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Chapter 31

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Chapter 31

  1. 1. Human Geography of Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica: Migration and Conquest China and India influenced Southeast Asia, while Pacific islanders remained isolated. Eventually, European colonization greatly altered the entire region. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 Southeast Asia SECTION 2 Oceania NEXT SECTION 3 Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica Human Geography of Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica: Migration and Conquest
  3. 3. NEXT Section 1 Southeast Asia • Influenced by China and India, Southeast Asia developed many vibrant, complex cultures. • European colonialism left a legacy that continues to affect the region’s politics and economics.
  4. 4. A Long History of Diversity Nations in the Region • Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar - also the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam Southeast Asia SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . . Early History • China rules northern Vietnam from 111 B.C. to A.D. 393 • India’s Hinduism, Buddhism influence regional religion, art • Early Southeast Asian states don’t have set borders - mandalas—rings of state power around central court - Khmer Empire—Cambodian mandala that lasts from 800s to 1400s
  5. 5. SECTION 1 NEXT Powerful States • From 1300 to 1800 five powerful states exist in Southeast Asia - in today’s Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Java, Malay Peninsula - similar to mandalas, but larger and more complex • Burmese, Vietnamese, Thai, Javanese national identities develop • Urbanization takes place, large cities grow - Malay Peninsula’s Malacca has 100,000 people in early 1500s continued A Long History of Diversity
  6. 6. Colonialism and Its Aftermath European Control • States trade with Arabian, Indian merchants; Islam grows in islands • In 1509, Europeans mostly seek money, not colonies • Europe controls area’s trade, money goes to Europe • By 1900, all of region, except Siam (Thailand), is colonized • Colonies forced to farm commodities: rubber, sugar, rice, tea, coffee • Nationalism unites allies against rulers SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . .
  7. 7. SECTION 1 NEXT Independence • Japan seeks “Asia for Asians,” occupies, exploits region during WWII • After war, states seek independence • Indochina—French colonial Cambodia, Laos, North, South Vietnam - Vietnamese defeat French in 1954, win independence for all Indochina • U.S. becomes involved in Vietnam War (1957-1975) - tries to stop Communist control of South Vietnam - U.S. leaves in 1973, South Vietnam surrenders in 1975 - Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos become Communist continued Colonialism and Its Aftermath
  8. 8. An Uneven Economy Traditional Economies • Agriculture is region’s main income source; rice is chief food crop - Myanmar is heavily forested; produces teak wood • Lack of industry - Vietnam War destroyed factories, roads - war refugees left region, reduced work force - political turmoil in Cambodia, Myanmar blocks growth • Vietnam builds industry, seeks foreign investment and trade SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . .
  9. 9. SECTION 1 NEXT Industry and Finance • Some countries have more highly developed economies - Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand - form economic alliance ASEAN—Association of Southeast Asian Nations - other four Southeast Asian countries join ASEAN after 1994 • Nations don’t industrialize until 1960s - industries: agriculture, textile, clothing, electronic products - Singapore is a finance center continued An Uneven Economy
  10. 10. A Rich Mosaic of Culture Religious Diversity • Includes Buddhism; Catholicism (Philippines); Islam (Indonesia) - other religions are Hinduism and traditional, local beliefs SECTION 1 NEXT Rich Artistic Legacy • Buddhism, Hinduism influence region’s sculpture, architecture - Cambodia’s ancient temple complex of Angkor Wat - Thailand’s Buddhist temples show modern religious architecture • Thailand, Indonesia have traditional costumed story dances
  11. 11. Changing Lifestyles The Villages • Wood houses on stilts protect against floods • In Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Buddhist temple is center of village life • Traditional clothing includes longyi—long, wrapped skirt of Myanmar SECTION 1 NEXT The Cities • Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Singapore are modern business cities • Housing shortage forces migrants into slums
  12. 12. NEXT Section 2 Oceania • Settled in ancient times by migrating Southeast Asians, Oceania developed three cultural regions. • Contact with Europeans and Americans disrupted the islanders’ traditional ways of life.
  13. 13. A History of the Islands Nations in the Region • All, except Nauru, are island groups - Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia - Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa - Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu Oceania SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
  14. 14. SECTION 2 NEXT First Islanders • Prehistoric people come from mainland by land bridges, rafts, canoes - use voyaging canoes to travel as far as Hawaii, Madagascar • Three geographic, cultural regions: - Micronesia—“tiny islands” - Melanesia—“black islands” - Polynesia—“many islands” continued A History of the Islands Continued . . .
  15. 15. SECTION 2 NEXT Contact with the West • Europeans explore Pacific in 1500s • Missionaries try to convert islanders to Christianity in 1800s • Traders seek coconut oil; sailors hunt whales - settlers grow coconuts, coffee, pineapples, sugar on plantations • Westerners replace traditions; local societies decline - Europe, U.S. turn islands into territories, possessions continued A History of the Islands Continued . . .
  16. 16. SECTION 2 Recent History • Fierce WWII battles fought in Pacific between Allies and Japan - after war, U.S. and others use islands to test nuclear weapons • Many islands have gradually moved toward self-rule - 12 nations have become independent since 1962 - foreigners still rule the other islands continued A History of the Islands NEXT
  17. 17. A Traditional Economy Agriculture • In most economies, people work at subsistence activities - a family produces the food, clothing, shelter it needs • High islands’ soil supports crops - bananas, sugar, cocoa, coffee, copra—dried coconut meat • Fishing is major source of income SECTION 2 NEXT Other Economic Activities • Nauru, Papua New Guinea have mining activities • Tourism threatens environment, traditional lives
  18. 18. Culture of the Islands Language and Religion • Very linguistically diverse region includes 1,100 languages - Papua New Guineans speak 823 languages • Christianity is most widespread religion due to missionaries - some islanders practice traditional religions SECTION 2 NEXT The Arts • Arts and crafts are sometimes sold to tourists - baskets and mats woven from palm leaves, carved wooden masks
  19. 19. Island Life Traditional Life • Polynesian villages were led by chiefs; societies were warlike - fishing, farming economies - taro—starchy root that makes poi—a major crop • Micronesians were more peaceful, lived in extended family groups - fishing villages on coasts; farming, hunting, gathering inland SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
  20. 20. SECTION 2 NEXT Recent Change • Few cities, but they’re growing - people move for education, jobs - fast growth means shantytowns, bad sanitation - urban dwellers giving up traditional ways • Modern communication links island groups, connects Oceania to world continued Island Life
  21. 21. NEXT Section 3 Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica • Both Australia and New Zealand were colonized by Europeans and still have a strong European heritage. • Because of its harsh climate Antarctica has no permanent settlements.
  22. 22. History: Distant European Outposts The Original Inhabitants • Aboriginal people migrate to Australia from Asia 40,000 years ago - hunter-gatherers with complex religious beliefs, social structures • New Zealand settled by Maori—migrated from Polynesia 1,000 years ago Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . . Early Explorers • European explorers arrive in 1600s, 1700s - Captain James Cook explores New Zealand (1769), Australia (1770) • Antarctica is discovered in 1820
  23. 23. SECTION 3 NEXT European Settlement • In 1788 Britain colonizes Australia - Sydney founded as a penal colony—a place to send prisoners • Hunters, whalers from U.S., Europe, Australia colonize New Zealand • British fight Australian Aborigines; spread European diseases • With 1840 Treaty of Waitangi Britain controls New Zealand • Gold discoveries in Australia (1851), New Zealand (1861) draw people continued History: Distant European Outposts
  24. 24. Modern Nations Rights and Land Claims • Australian colonies become independent in 1901, New Zealand in 1907 • In 1893, New Zealand is first country to give women the vote • In both countries, native people have less education, more poverty SECTION 3 NEXT Issues • Australian movement to leave British Commonwealth is defeated in 1999 • 1959 Antarctica treaty preserves unsettled continent for research - 18 countries have scientific research stations, 7 claim territory
  25. 25. Economy: Meat, Wool, and Butter Agriculture • New Zealand sells butter, cheese, meat, wool - in 1998, had 15 times more sheep and cattle than people - crops include vegetables, fruit • Australia’s sheep ranching makes it the world’s largest wool exporter SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . .
  26. 26. SECTION 3 NEXT Mining • Australia has diamonds, lead, zinc, opals - also bauxite, coal, copper, gold, iron ore • Deposits are far from cities so mining operations are costly - Australian companies forced to turn to foreign investors - these investors control 1/2 of Australia’s mining industry continued Economy: Meat, Wool, and Butter Continued . . .
  27. 27. SECTION 3 NEXT Manufacturing and Service • Australia doesn’t rely heavily on manufacturing • Major industry in Australia, New Zealand is food-product processing - New Zealand also produces wood, paper products • 60% of Australia’s jobs are in service industries continued Economy: Meat, Wool, and Butter The Economic Future • Both nations want to develop economies less dependent on agriculture - difficult to compete with Asia’s cheaper labor
  28. 28. Distinctive Cultures Australia’s Culture • Most Australians are of British descent - but many immigrate from places like Greece, Italy, Southeast Asia - over 20% are foreign born; 1% are Aboriginal • Christianity is major religion; most people speak English • Ancient Aborigines painted human, animal figures on rock walls • Australian arts include painters like Russell Drysdale, novelists SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . .
  29. 29. SECTION 3 NEXT New Zealand’s Culture • Mostly British, European descent; pakehas is Maori term for whites - 15% of people are descended from Maori • British, Maori cultural mix—English, Maori are official languages - Christianity is main religion • Maori art includes woodcarving, poetic legends • Creative figures include authors Janet Frame, Ngaio Marsh - filmmakers Jane Campion, Peter Jackson continued Distinctive Cultures
  30. 30. Modern Life City and Country • Both countries highly urbanized: 85% of people live in cities, towns - Australia’s large cities have pollution, traffic problems - New Zealand’s cities are quiet, uncrowded, pollution-free • In both countries, ranchers live far from cities SECTION 3 NEXT Recreation • Tennis, rugby, soccer, Australian rules football are popular - New Zealand has skiing, mountain climbing
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