Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Invisible Armies: information, purpose and the real enterprise

3,824 views

Published on

Presentation for Integrated-EA 2015 (enterprise-architecture conference, London, March 2015)

Every enterprise-architecture needs to address not only the visible elements of the context, but also its invisible elements - information, connections between people, and purpose.

(The focus of the conference is enterprise-architecture for the Defence context - hence the decidedly military flavour of the overall slidedeck and some of the visual-jokes. There's also some new work on complexity and the SCAN sensemaking/decision-making framework, around the importance and interdependence of 'commander's intent' and real-world information-flows.)

Published in: Business

Invisible Armies: information, purpose and the real enterprise

  1. 1. Invisible armies information, purpose and the real enterprise Tom Graves, Tetradian Consulting Integrated EA Conference, London, March 2015 the futures of business
  2. 2. This one’s about a ladder… CC-BY-NC-ND shannonmary via Flickr
  3. 3. a spiky thing… CC-BY-NC-ND jhardy1 via Flickr
  4. 4. and invisible armies CC-BY-NC-SA anne-ostsee via Flickr (you can’t see them, but they’re always there…)
  5. 5. but first, two words…
  6. 6. auftragstaktik! fingerspitzengefühl!
  7. 7. I’m not swearing at you – honest!
  8. 8. they’re German military terms… CC-BY-SA ooocha via Flickr (probably typified by this guy?)
  9. 9. “auftragstaktik” translates as “order-tactic” or, more loosely, “commander’s intent”
  10. 10. “fingerspitzengefühl” translates as “finger-tip feeling” or, more loosely, “everything at the finger-tips”
  11. 11. …both of which we need in business and elsewhere
  12. 12. So how does this work, in an architectural sense?
  13. 13. An army has lots of things… CC-BY armymaterielcommand via Flickr
  14. 14. lots of stuff… CC-BY-NC 20bdephotographer via Flickr
  15. 15. always more stuff… CC-BY armymaterielcommand via Flickr
  16. 16. and people too – the visible army CC-BY-NC marine_corps via Flickr
  17. 17. but all that stuff can’t stand up on its own – it needs more to support it CC-BY-NC-SA 39825511@N08 via Flickr
  18. 18. Information is part of this, of course…
  19. 19. (“Every business is an information business”)
  20. 20. audible information… (source not known)
  21. 21. visible information… CC-BY-ND funfilledgeorgie via Flickr
  22. 22. not-so-visible information… CC-BY-NC-SA owenhurrell via Flickr
  23. 23. invisible information CC-BY-SA timo_w2s via Flickr (an invisible army of information)
  24. 24. made visible (sort-of…) CC-BY-NC-ND US DoD via Flickr
  25. 25. That invisible army of information may create new possibilities for ‘secret weapons’…
  26. 26. German secret weapon, WWII CC-BY-SA ooocha via Flickr (actually not this guy…)
  27. 27. (…US attache in Cairo using a broken codebook) (via Keith Lockstone)
  28. 28. British secret weapon, WWII (source not known)
  29. 29. British secret weapon, WWII Medmenham Collection
  30. 30. US not-secret weapon, WWII CC-BY-ND caveman_92223 via Flickr
  31. 31. US secret weapon, WWII CC-BY-SA ooocha via Flickr
  32. 32. British secret weapon, today CC-BY-NC defenceimages via Flickr
  33. 33. different senses, different data… CC-BY-NC defenceimages via Flickr
  34. 34. but there’s also misinformation…
  35. 35. “…someone had blunder’d” order from Lord Raglan to Lord Lucan, Balaklava, 25 October 1854
  36. 36. “…someone had blunder’d” William Simpson, ‘A Detailed Depiction of the Charge of the Light Brigade’, from ‘The Seat of War in the East, 1855-6’
  37. 37. and deliberate disinformation…
  38. 38. How do you fake one of these? (source not known) (Operation Taxable, D-Day, 6 June 1944)
  39. 39. Answer: use a handful of these... CC-BY-SA nick_1301 via Wikipedia
  40. 40. a bunch of these… CC-BY-ND caveman_92223 via Flickr
  41. 41. and these… (source not known) with some of these.
  42. 42. Information is important, yet stuff plus information is still not enough to stand on its own…
  43. 43. (two nails) CC-BY-NC-SA w-tommerdich via Flickr
  44. 44. We need four dimensions CC-BY-NC-ND jhardy1 via Flickr
  45. 45. Four dimensions: • stuff • information • relations • purpose
  46. 46. Four dimensions: • stuff (content) • information (context) • relations (connections) • purpose (clarity)
  47. 47. Four dimensions as tetradian Purpose (clarity / 'Business') Relations (connection / 'People') Stuff (content / 'Technology') Information (context / 'Knowledge') Integration (rotate between the views)
  48. 48. Tetradian in tangible form CC-BY-NC Tom Graves
  49. 49. To support our visible stuff and invisible information, we also need those other invisible armies… relations and purpose
  50. 50. Relations provide connection…
  51. 51. between team members… CC-BY-SA westmidlandspolice via Flickr
  52. 52. relations and roles within a unit… CC-BY-NC-ND defenceimages via Flickr
  53. 53. relations between ranks…
  54. 54. relations between units…
  55. 55. relations between peoples…
  56. 56. across language-barriers… CC-BY thenationalguard via Flickr
  57. 57. relations with others… CC-BY-NC defenceimages via Flickr
  58. 58. connections… (source not known)
  59. 59. connections… CC-BY soldiersmediacenter via Flickr
  60. 60. connections CC-BY expertinfantry via Flickr
  61. 61. but there’s also misrelation and/or disrelation…
  62. 62. otherwise known as a mess… CC-BY Diego Fernández via Wikimedia
  63. 63. Purpose provides clarity… (and clarity provides purpose)
  64. 64. Clarity: “I know why I’m here” CC-BY-NC defenceimages via Flickr
  65. 65. each unit creates its own story…
  66. 66. each has its own identity… CC-BY Tom Graves
  67. 67. its connection with place.… CC-BY Tom Graves
  68. 68. rituals are important… CC-BY-NC defenceimages via Flickr “Queen’s Birthday”
  69. 69. xxx CC-BY stirlingcouncil via Flickr
  70. 70. Loss of connection to purpose will destroy morale…
  71. 71. Celebrated for a century… via Vectis Auctions
  72. 72. what happens to morale… Public-domain via Wikimedia
  73. 73. …when a unit is disbanded? Public-domain via Wikimedia
  74. 74. What happens when units are merged? “they’re all technical folks, don’t worry, they’ll get on like a house on fire!”
  75. 75. they did… CC-BY-NC-SA nrwilson via Flickr
  76. 76. be careful about what you change, how, where and why – don’t mess with morale!
  77. 77. To make it work, link all the dimensions together…
  78. 78. Tetradian in tangible form CC-BY-NC Tom Graves
  79. 79. Tetradian in tangible form CC-BY-NC Tom Graves
  80. 80. Tetradian in tangible form CC-BY-NC Tom Graves
  81. 81. Tetradian in tangible form CC-BY-NC Tom Graves
  82. 82. Every business has all manner of things, or physical, tangible ‘stuff’
  83. 83. Every business is also an information-business
  84. 84. Every business is also an information-business Every business is also a relations-business
  85. 85. Every business is also an information-business Every business is also a relations-business Every business is also a purpose-business
  86. 86. Every business is also an information-business Every business is also a relations-business Every business is also a purpose-business All of these, together, always
  87. 87. Information is important, but it’s not the only thing that’s important…
  88. 88. beware of info-centrism!
  89. 89. None of this is really new… Fougasse, 1940
  90. 90. security was everyone’s responsibility… Fougasse, 1940
  91. 91. security is everyone’s responsibility… MoD ‘Think Before You…’ (‘Careless Talk Costs Lives’) campaign, 2011
  92. 92. mail maintains morale… Imperial War Museum via Google
  93. 93. work with the real world… CC-BY-NC marine_corps via Flickr
  94. 94. honour your secret weapons… CC-BY-NC marine_corps via Flickr
  95. 95. everything depends on everything else – visible and invisible
  96. 96. Which is where we come back to…
  97. 97. auftragstaktik! fingerspitzengefühl!
  98. 98. and that ladder… CC-BY-NC-ND shannonmary via Flickr
  99. 99. Remember SCAN, from last year? NOW! certain uncertain ‘Simple’ (ENACT) ‘Not-known’ (EXPLORE) edge of panic ‘Complicated’ (EVALUATE) ‘Ambiguous’ (EXPERIMENT) edge of uncertainty edge of innovation edge of action before
  100. 100. with all those feedback-loops? NOW! certain uncertain ‘Simple’ (ENACT) ‘Not-known’ (EXPLORE) edge of panic fears options ‘Complicated’ (EVALUATE) ‘Ambiguous’ (EXPERIMENT) edge of uncertainty questions answers news principles edge of innovationrealitie s rules edge of action before
  101. 101. Let’s use this in another way NOW! certain uncertain PRACTICE THEORY fingerspitzengefühl (realities) auftragstaktik (guidance) edge of action before PLAN ACTION
  102. 102. Plan versus action NOW! before certain uncertain PLAN What we plan to do, in the expected conditions What we actually do, in the actual conditions ACTION edge of action
  103. 103. Responsibilities: plan and action NOW! before certain uncertain PLAN: Officers? ACTION: Other Ranks?
  104. 104. “No plan survives first contact with the enemy”
  105. 105. Feedback for plan and action NOW! before certain uncertain PLAN ACTION (we need feedback loops between plan and action) fingerspitzengefühl (realities) auftragstaktik (guidance) (depends on personal connection, personal trust) (depends on sensing, feeling, an often-literal ‘being in touch’)
  106. 106. John Boyd’s ‘OODA’ (The same type of feedback-loop, but with more-specific detail)
  107. 107. Without connection to purpose, what we get is POSIWID – ‘the purpose of the system is what it does’ which could be anything… Why auftragstaktik?
  108. 108. Without connection to reality, decisions are made on assumptions and guesswork Not A Good Idea… Why fingerspitzengefühl?
  109. 109. keep things real – don’t mistake ‘policy-based evidence’ for evidence-based policy…
  110. 110. information about a thing is not the thing itself information about a connection is not the connection itself information about purpose is not the purpose itself
  111. 111. information is only information – don’t confuse it with anything else!
  112. 112. One person, one layer… NOW! before certain uncertain PLAN ACTION observation / interpretation intent / decision
  113. 113. Two layers… NOW! before certain uncertain PLAN ACTION observation / interpretation intent / decision concrete world abstract world
  114. 114. Three layers… NOW! before certain uncertain PLAN ACTION concrete world abstract world observation / interpretation intent / decision intent / decision observation / interpretation information world (abstract + concrete)
  115. 115. Four layers… NOW! before certain uncertain PLAN ACTION concrete world abstract world information world (abstract) information world (concrete) observation / interpretation intent / decision intent / decision observation / interpretation observation / interpretation intent / decision
  116. 116. Five layers… NOW! before certain uncertain PLAN ACTION concrete world abstract world information world (abstract) information world (concrete) information world (disconnect…) observation / interpretation intent / decision intent / decision observation / interpretation observation / interpretation intent / decision observation / interpretation intent / decision
  117. 117. Army has seventeen layers! NOW! before certain uncertain PLAN ACTION concrete world abstract world information only? (disconnect…) observation / interpretation intent / decision intent / decision observation / interpretation observation / interpretation intent / decision observation / interpretation intent / decision
  118. 118. How can a mid-rank officer stuck behind a desk in a city know and understand what’s happening and what needs to happen out in the field?
  119. 119. – as architects, it’s our task to identify the support that’s needed to make that happen… not just ‘possible to happen’, but as probable as possible for it to happen
  120. 120. Which information? In an ecology, the crucial interactions will often be visible only at the edges…
  121. 121. Information as unified whole… NOW! certain uncertain before (structured data embedded within unstructured nuances)
  122. 122. …with the crusts cut off… NOW! certain uncertain before (unstructured nuances) (structured data) (unstructured nuances)
  123. 123. …and split apart NOW! certain uncertain before fundamental disconnect chaotic mess? simplistic delusion? (structured data without context) (unstructured nuances without continuity)
  124. 124. Big-data = big-noise how will your architecture make it easier to find the signal?
  125. 125. Nuances matter! how will your architecture support and maintain – the human connection? – the subtle details?
  126. 126. “In an insurgency, every action and inaction by any soldier will be interpreted as a political statement” Nuances matter!
  127. 127. If nuances are carried through… NOW! certain uncertain before PLAN ACTION fingerspitzengefühl (realities) auftragstaktik (guidance) political awareness intended impacts
  128. 128. information heard… CC-BY isafmedia via Flickr
  129. 129. creates connections… CC-BY usasoc via Flickr
  130. 130. and shared-purpose… CC-BY-NC marine_corps via Flickr
  131. 131. …which is what we want and need. But…
  132. 132. without those nuances… NOW! before certain uncertain PLAN POSIWID muddled chaos… ‘inexplicable’ political impacts (garbled simplification) (garbled simplification) (imaginary world of sanitised info) fingerspitzengefühl (realities) auftragstaktik (guidance)
  133. 133. key information may be missed… order from Lord Raglan to Lord Lucan, Balaklava, 25 October 1854
  134. 134. intended meanings may be misunderstood… (source not known)
  135. 135. things get bent out of shape… (source not known)
  136. 136. then you’re everyone’s target… CC-BY Diego Fernández via Wikimedia
  137. 137. “In an insurgency, every action and inaction by any soldier will be interpreted as a political statement”
  138. 138. Nuances matter! How will your architecture support and maintain – the human connection? – the subtle details?
  139. 139. Relations + purpose Hierarchy of command may not be as simple as it might seem…
  140. 140. ‘Command and control’ NOW! before certain uncertain PLAN ACTION (top-down, one-way only, feedback is ‘insubordination’) “command and control”
  141. 141. Vice-Admiral Sir George Tryon (1832-1893) Public-domain via Wikipedia “a sometimes overbearing personality…” “when officially engaged, a very brusque and dictatorial man”
  142. 142. HMS Victoria, 1893 Public-domain: James Alexander Collot via Wikipedia “Even then, they still waited for permission to take the action which might have prevented the collision”
  143. 143. insuperordination can be as much of a risk as insubordination…
  144. 144. Same risks of ‘over-control’ still exist today, though often in new forms – the flood of new information does not always help in this…
  145. 145. The camera sees all… CC-BY soldiersmediacenter via Flickr
  146. 146. real-time information back to base… CC-BY-NC defenceimages via Flickr
  147. 147. …but who decides, on the ground? CC-BY soldiersmediacenter via Flickr
  148. 148. “auftragstaktik” does not translate as “every move you make, we’ll micromanage you”
  149. 149. “Even then, they still waited for permission to take the action which might have prevented the collision…” Micromanagement can be lethal!
  150. 150. but also… does not translate as “ignore HQ, I’ll Do It My Way” “fingerspitzengefühl” (aka ‘Agile’?)
  151. 151. So, architecturally, what can we do about this?
  152. 152. one answer: cake CC-BY-SA navasurfaceforces via Flickr
  153. 153. “freshly made, freshly baked, personal” CC-BY-NC compacflt via Flickr
  154. 154. Normal: Chain of Command…
  155. 155. During action: Any-to-any…
  156. 156. In hierarchy/flat structure: ranks represent roles and responsibilities everyone is different and equal, both at the same time
  157. 157. an everyday concern… CC-BY-NC slieschke via Flickr
  158. 158. use it to bond relations as a crew CC-BY-SA navalsurfaceforces via Flickr
  159. 159. relations and purpose are crucial to making this work – don’t leave them out of the architecture!
  160. 160. Affordances Thinking architecturally about capabilities may afford support for new uses, tasks, options
  161. 161. ‘Defence of the Realm’ increasingly implies a much broader meaning…
  162. 162. From warfighting… CC-BY-NC-ND defenceimages via Flickr
  163. 163. to peacekeeping CC-BY-NC-ND un_photo via Flickr
  164. 164. disaster-recovery… CC-BY civmilcoe via Flickr
  165. 165. and disaster-relief… CC-BY dvids via Flickr
  166. 166. to response against pandemics CC-BY-NC-ND dfids via Flickr
  167. 167. or all of these roles, together CC-BY-NC-ND un_photo via Flickr
  168. 168. Affordances arise from noticing the real world if sometimes not what we’d usually expect…
  169. 169. affordances can be unexpected… CC-BY-NC-SA 29997533@N03 via Flickr
  170. 170. To wrap this up…
  171. 171. if we’re not careful about our architecture, it could, through its own structure, create…
  172. 172. a certain lack of awareness… CC-BY-NC-ND robnwatkins via Flickr
  173. 173. instead, we need to ensure that our architecture will support all elements and affordances for the context, including…
  174. 174. visible things visible action invisible information invisible connections invisible purpose
  175. 175. invisible information CC-BY isafmedia via Flickr
  176. 176. invisible connections CC-BY usasoc via Flickr
  177. 177. invisible shared-purpose CC-BY-NC marine_corps via Flickr
  178. 178. Use your architecture to support all of your invisible armies
  179. 179. “What’s the story?” Thank you!
  180. 180. Contact: Tom Graves Company: Tetradian Consulting Email: tom@tetradian.com Twitter: @tetradian ( http://twitter.com/tetradian ) Weblog: http://weblog.tetradian.com Slidedecks: http://www.slideshare.net/tetradian Publications: http://tetradianbooks.com Books: • The enterprise as story: the role of narrative in enterprise- architecture (2012) • Mapping the enterprise: modelling the enterprise as services with the Enterprise Canvas (2010) • Everyday enterprise-architecture: sensemaking, strategy, structures and solutions (2010) • Doing enterprise-architecture: process and practice in the real enterprise (2009) Further information:

×