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Ch21 Thecivilrightsmovement


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Civil Rights

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Ch21 Thecivilrightsmovement

  1. 2. Ch. 21: The Civil Rights Movement The Fight for Equality in America
  2. 3. Are all Americans entitled to the same civil rights? Why might some people fight against equal rights?
  3. 4. Taking on Segregation <ul><li>Segregation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Civil Rights Act of 1875 actually outlawed segregation in public facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1883 – act is declared unconstitutional </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. It’s the Law <ul><li>1890s – Laws and court decisions make segregation legal in most areas </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans have few rights </li></ul>
  5. 7. Northern Segregation <ul><li>De facto Segregation – exists by practice and custom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existed in North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harder to eliminate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>De Jure Segregation – by law </li></ul>
  6. 9. Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 <ul><li>Separate but equal did not violate the 14 th amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow laws are passed </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities were not equal – African American facilities inferior </li></ul>
  7. 12. Great Migration <ul><li>African Americans start migrating north in the 20 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still face segregation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 13. Beginning of Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>1. After WWII new job opportunities for African Americans, Latinos, and women </li></ul><ul><li>2. 1 million African Americans served in the military </li></ul><ul><li>3. Rising protests of Jim Crows –racial discrimination prohibited by federal agencies and factories involved in war work </li></ul>
  9. 14. NAACP <ul><li>Challenges segregation in court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequalities in schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thurgood Marshall – head of NAACP lawyers </li></ul></ul>
  10. 15. Thurgood Marshall <ul><li>Becomes first African American appointed to Supreme court, 1967 </li></ul>
  11. 16. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) <ul><li>Supreme court unanimously declares segregation unconstitutional under the 14 th amendment </li></ul><ul><li>States have mixed reactions </li></ul>
  12. 18. Chief Justice Warren <ul><li>“ in the field of public education the doctrine of separate but equal has no place” </li></ul>
  13. 19. Little Rock, AR <ul><li>Governor Faubus – orders the National Guard to turn away “Little Rock Nine” – African American children entering Central High </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower places National Guard under federal control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paratroopers go into AR and allow students to attend class </li></ul></ul>
  14. 22. Montgomery Bus Boycott <ul><li>Rosa Parks refuses to move to back of bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus driver has her arrested </li></ul></ul>
  15. 24. Montgomery Bus Boycott <ul><ul><li>Bus Boycott organized: Martin Luther King elected to lead group </li></ul></ul>
  16. 26. Martin Luther King <ul><li>Great orator, inspires others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes non-violence </li></ul></ul>
  17. 27. Martin Luther King <ul><li>Inspired by teachings of others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus, Henry D. Thoreau, Mohandas Ghandi </li></ul></ul>
  18. 28. <ul><li>Founded Southern Christian Leadership Congress (SCLC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: to use non-violent protests to gain equal rights for African American citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branches set up in different cities </li></ul></ul>
  19. 29. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) <ul><li>Non-violence protest group organized at Shaw University </li></ul><ul><li>African American college students greatly affected by segregation </li></ul>
  20. 31. King’s supporters stage sit-ins <ul><li>Protesters sit at segregated lunch counters and refuse to leave until served </li></ul><ul><li>Televised nationally – coverage shows racism – millions see </li></ul>NPR LINK
  21. 33. Freedom Riders <ul><li>White and Black activists from north who rode south to convince the Kennedy administration to enforce law </li></ul><ul><li>Buses attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy sends U.S. marshals to protect bus riders </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation ban widens </li></ul>
  22. 35. Birmingham <ul><li>Strictly enforced segregation in public life, racial violence in city </li></ul><ul><li>MLK and SCLC go down to help desegregate the city </li></ul>
  23. 36. <ul><li>MLK and marchers are arrested during demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>King writes letter from jail </li></ul>
  24. 37. Children’s Crusade <ul><li>1000 children march in Birmingham </li></ul><ul><li>959 are arrested </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Crusade – police hit them with high pressure hoses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TV cameras capture it all </li></ul></ul>
  25. 39. University of Alabama <ul><li>JFK sends troops to force Gov. Wallace to desegregate university </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demands Congress pass a Civil Rights Bill </li></ul></ul>
  26. 42. Marching to Washington <ul><li>1960’s – 250,000 march to persuade congress to pass a civil rights bill </li></ul><ul><li>MLK makes “I have a dream speech” </li></ul>
  27. 44. 2 weeks later bomb is thrown into a Birmingham church killing 4 young girls
  28. 45. Civil Rights Act of 1964 <ul><li>LBJ signs into law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibits discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All citizens have the right to enter all public facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal Employment Opportunity Commission created </li></ul></ul>
  29. 47. Voting Rights <ul><li>College students, mostly white, volunteer to help register voters </li></ul>
  30. 48. Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party <ul><li>Fannie Lou Hamer – spoke at 1964 Democratic convention </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans wanted more of a voice in democratic party </li></ul>
  31. 49. Selma, AL <ul><li>Voting rights protesters march from Selma to Montgomery </li></ul><ul><li>Violence happens when marchers get to Montgomery </li></ul><ul><li>TV cameras capture all </li></ul>
  32. 53. Voting Rights Act of 1965 <ul><li>Eliminates literacy tests or any other discriminatory practices to keep others from voting </li></ul><ul><li>24 th Amendment – ends poll taxes </li></ul>
  33. 58. Urban Violence <ul><li>Erupts as attempts by activists to end de facto segregation intensifies </li></ul><ul><li>Harlem – one of the worst race riots in history </li></ul>
  34. 62. Malcolm X <ul><li>Member of the Nation of Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White people were the cause of black conditions and black people needed to be separate from white society </li></ul></ul>
  35. 63. Controversial but appeals African American Pride
  36. 65. <ul><li>Splits with Black Muslims over differences </li></ul><ul><li>Makes pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Prays along other members of Orthodox Islam – racial equality </li></ul><ul><li>His views change </li></ul>
  37. 66. February 21, 1965 <ul><li>Shot and killed while giving a speech in Harlem </li></ul>
  38. 68. Black Power Movement <ul><li>Stokely Carmichael – “a call for black people to define their own goals” </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on developing African American pride </li></ul>
  39. 69. Black Panthers <ul><li>Organized in Oakland, CA to fight police brutality in the ghettos </li></ul><ul><li>self sufficiency for African American Communities, employment, good housing, and exemption from military service </li></ul>
  40. 72. <ul><li>Dr. King objected to Black Power movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>would scare white support </li></ul></ul>
  41. 73. 1968 – MLK is killed <ul><li>James Earl Ray fatally shoots MLK as he stood on his hotel balcony </li></ul><ul><li>Worst Urban rioting in U.S. history begins </li></ul>
  42. 77. <ul><li>Robert Kennedy campaigns for president </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urges activists to remember MLK’s stance on violence and his dream of equality </li></ul></ul>
  43. 80. <ul><ul><li>RFK is assassinated by a Jordanian immigrant angry over his support of Israel </li></ul></ul>
  44. 82. Kerner Commision <ul><li>Appointed by LBJ to study causes of urban violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>main cause: White racism </li></ul></ul>
  45. 83. Civil Rights Act of 1968 <ul><li>Ends discrimination in housing </li></ul><ul><li>School segregation had ended – more African Americans finishing high school, attending college, and getting better jobs </li></ul>
  46. 84. Result of Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>African Americans have greater pride in culture </li></ul><ul><li>More African Americans in entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in registered voters – more African American elected officials </li></ul>
  47. 88. Shirley Chisholm <ul><li>Becomes first African American woman in U.S. House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><li>1972 – seeks Democratic presidential nomination </li></ul>
  48. 89. … still a long road <ul><li>Inner cities still faced problems especially with education </li></ul><ul><li>High poverty rates for African Americans </li></ul>
  49. 90. Affirmative Action <ul><li>Program to make a special effort to equalize education and job opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses and schools make efforts to bring more minorities in </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements eased in 1990s due to opposition </li></ul>