Chapter 21 powerpt

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Chapter 21 powerpt

  1. 2. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Early vs. Modern Civil Rights Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Searching for an Identity and Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders, Activities, and Organizations </li></ul>
  2. 3. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Plessy v Ferguson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1896 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ 14 th amendment does not prevent private organization from discriminating” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legalized Jim Crow Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregated accommodations were legal provided they were equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ separate but equal” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Booker T. Washington </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not for social equality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder of Tuskegee Institution in 1891 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus – industrial education/learn a skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocational jobs to improve economic situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>W.E.B. Du Bois </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ph.D. from Harvard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founder of the NAACP in 1910 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grew out of the Niagara Movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never except inferiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use courts to fight discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected Washington’s ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Talented Tenth” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Marcus Garvey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black nationalist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Negro Improvement Association in 1914 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stressed racial separation from white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black only businesses etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged a return to Africa </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>In the 1950s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 million African Americans living in the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 living in the south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jim Crows laws ruled their lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal segregation in schools, parks, transportation, hospitals etc </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring about change through peaceful measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by James Farmers in 1942 </li></ul></ul>James Farmer 1920-1999
  8. 9. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May 17, 1954 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court unanimously decided segregation violates the 14 th amendment </li></ul></ul>Brown Family
  9. 10. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Chief Justice Earl Warren </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Education plays a vital role in training children for citizenship, employment and leisure-time activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Separating black children from others solely on the basis of race “generates a feeling of inferiority that may affect them in a way unlikely to be undone” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. therefore, separate educational facilities are inherently unequal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed Plessy v Ferguson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thurgood Marshall argues the case </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Emmett Till </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed in 1955 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings the problem to the attention of the nation </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-1956 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosa Parks “mother of the civil rights movement” refused to leave seat for a white man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrested for violating the city’s segregation law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Year long boycott of the bus company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calls by pastors of church to lead resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City agreed to change the law to allow black to sit anywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event produced a leader, an organization, technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King Jr. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SCLC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non- violent civil disobedience </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Integration at Little Rock 1957 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orval Faubus, gov. of Arkansas, mobilized the National Guard to prevent nine African-Americans students from attending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct challenge to federal authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eisenhower sent in army (paratroopers) to restore order and protect the “Little Rock Nine” </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greensboro four </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feb. 1 st Bought items at Woolworth than sat down to order coffee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not served </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>July desegregated lunch counters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 70,000 people participated in sit-in through out the South </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Press they received </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 18. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee (SNCC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grew out of SCLC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders was Robert Moses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>was organized to advance the &quot;sit-in&quot; movement </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Freedom Rides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring of 1961 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNCC members joined with activists from the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a New York-based civil rights organization to encourage the Freedom Rides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placed white and black students on interstate busses to test the new court decision to desegregate waiting rooms and dining facilities at bus stops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In deep South response was violent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attorney General Robert Kennedy assigned federal marshals to protect riders </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Integration of “Ole Miss” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>29 yr old veteran James Meredith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrival touched off riots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly KKK members NOT students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gov Ross Barnett refused to allow to register </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Announced state laws were superior to federal laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pres. Kennedy federalized Miss. National Guard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took 400 Marshals and 3000 troops to enroll him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meredith remained and graduated in 1963 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost 200 lives and 4 million in taxpayer’s $ </li></ul></ul>
  17. 23. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>University of Alabama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vivian Malone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov George Wallace stood in doorway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Guard was federalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wallace walked away </li></ul></ul>
  18. 25. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Birmingham, Alabama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rev. Shuttlesworth asked MLK to come to city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most segregated big city in America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test nonviolence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was a planned non-violent campaign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police Commissioner “Bull” Connor decided to crush the protest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police used fire hoses, police dogs and clubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TV carried scene to the nation </li></ul></ul>
  19. 26. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>MLK arrested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders felt MLK was pushing too hard/too fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response “Letters from Birmingham” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kids march, 1000 arrested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End to segregation in Birmingham </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HUGE victory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kennedy on TV asked Congress to pass a Civil Rights Bill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nation saw racism in the South at its worst </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 27. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>March on Washington (Aug 1963) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To support and pressure Kennedy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250,00 African Americans marched on nation’s capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I have a Dream” </li></ul></ul>
  21. 28. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Civil Rights Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three months later Kennedy was assassinated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill wasn’t close to passing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Congressmen had a filibuster going </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson addressed Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“… couldn’t more eloquently honor Pres. Kennedy’s memory” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed in June 1964 </li></ul></ul>
  22. 29. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Civil Rights Act of 1964 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elections: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited election officials from applying different standards to blacks and whites voting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Accommodations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forbade discrimination in public places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forbade discrimination in government owned or operated facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federally Assisted Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed the government to withhold aid from states involving discrimination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited discriminatory practices by employers, agencies, and labor union </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No discriminatory hiring on basis of race, sex , religion or nationality </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 31. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>24 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed in 1964 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited the use of poll taxes as a requirement for voting in a federal election </li></ul></ul>
  24. 32. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Voting Act of 1965 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A result of Selma, Alabama incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State troops assaulted demonstrators as they marched to the state capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Johnson “We shall over come” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlawed literacy test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal examiners in to register voters where irregularities existed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed 100 years after the Civil War ended </li></ul></ul>
  25. 33. Civil Right Movement <ul><li>Results of Civil Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South would never be the same again </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Served in politics at all level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregation became illegal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended an Era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights campaigns in the South led by peaceful moderates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lets go North! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 34. <ul><li>&quot;Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that. Hate multiplies hate, violence multiplies violence and toughness multiplies toughness in a descending spiral of destruction. The chain reaction of evil………must be broken, or we shall be plunged into the dark abyss of annihilation.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King Jr. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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