story? We must create the architecture around the shared-story - not solely around our organisation’s structures.
  72. 72. “What’s the story?” A vision for the story
  73. 73. …what story would be a ‘guiding star’, to bring all of these stakeholders together? Vision and values… What works best is a three-part ‘story’: -shared-concern (‘What’) -action (‘How’) - qualifier (‘Why’)
  74. 74. A myriad of ‘guiding stars’ out there… …choose one that looks right to you. Use it as your guiding-star. Everywhere. Example (TED conferences): “Ideas worth spreading”
  75. 75. Concern: the focus of interest to everyone in the shared-enterprise “Ideas worth spreading” CC-BY UK DFID via Flickr
  76. 76. “Ideas worth spreading” Action: what is being done to or with or about the concern CC-BY US Army Africa via Flickr
  77. 77. “Ideas worth spreading” Qualifier: the emotive driver for action on the concern CC-BY HDTPCAR via Flickr
  78. 78. concern – action – qualifier? So, what is the vision for Carnaval? To be honest, I don’t know…
  79. 79. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr but I can see it’s about joy, exuberance, and pride...
  80. 80. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr for the young(er)...
  81. 81. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr for the old(er)...
  82. 82. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr for the whole community...
  83. 83. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr that it involves the whole city...
  84. 84. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr …with some limits to its extremes…
  85. 85. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr as a party for everyone…
  86. 86. CC-BY jorgeBRAZIL via Flickr And that those who clean up afterward (because that’s also part of the story)…
  87. 87. CC-BY sfmission via Flickr would have been in the party too.
  88. 88. Supporting it all, there’s structure…
  89. 89. CC-BY otubo via Flickr and anything else it may need…
  90. 90. CC-BY Boban021 via Flickr The vision enacted as story.
  91. 91. …the enterprise as the story. The vision guides the enterprise…
  92. 92. …it’s Not A Good Idea… Warning: “the purpose of the system is [expressed in] what it does” Without shared-vision as anchor, what we’d get is a random mix of POSIWID:
  93. 93. “What’s the story?”Whose enterprise is it, anyway?
  94. 94. CC-BY Boban021 via Flickr Who owns Carnaval?
  95. 95. Whose enterprise? All of these are stakeholders in the enterprise of Carnaval.
  96. 96. Whose enterprise? • We choose to align with an enterprise • We do not possess that enterprise (if anything, it possesses us...) • We have our own business-values, but those must uphold the enterprise-values • Note: values are not necessarily monetary (for Carnaval, a monetary focus may destroy enterprise-values of pride and community)
  97. 97. Whose enterprise? Stakeholders and their respective business-drivers.
  98. 98. Whose enterprise? • Each player is in relation with all other players (the relation may be indirect, but it always exists) • Players whose values align most closely with the enterprise-values should take the lead • Anti-clients may share same enterprise-vision (but disagree with us on how it should be achieved) • “All complex systems have parasites” [Cory Doctorow] (grey-economy is parasitic to Carnaval)
  99. 99. “What’s the story?” Tracing the storyline
  100. 100. “Process is the use of structure (the organisation view) Plot is the unfolding of story (the enterprise view)” Tom Graves, The Enterprise As Story, Tetradian, 2012 Process and plot
  101. 101. “Each traverse through a business-process is a self-contained story with its own actors, actions and events” Tom Graves, The Enterprise As Story, Tetradian, 2012 Process as story
  102. 102. The story-cycle (adapted from classic Group Dynamics project-lifecycle and VPEC-T framework) (Start here)
  103. 103. Where’s the story? Tom Graves, The Enterprise As Story, Tetradian, 2012 “Story is everywhere in enterprise-architecture (once you know where to look)”
  104. 104. CC-BY AllBrazilian via Wikimedia process-volume... (look! – technology in use!)
  105. 105. capability- development...
  106. 106. CC-BY jorgeBRAZIL via Flickr business-scenario...
  107. 107. CC-BY ~ggvic~ via Flickr use-case...
  108. 108. CC-BY fairfaxcounty via Flickr resource-management...
  109. 109. CC-BY Jack Zalium via Flickr transaction...
  110. 110. CC-BY quaziefoto via Flickr exchange-protocol...
  111. 111. CC-BY Alicia Nijdam via Flickr governance...
  112. 112. CC-BY-SA adriagarcia via Flickr system-overload...
  113. 113. CC-BY rodrigofranca via Flickr standards... and risks...
  114. 114. CC-BY jorgeBRAZIL via Flickr customer-experience...
  115. 115. CC-BY elbragon via Flickr ...customer-journey?
  116. 116. “Customers do not appear in our processes... ...we appear in their stories.” paraphrase from Chris Potts, recrEAtion, Technics, 2010 And remember... Our organisation acts within the scope of the enterprise: think broader-enterprise first - outside-in, not inside-out.
  117. 117. “What’s the story?” What kind of story?
  118. 118. Four types of stories • Single-shot: enterprise delimited by one project with a clear ‘character-arc’ or change • Sequel: re-uses a previous enterprise, but often without any new character-arc • Series: different stories within the same ‘world’ bounded by the enterprise • Serial: continuing stories within a ‘world’ (Most enterprise-stories work best as series or serial.)
  119. 119. The strategy-cycle (overall cycle and relationships need to be kept in balance)
  120. 120. The market-cycle (transactions depend on (reaffirmed) reputation and trust)
  121. 121. The story-cycle (Start here)
  122. 122. The market-cycle (transactions depend on (reaffirmed) reputation and trust) boundary of ‘market’ in conventional business-models ?? ?? ?? ??
  123. 123. ‘Quick-money’ failure-cycle (incomplete short-cut after transaction-profit slowly erodes trust / respect, breaks continuity of market-cycle)
  124. 124. “What’s the story?” Staging the story
  125. 125. Technology CC-BY-SA xdxd_vs_xdxd via Flickr Process People
  126. 126. Stage CC-BY-SA xdxd_vs_xdxd via Flickr Scene Actor ActorStage Stage Stage Stage Stage Scene Scene
  127. 127. “The world is made of stories” • The enterprise itself is a story –an overarching theme • Enterprise as ongoing story of relations between people – the actors of the story • Enterprise-story comprised of smaller stories – the scenes or story-lines (aka ‘processes’) • Enterprise-story takes place in a setting – the stage and its context (technology), location, props (artefacts) etc • Stories thrive on conflict, tension and uncertainty – in contrast to machines, which generally don’t…
  128. 128. Scenes in the story Split story into identifiable scenes, with begin, middle, end CC-BY TheArches via Flickr
  129. 129. Scenes in the story Process-story as identifiable scenes, with begin, middle, end
  130. 130. Show, don’t tell Each line of action drives the story forward CC-BY TheArches via Flickr
  131. 131. Show, don’t tell Each line of action drives the story forward CC-BY-ND Kecko via Flickr
  132. 132. The role of props Each item has its place, and drives the story onward CC-BY TheArches via Flickr
  133. 133. Each item has its place, and drives the story onward CC-BY-ND Kecko via Flickr The role of props
  134. 134. Maintain the mood Computers may not have feelings, but people do: how does the whole EA support the mood we need? CC-BY-ND alanclarkdesign via Flickr
  135. 135. Stories of change
  136. 136. Simple changes have roadmaps like city streets… …that story of change is quite easy to describe and explain… …mapped out in terms of (time)-horizons and simple cross- dependencies
  137. 137. Large-scale change is more like setting out to explore an uncharted ocean… …it needs a different kind of planning… …a different kind of story…
  138. 138. A real example Major business- transformation project (c.5 years, US$100mil) Model developed by and provided courtesy of Ondrej Gálik
  139. 139. The ‘burning land’…
  140. 140. Essentials for the journey… Platform for change: tools, systems, processes, models, records, funds, resources People for change: skills, experience, teamwork, commitment; tools for sensemaking, decisions, governance Guidance for change: maps of the known (as-is) and ideal (to-be); rules, principles, navigation, ‘guiding-star’
  141. 141. Out to sea…
  142. 142. Arriving in the new land…
  143. 143. “What’s the story?” Describing the story
  144. 144. CC-BY Avodrocc via Flickr Most current EA toolsets are for design of static structures...
  145. 145. CC-BY Boban021 via Flickr ...yet we also need our tools to support the story.
  146. 146. “A challenge to vendors of EA toolsets: we need stronger support for story within our EA tools: images, audio, video and more.” Tom Graves, The Enterprise As Story, Tetradian, 2012 Supporting the story
  147. 147. From structure to story (Published variants of Business Model Canvas) Alex Osterwalder / Alan Smith and others (cc) 2012
  148. 148. From structure to story (Published variants of Business Model Canvas) Alex Osterwalder / Alan Smith and others (cc) 2012
  149. 149. From structure to story (Published variants of Business Model Canvas) Alex Osterwalder / Alan Smith and others (cc) 2012
  150. 150. From structure to story “Business Model Canvas In 2 Minutes” (YouTube: http://youtu.be/QoAOzMTLP5s ) Alex Osterwalder / Alan Smith / businessmodeltv and others (cc) 2012
  151. 151. Often excellent on structure...
  152. 152. Solution-architect’s toolset
  153. 153. ...but where’s the story?
  154. 154. – pen and paper …which might explain why the most-used EA tools are: – whiteboard – just plain talking with people, sharing stories
  155. 155. CC-BY-SA MattHurst via Flickr Enterprise-architect’s toolset
  156. 156. we need better toolsets As enterprise-architects, for better stories!
  157. 157. “What’s the story?” A coda to this story…
  158. 158. CC-BY Amanda M Hatfield via Flickr A gentle warning…
  159. 159. CC-BY-NC-ND Chris Blakely via Flickr literally, ‘the god out of the machine’…
  160. 160. CC-BY-NC-ND datmater via Flickr …do you see the person first, or the machine?
  161. 161. CC-BY-NC Drew Shannon via Flickr …do you see the person first, or the machine?
  162. 162. “it’s not not about the technology” – Andrew McAfee Sure, the technology is an important ‘enabler’…
  163. 163. it’s about the enterprise Yet it should never be about technology itself… – about people and their enterprise
  164. 164. “Enterprise architecture is done to build better enterprises, not merely better IT systems.” Remember that earlier suggestion… (Pallab Saha: ePragati) [Andhra Pradesh State Enterprise Architecture]
  165. 165. Guard against that tendency to worship the machine… CC-BY burnaway via Flickr
  166. 166. …lest we ourselves become machines…CC-BY-ND tburns via Flickr
  167. 167. Our ‘users’ aren’t mere extensions of the machine… CC-BY justin pickard via Flickr
  168. 168. …they’re people… CC-BY-SA Nationalmuseet via Flickr
  169. 169. …people like us. CC-BY andré luís via Flickr
  170. 170. Stage. Actors. The architecture of the enterprise. Scenes.
  171. 171. …people are the story. People are the enterprise… The enterprise as story.
  172. 172. What’s the story?So wherever we are in architecture, we also need to be able to describe... wherever we see structure, CC-BY SheilaTostes via Flickr
  173. 173. “What’s the story?”“What’s the story?”“What’s the story for your enterprise?”
  174. 174. What’s the story?Enterprise architecture… CC-BY SheilaTostes via Flickr enterprise as story…
  175. 175. Contact: Tom Graves Company: Tetradian Consulting Email: tom@tetradian.com Twitter: @tetradian ( http://twitter.com/tetradian ) Weblog: http://weblog.tetradian.com Slidedecks: http://www.slideshare.net/tetradian Publications: http://tetradianbooks.com Books: • The enterprise as story: the role of narrative in enterprise- architecture (2012) • Mapping the enterprise: modelling the enterprise as services with the Enterprise Canvas (2010) • Everyday enterprise-architecture: sensemaking, strategy, structures and solutions (2010) • Doing enterprise-architecture: process and practice in the real enterprise (2009) Further information:

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