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Enterprise-architecture beyond IT (AE-Rio 2011)


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Enterprise-architecture is often portrayed as being primarily about IT. This presentation shows that the IT-architecture is just one part of a much broader scope that EA must address if it is to be relevant to business.

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Enterprise-architecture beyond IT (AE-Rio 2011)

  1. 1. Enterprise Architecture beyond IT Tom Graves , Tetradian Consulting AE Rio, April 2011 / 16 Apr 2011 (c) Tom Graves / Tetradian 2011
  2. 2. Why ‘ beyond IT ’ ? <ul><li>EA often starts with IT infrastructure , but... </li></ul><ul><li>IT tech-architecture depends on applications </li></ul><ul><li>Applications-architecture depends on data </li></ul><ul><li>Data-architecture depends on business-info need </li></ul><ul><li>Information-architecture depends on business </li></ul><ul><li>Business-architecture depends on enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise-architecture defines the context </li></ul><ul><li>An enterprise-architecture must have whole-of-enterprise scope – it’s not just detail-level IT! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Scope of enterprise-architecture (complete EA includes many other intersecting ‘ architectures ’ – security, process, brand, organisation etc)
  4. 4. Getting to grips with the enterprise Customers don ’ t appear in our business-processes - we appear in their experiences (credit: Chris Potts)
  5. 5. Organisation and enterprise <ul><li>We create an architecture for an organisation, but about an enterprise: </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise : a social structure defined by vision, values, mutual commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation : a legal structure defined by rules, roles, responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>The enterprise is – provides motivation , WHY </li></ul><ul><li>The organisation does – provides action , HOW </li></ul><ul><li>They’re fundamentally different – don ’ t mix them up! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Organisation as ‘ the enterprise ’ <ul><li>From a business perspective, this is the effective scope of TOGAF ’ s ‘ business architecture ’ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Business-model as ‘ the enterprise ’ <ul><li>Typical business-model or supply-chain view (complete supply-chain should extend beyond this) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Market as ‘ the enterprise ’ <ul><li>Overall market includes actors who do not yet have active transactions with us, or have other transactions </li></ul>
  9. 9. The real scope of ‘ the enterprise ’ <ul><li>The overall enterprise has many actors who may have only ‘ intangible ’ transactions / interactions with us (yet can have major impacts on our business) </li></ul>
  10. 10. The market-cycle <ul><li>transactions depend on (reaffirmed) reputation and trust </li></ul><ul><li>– loss of trust creates anti-clients! </li></ul>boundary of ‘market’ in conventional business-models
  11. 11. A classic anti-client incident <ul><li>‘ United Breaks Guitars’ </li></ul><ul><li>Real business impacts for United Airlines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct cost (PR, media etc) in excess of $20m? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contributed to short-term hit of c.$180m on share-value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long-term damage to brand, reputation etc incalculable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social-media gives anti-clients great leverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>complaints can now spread faster, and wider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(but with care, so can stories of customer-satisfaction) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Building the balance … and why that balance is so important
  13. 13. Generic structure of organisations (adapted from classic Group Dynamics project-lifecycle)
  14. 14. Cycles of structural dependency (dynamic links adapted from VPEC-T framework)
  15. 15. Strategy, tactics, operations (overall cycle and relationships need to be in balance)
  16. 16. The ‘ quick-money ’ failure-cycle (common source of ‘unexpected’ failure – focus only on immediate profit, with classic “ last year +10% ” used as a substitute for strategy)
  17. 17. Completions and the market-cycle <ul><li>Production-focus, market-focus, enterprise-focus? </li></ul>Focus only on Production Focus on Market and its transactions
  18. 18. Serving the vision ...or, service-oriented architecture for the whole enterprise
  19. 19. Everything serves the vision <ul><li>The vision describes the shared aims of the entire enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>We observe and learn from what we achieve in the real world </li></ul><ul><li>Everything in the enterprise is a service towards the vision (a literal ‘ service-oriented architecture’) </li></ul>
  20. 20. The structure of vision <ul><li>Vision is the overall anchor for everything </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ vision ’ in the ISO9000 sense – not ‘ marketing puff ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vision-descriptor has distinct 3-part structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focus [noun]: context or things of concern to everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>action [verb]: what is to be done to or in the focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>qualifier [adjective]: why this is important to everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: ‘ ideas worth spreading ’ (TED conferences) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ ideas ’ (focus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ worth ’ (qualifier) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ spreading ’ (action) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Components may be in any order, but all must be present </li></ul>
  21. 21. All services have same structure <ul><li>Service exists at intersection of value and supply-chain </li></ul><ul><li>Service creates value towards the vision of the enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions / flows before , during , after main transaction </li></ul>
  22. 22. Complete Enterprise Canvas frame <ul><li>Each link represents a conversation relevant to enterprise-architecture! </li></ul>(yes, I know it looks like Robbie-the-Robot, but that’s just how it came out...)
  23. 23. Cross-links to market value-cycle <ul><li>Many interactions with extended-enterprise relate to Value-Proposition only – Purpose, Values, People, Policies </li></ul>
  24. 24. Summary <ul><li>Enterprise-architecture is architecture of the whole enterprise – not solely the enterprise-IT </li></ul><ul><li>Most frameworks focus only on IT-architecture, but can be adapted to work at whole-enterprise scale and scope </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing everything as services provides consistency across all enterprise scope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Enterprise Canvas ’ model provides a means to link different models in different layers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enterprise culture is the real key to enterprise-architecture </li></ul>
  25. 25. Obrigado! Many thanks!
  26. 26. Further detail: books by Tom Graves <ul><li>Doing Enterprise Architecture : process and practice in the real enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday Enterprise Architecture : sensemaking, strategy, structures and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping the Enterprise : modelling the enterprise as services with the Enterprise Canvas </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging the Silos : enterprise architecture for IT-architects </li></ul><ul><li>The Service Oriented Enterprise : enterprise architecture and viable systems </li></ul><ul><li>Real Enterprise Architecture : beyond IT to the whole enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>SEMPER and SCORE : enhancing enterprise effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Power and Response-ability : the human side of systems </li></ul><ul><li>( see for details ) </li></ul>16 Apr 2011 (c) Tom Graves / Tetradian 2010