How far did black Americans  go in achieving equality in civil rights in the 1950s and 1960s? (Part I)
Focus Task: Voting on Civil Rights <ul><li>Over the next several days you are going to study the main events of the civil ...
The times they are a changing’ <ul><li>1920s & 1930s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vicious race riots & prejudice </li></ul></ul>...
1950s <ul><li>Racism still every day experience, particularly in the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17 states had ‘Jim Crow’ ...
The Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>In a fair country every citizen has equal rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US Constitution g...
Struggle for Equal Education <ul><li>Segregation in schools was legal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools for black children poo...
 
 
Brown v Board of Ed., Topeka, 1954 <ul><li>Many states ignored SC’s 1950 decision </li></ul><ul><li>September 1952: </li><...
 
Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957 <ul><li>Some states complied, others resisted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1957: Arkansas still not i...
 
 
 
Focus Task <ul><li>Imagine that you are a representative in the United Nations and the following question is posed: “How c...
Fin
PSDs on Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>Segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a detrimental effect...
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Usa41 04 A Civil Rights Web

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Usa41 04 A Civil Rights Web

  1. 1. How far did black Americans go in achieving equality in civil rights in the 1950s and 1960s? (Part I)
  2. 2. Focus Task: Voting on Civil Rights <ul><li>Over the next several days you are going to study the main events of the civil rights campaign. You will see that campaigners used a range of methods and tackled a wide range of issues. Make your own copy of this chart and complete it as you work through the chapter. </li></ul>Violent protest Marches & demonstrations Empowering ordinary people Non-violent direct action Court case/legal challenge Score out of 5 & comment Example Method of campaigning
  3. 3. The times they are a changing’ <ul><li>1920s & 1930s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vicious race riots & prejudice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World War II: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant gains, particularly in military (desegregated in 1949), but still far to go </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1950s … </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1950s <ul><li>Racism still every day experience, particularly in the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17 states had ‘Jim Crow’ laws (segregation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Though voting was legal right violence often deterred black Americans (Example: Mississippi saw numerous lynchings, & 5% black voter registration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White police participated in violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White juries acquitted whites of killing blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal & official discrimination in employment & education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White teachers paid 30% more than black teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best universities closed to blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1958: Clemson King, black teacher, committed to mental asylum for applying to University of Mississippi </li></ul></ul>Joan Baez & SNCC Freedom Riders singing the hymn We Shall Overcome ‘ Jim Crow’ states
  5. 5. The Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>In a fair country every citizen has equal rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US Constitution guaranteed it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black citizens were clearly being failed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many people campaigned for equal rights </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful minority opposed to them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed equal rights posed grave danger to their way of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They would fight every inch of the way </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Struggle for Equal Education <ul><li>Segregation in schools was legal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools for black children poorly funded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>N ational A ssociation for the A dvancement of C olored P eople (NAACP) took action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1940s: Hired Thurgood Marshall, black attorney, to argue against segregation in schools, eventually reaching Supreme Court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1950: Supreme Court ruled (decision written by Judge Julius Waring) states must provide ‘equal protection’, did not order desegregation </li></ul></ul>Therlow Snape, a British reggae artist, singing his song, Black or White
  7. 9. Brown v Board of Ed., Topeka, 1954 <ul><li>Many states ignored SC’s 1950 decision </li></ul><ul><li>September 1952: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NAACP sued BoE, Topeka, Kansas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linda Brown walked miles to school & crossed dangerous railroad tracks even though all-white school was a few 100 yards from home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test case to see if SC would continue segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May 1954: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Justice Earl Warren announced for Brown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segregated school inherently unequal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools ordered desegregated ‘with all deliberate speed’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pattern established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NAACP finds a test case to bring to SC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If SC declares a law unconstitutional then states had to take action, according to the Constitution </li></ul></ul>Singing the Blues, 1956 #1 Hit
  8. 11. Little Rock, Arkansas, 1957 <ul><li>Some states complied, others resisted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1957: Arkansas still not integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor Orval Faubus activated state’s national guard to prevent integration of nine black students at Little Rock HS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed he did it to protect the nine students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>President Eisenhower intervenes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordered 101 st Paratroopers to Little Rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faubus backed down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troops remained for six weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aftermath </li></ul><ul><ul><li>> troops withdrew there were no serious racist incidents @ Little Rock HS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faubus gained so much popularity for stance that he was reelected for six terms </li></ul></ul>Bob & Marcia, a UK group, with their 1970 hit Young, Gifted & Black
  9. 15. Focus Task <ul><li>Imagine that you are a representative in the United Nations and the following question is posed: “How can the US justify its position in the Cold War and its goal of winning the hearts and minds of newly independent people of Africa, when several groups in your own country are not equal both de facto (fact) and de jure (law) </li></ul><ul><li>Find a person around you, construct a response to the question from the perspective of a US delegate in 1950 </li></ul>
  10. 16. Fin
  11. 17. PSDs on Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>Segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a detrimental effect upon the colored children. The impact is greater when it has the sanction of the law; for the policy of separating the races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the Negro group. A sense of inferiority affects the motivation to learn. Segregation with the sanction of law, therefore, has a tendency to retard the educational and mental development of Negro children. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court ruling on Brown v BoE, segregation in schools (17th May, 1954) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At a time when we face grave situations abroad because of the hatred that communism bears towards a system of government based on human rights, it would be difficult to exaggerate the harm that is being done to the prestige and influence and indeed to the safety of our nation and the world. Our enemies are gloating over this incident and using it everywhere to misrepresent our whole nation. We are portrayed as a violator of those standards which the peoples of the world united to proclaim in the Charter of the United Nations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Dwight Eisenhower, television broadcast on Little Rock (24th September, 1957) </li></ul></ul>

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