The Demand for civil rights Background <ul><li>In law the Afrian American was promised full citizenship with the right to ...
Failure of the supreme court <ul><li>For many years it did not protect Black people </li></ul><ul><li>1883 descrimination ...
Jim crow laws   <ul><li>1890 to 1960 states passed 400 laws known as Jim Crow laws which legalised segregation and discrim...
Life under Jim Crow   <ul><li>Every black person suffered from small humiliation because of the Jim Crow laws </li></ul><u...
Terrorising black people   <ul><li>Whites used intimidation & terror to control black people. Any who tried to assert heir...
Racial stereotyping   <ul><li>  Whites justified discrimination by saying black people were mentally, culturally and moral...
Poverty and lack of education   <ul><li>Made it difficult for Southern black people to show what they could do </li></ul><...
African Americans own culture  <ul><li>They set up their own churches and business clubs and turned away from white societ...
The role of Black Churches   <ul><li>Black churches, mostly Baptist and Methodist played an important part in black life <...
The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP)   <ul><li>1909 NAACP was set up. It was a multi-ra...
Gradual improvement   <ul><li>WWII President Roosevelt yielded to Black pressure forbade racial discrimination in war indu...
  Why change   <ul><li>Northern states accepted this ruling by 1950 legal segregation had largely disappeared there though...
Beginning of the Civil Rights campaign   <ul><li>  Mid 1950’s campaign begin to win full civil rights for black people </l...
May 1954 Brown Judgement   <ul><li>  NAACP won court cases that forced school districts to observe the ‘separate but equal...
August 1955 The Lynching of Emmett Till   <ul><li>  Racial tension rose in Mississippi after the Brown judgement. The Ku K...
Case Study The Montgomery Bus Boycott Alabama   <ul><li>Typical Southern City, where Jim Crow laws kept the races rigidly ...
Resistance in Montgomery   <ul><li>Some black activists wanted black people to protest at their treatment they included E ...
Rosa Parks   <ul><li>  Quiet 42yr old black woman and active member of NAACP, though educated she could only find a poorly...
5 th  of December Boycott begins   <ul><li>Parks was the respectable unthreatening person the NAACP needed to symbolise bl...
King Moving spoke at the meeting <ul><li>‘ we are here tonight to say to those who have mistreated us so long, that we are...
Whites counter attack using a variety of tactics to break the boycott   <ul><li>Activists including Rosa parks lost their ...
Attacking martin Luther   <ul><li>As leader he was especially targeted </li></ul><ul><li>Spread rumours that he was embezz...
Legal victory   <ul><li>When no compromise was possible NAACP took a case against bus segregation. They won when the Supre...
Why the Montgomery Bus Boycott was important   <ul><li>It undermined the smug southern idea that blacks were happy with th...
End of the civil rights movement <ul><li>1957 School integration in Little Rock Arkansas federal troops sent in to allow 9...
<ul><li>1962 battle at Mississippi state james Meridith first Black student federal courts state he had to be admitted Ken...
1963 Birmingham and the March on Washington   <ul><li>Blacks were excluded from many jobs in Birmingham Alabama, the Ku Kl...
1964 Freedom Summer <ul><li>In Mississippi white supremacists helped by state police shot, beat up or killed anyone who tr...
1965 Selma and the voter registration   <ul><li>Alabama state troopers attacked a peaceful march on Selma, and Black WWII ...
Racial issued in the North   <ul><li>The campaign had focussed on the South and did little for black people in the North <...
Divisions in the movement   <ul><li>  Black power & Black Pride groups concentrated on the ethnic heritage of African-Amer...
Assassination of King   <ul><li>King after Chicago realised that the civil rights were not enough he opposed the Vietnam W...
The results of the Civil rights campaign   <ul><li>For many of those involved the death of King marked the end of the Civi...
<ul><li>In theory schools were no longer segregated, but in practice they continued to be. In cities North and South white...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The demand for civil rights

798 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Spiritual
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
798
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The demand for civil rights

  1. 1. The Demand for civil rights Background <ul><li>In law the Afrian American was promised full citizenship with the right to vote but the federal government left it up to each state to enforce this law. </li></ul><ul><li>White majority find ways to stop black voting </li></ul><ul><li>Voters had to pay a poll tax in cash. Collection coincided with a time of year when poor farmers (black & white) had not yet sold their crops & had no cash </li></ul><ul><li>Voters had to pass a literacy test set by white officials. </li></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan use intimidation. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1900 only 3% of blacks registered to vote across South </li></ul>
  2. 2. Failure of the supreme court <ul><li>For many years it did not protect Black people </li></ul><ul><li>1883 descrimination in private housing made legal </li></ul><ul><li>1893 local government could provide separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites </li></ul><ul><li>These decisions opened the way for racial segregation and poor quality of services given to racial minorities </li></ul>
  3. 3. Jim crow laws <ul><li>1890 to 1960 states passed 400 laws known as Jim Crow laws which legalised segregation and discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Divided schools, cinemas, parks, into whites only and coloureds only areas. The coloured’s part was far from equal to the standard of the whites only. </li></ul><ul><li>  In some places blacks were forbidden to work in the same rooms as whites. This limited the jobs they could get. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws also banned mixed marriages between Europeans and other races = Miscegenation </li></ul><ul><li>South passed 80% of the Jim Crow laws while some Northern and Western states had similar laws often aimed at Chinese or Native American people </li></ul><ul><li>By 1947 only 15 states all in the North did not discriminate in some way against racial minorities </li></ul>
  4. 4. Life under Jim Crow <ul><li>Every black person suffered from small humiliation because of the Jim Crow laws </li></ul><ul><li>The separates but equal movement = black people could order food in a restaurant but had to collect it at the back door and eat it outside </li></ul><ul><li>In Cinemas they could only sit on the balcony, buses had to sit at the back, were not allowed many public facilities i.e. toilets, libraries, parks or beaches </li></ul><ul><li>White ambulance could not pick up injured black people nor white hospitals receive them </li></ul><ul><li>Black men knew they must never look at or touch a white woman even by accident because lynching was common </li></ul>
  5. 5. Terrorising black people <ul><li>Whites used intimidation & terror to control black people. Any who tried to assert heir rights could be evicted from their farms sacked from their jobs or lynched by white mobs </li></ul><ul><li>1882-1968 there was 5,000 lynching reported in the press but many were not reported </li></ul><ul><li>Lynch mobs used sadistic tortures burning, dismemberment, or dragged black people behind cars </li></ul><ul><li>Some southern papers reported lynching with approval with participants posing, including children for photographs in front of their victims’ body. </li></ul><ul><li>The all-white state police seldom intervened but if they did all white juries would always find the white people innocent </li></ul>
  6. 6. Racial stereotyping <ul><li>  Whites justified discrimination by saying black people were mentally, culturally and morally inferior to whites </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotyping in the press radio theatre and films reinforced this view </li></ul><ul><li>Black people appeared in the media as either evil or stupid </li></ul><ul><li>Birth of a nation 1915 showed black men as dangerous rapists and Ku Klux Klan as heroes </li></ul><ul><li>Films showing slavery like Gone With the Wind 1939 suggested laves were happy with their lot and felt lost and bewildered when freed </li></ul>
  7. 7. Poverty and lack of education <ul><li>Made it difficult for Southern black people to show what they could do </li></ul><ul><li>Most were poor sharecroppers up to 1920’s farmed land owned by whites and paid for it with a share up to 66% of what they grew </li></ul><ul><li>Primary schools for blacks lacked facilities such as books or black boards and black teachers were paid half as much as whites </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1940’s there were hardly any high schools for black students and they were not admitted to state run universities </li></ul><ul><li>From 1920’s many black people moved into Southern cities or went North to look for work, but discrimination and poor education limited their opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Black women worked mainly as cooks or maids. Black men only got jobs white men didn’t want. Blacks were paid less than whites for the same work. </li></ul>
  8. 8. African Americans own culture <ul><li>They set up their own churches and business clubs and turned away from white society </li></ul><ul><li>Founded their own colleges which produced the lawyers, teachers and doctors who led the campaign for civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>Developed their own music such as Jazz, Rhythm and blues. Black artists like Billie Holliday and Paul Roberson won the interest and respect of the wider white community out side of the south </li></ul>
  9. 9. The role of Black Churches <ul><li>Black churches, mostly Baptist and Methodist played an important part in black life </li></ul><ul><li>Most churches were self-governing, so in them black people could take on leadership roles and earn public respect in ways not available in the wider community </li></ul><ul><li>Ministers were often spokesmen for their communities </li></ul><ul><li>Southern ministers usually did not attack discrimination directly because it was too dangerous to do so. But in the North, Ministers could be much more outspoken in condemning racial discrimination </li></ul>
  10. 10. The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) <ul><li>1909 NAACP was set up. It was a multi-racial organisation, which hoped to resist the Jim Crow laws by </li></ul><ul><li>Publicising lynching and other injustices </li></ul><ul><li>Getting blacks to register to vote, starting in the North </li></ul><ul><li>Urging federal government to outlaw discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Taking states and cities to court on issues like school conditions, all white juries and voting rights </li></ul><ul><li>These campaigns began to pay off in the 1930’s & 1940’s </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gradual improvement <ul><li>WWII President Roosevelt yielded to Black pressure forbade racial discrimination in war industries </li></ul><ul><li>As a result 2 million blacks got well-paid jobs in the arms factories mainly in the North. Another million joined the American forces though they remained segregated </li></ul><ul><li>End of the war GI Bill government funds for ex service men to go to college. Significantly raised the education of the Black community </li></ul><ul><li>With supporters in the North Harry Truman ended segregation in the armed forces, prohibited job discrimination by the federal government and gave government backing to NAACP court cases. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1950 NCAAP had won important legal victories. The courts said that literacy tests, poll taxes and other tricks to stop blacks voting were illegal. It also outlawed segregation in juries, in housing and in transport between states. </li></ul>
  12. 12.   Why change <ul><li>Northern states accepted this ruling by 1950 legal segregation had largely disappeared there though economic discrimination remained </li></ul><ul><li>In the border and Southern States large white majority supported segregation and voted for segregationist politicians. They would not change the Jim Crow laws unless the federal government forced them to do so </li></ul><ul><li>By 1950 a number of developments made this likely </li></ul><ul><li>There were new educated black leaders who were able to make the case for equality </li></ul><ul><li>The work of NAACP increased Black electorate so politicians became interested in helping them </li></ul><ul><li>NAZI racist policies during WWII led to revulsion against racism everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination against black people was bad for Americas image as the leader of the free world during the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>TV images of lynching made a bigger impact on Northern voters than newspaper or radio reports </li></ul>
  13. 13. Beginning of the Civil Rights campaign <ul><li>  Mid 1950’s campaign begin to win full civil rights for black people </li></ul><ul><li>Three events marked the start of this campaign </li></ul><ul><li>supreme court judgement in the Brown case </li></ul><ul><li>The Lynching of Emmett Till </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Montgomery Bus Boycott </li></ul>
  14. 14. May 1954 Brown Judgement <ul><li>  NAACP won court cases that forced school districts to observe the ‘separate but equal rule. Black teachers must be paid the same as white teachers and raise standards in black-only schools </li></ul><ul><li>1952 NAACP backed a case that attacked the separate but equal rule itself </li></ul><ul><li>Linda Brown 8yr old from Kansas lived beside a white school but had to walk to a bus to get to her black school. Her father took a case to end segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Layers for the NAACP claimed segregated schools made black children feel inferior and made it difficult for them to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court accepted this argument and ruled that school segregation must end at ‘all deliberate speed’ </li></ul><ul><li>Brown Judgement caused outrage in the South where whites feared that mixed schools would lead to their greatest fear mixed marriages </li></ul>
  15. 15. August 1955 The Lynching of Emmett Till <ul><li>  Racial tension rose in Mississippi after the Brown judgement. The Ku Klux Klan revived and several Black men were murdered for trying to get black people to register to vote </li></ul><ul><li>August Emmett Till a 14 yr old black boy from Chicago went to visit relatives in Mississippi. After he whistled at a white woman her husband and friend brutally murdered him. </li></ul><ul><li>Surprisingly they were arrested and put on trial, but the all white jury quickly found them not guilty </li></ul><ul><li>However because Emmett brown was so young and came from Chicago the case attracted media attention throughout America. The verdict brought home to other Americans what life for black citizens in the Deep South was like </li></ul>
  16. 16. Case Study The Montgomery Bus Boycott Alabama <ul><li>Typical Southern City, where Jim Crow laws kept the races rigidly segregated in school and work </li></ul><ul><li>City council services like fire brigade and rubbish collection were worse in black neighbourhoods than in white </li></ul><ul><li>Segregated schools gave black pupils a second arte education, which limited their job opportunities. On average black people earned half of what whites earned </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport was segregated all bus drivers were white though 75% of the passengers were poor black workers who could not afford cars </li></ul><ul><li>Black passengers paid the driver at the front of the bus then had to go to the back door to get on. They could only sit at t he back of the bus. But if the front got too crowded they had to give up their seats to white passengers. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Resistance in Montgomery <ul><li>Some black activists wanted black people to protest at their treatment they included E D Nixon, local head of the NAACP and several ministers including Ralph Abernathy and Martin Luther Kink </li></ul><ul><li>Brown judgement encouraged resistance. On busses protests at bullying by white drivers became more common. Drivers retaliated by carrying guns and calling the police to arrest any protestor. </li></ul><ul><li>NAACP was hoping to find a new case around which they could rally the Black community. Rosa Parks provided it for them </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rosa Parks <ul><li>  Quiet 42yr old black woman and active member of NAACP, though educated she could only find a poorly paid sewing job. </li></ul><ul><li>Thursday December 1 1955 weary after work she boarded a bus and sat where three other blacks in the front of the black seats behind the white section </li></ul><ul><li>After a few stops the white section filled up and a white man was left standing. The driver ordered the four black people to give up their seats. Three moved but Parks refused. The police came and arrested her </li></ul>
  19. 19. 5 th of December Boycott begins <ul><li>Parks was the respectable unthreatening person the NAACP needed to symbolise black oppression. Nixon got her to agree to a one-day boycott of the buses on Monday the day after her trial </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther wrote later that he would have considered a 60% boycott a success in fact they got 90% </li></ul><ul><li>Organisers formed the Montgomery Improvement Association with King as president at a mass meeting they proposed continuing the boycott until: </li></ul><ul><li>Seats were given on a first come first served basis </li></ul><ul><li>Bus drivers agreed to treat blacks with courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>The bus company hired black drivers </li></ul>
  20. 20. King Moving spoke at the meeting <ul><li>‘ we are here tonight to say to those who have mistreated us so long, that we are tired– tired of being segregated and humiliated,tired of being kicked about by the brutal feet of oppression’. All present agreed the boycott would take place. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Whites counter attack using a variety of tactics to break the boycott <ul><li>Activists including Rosa parks lost their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Local insurance companies refused to cover black taxi services, which were bought by the black churches, but an agent got cover by Lloyds of London </li></ul><ul><li>Police harassed black drivers, penalising them for every tiny breach of the road traffic laws </li></ul><ul><li>White drivers flung stones and rotten eggs at black pedestrians who walked to work rather tan ride the bus. Sometimes snipers fired on them. Bombers blew up taxis and churches </li></ul>
  22. 22. Attacking martin Luther <ul><li>As leader he was especially targeted </li></ul><ul><li>Spread rumours that he was embezzling funds to discredit him </li></ul><ul><li>Arrested for breaching Alabama’s anti-boycotting laws, found guilty and fined $500 </li></ul><ul><li>His home was bombed while his wife and baby were in it. When a black crowd demanded revenge King asked them to put their guns away and ‘ love our white brothers no matter what they do to us his father begged him to give up but he refused </li></ul>
  23. 23. Legal victory <ul><li>When no compromise was possible NAACP took a case against bus segregation. They won when the Supreme Court declared that it was unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>After 382 days the boycott achieved its aims. On December 21 st 1956 Parks, King, Nixon, and other black people rode in the front seats of the first integrated bus. </li></ul><ul><li>However their victory changed little. Whites stopped using buses and the Ku Klux Klan beat up black passengers. The homes and churches of King and Abernathy were bombed. Segregation continued in other areas of life. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Why the Montgomery Bus Boycott was important <ul><li>It undermined the smug southern idea that blacks were happy with their status as second-class citizens </li></ul><ul><li>The tenacity and courage of ordinary black people, and the skill with which they organised the boycott showed that the white claims about black inferiority were untrue. </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics used – local boycott, non-violent protest and legal action became a model for successful civil rights campaigns in many parts of the South over the next ten years </li></ul><ul><li>Media coverage, and especially TV images made many Americans aware of the deprivation and indignities suffered by southern Blacks and the violence and harassment that followed every attempt to demand equality </li></ul>
  25. 25. End of the civil rights movement <ul><li>1957 School integration in Little Rock Arkansas federal troops sent in to allow 9 black students attend the school </li></ul><ul><li>1960 sit-ins lunch counter Woolworths Greenboro North Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>70,000 people enter segregted toilets, cinemas, Parks. </li></ul><ul><li>October King joins a sit in Atlanta arrested sentenced to hard labout-this pushed the race issue into the presidential campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>Republican candidate Nixon ibgored it Democrat Jack Kennedy supported Kennedy majority of blacks vote for Kennedy </li></ul><ul><li>1961 freedom ride outlawing of segregation on interstste trains by Supreme Court south ignores this inter-racil student group to do a freedom ride across the south to force the federal government to act. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence two nearly killed state police ignore or join in </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>1962 battle at Mississippi state james Meridith first Black student federal courts state he had to be admitted Kennedy sends Federal Marshals down to protest him & 13,000 troops to restore order when mob of 3000 wite racists attack them. </li></ul><ul><li>All the violence sickened many southern whites and buinessmen realised that the riots damaged the souths image. Support for segregation began to collapse. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 1963 Birmingham and the March on Washington <ul><li>Blacks were excluded from many jobs in Birmingham Alabama, the Ku Klux Klan were active and police chief Bull Connor was famous for his mindless brutality </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing this King agreed to march in protest at the lack of black jobs. When Bull Connor turned police dogs on peaceful marchers, more protests broke out and Kennedy had to propose a Civil Rights Acts </li></ul><ul><li>To put pressure on congress to pass it black activists organise a march on Washington. Over 250,000 people turned up and King electrified them with his famous I had a dream speech </li></ul><ul><li>After Kennedy was assassinated President Lyndon Johnson used his considerable political skills to get the Civil Rights Act through Congress </li></ul>
  28. 28. 1964 Freedom Summer <ul><li>In Mississippi white supremacists helped by state police shot, beat up or killed anyone who tried to get blacks to register to vote </li></ul><ul><li>To draw attention to this civil rights activists organised a Freedom Summer. Volunteers from the North many of them white students set up schools for black kids and encouraged parents to register </li></ul><ul><li>Violence flared when white supremacists beat up volunteers. In june 2 white students and one black were brutally killed </li></ul>
  29. 29. 1965 Selma and the voter registration <ul><li>Alabama state troopers attacked a peaceful march on Selma, and Black WWII veteran exclaimed ‘the Germans were never as inhuman as the troopers of Alabama </li></ul><ul><li>King went to Selma to complete the interrupted march. They were under constant attack and a black minister was murdered </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson went on TV to say that ‘it was wrong-deadly wrong – to deny any of your fellow Americans the right to vote in this country. By then many members of congress even conservatives had come to the same conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>In 1965 Congress passed the Voter Registration Act. Literacy tests and other tricks, which stopped blacks from registering, were declared illegal and the Federal government took on responsibility for implementing the rules </li></ul>
  30. 30. Racial issued in the North <ul><li>The campaign had focussed on the South and did little for black people in the North </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them lived in ghettos in big cities. Poor education and high unemployment meant that they missed out on the affluence that other Americans enjoyed in the 60’s </li></ul><ul><li>They were harassed by white police and suffered from gang violence and drug abuse </li></ul><ul><li>In 1965 their anger exploded into fierce riots in the Watts area of Los Angeles. 34 people died and property worth $40 Million was destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson set up an enquiry and some cities tried to improve conditions in the ghettos </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King went to Chicago where howling mobs of Poles, Italians, and Irish stopped a protest march </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of support from local black leaders and the Chicago city government forced them to withdraw </li></ul>
  31. 31. Divisions in the movement <ul><li>  Black power & Black Pride groups concentrated on the ethnic heritage of African-Americans adopted African dress and names </li></ul><ul><li>Black Nationalists wanted to found their own state funded by compensation from white Americans for the wrong of slavery. Some advocated violence </li></ul><ul><li>Black Panthers tiny group linked to drugs and violence </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm X also believed that non-violence was not effective </li></ul><ul><li>These groups alienated white supporters from the civil rights movement </li></ul>
  32. 32. Assassination of King <ul><li>King after Chicago realised that the civil rights were not enough he opposed the Vietnam War noting that far more was spent on the war than improving poor living conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Began to campaign for funds to help depressed areas </li></ul><ul><li>In April 1968 he went to Memphis Tennessee to help a strike by sanitation workers </li></ul><ul><li>Protests turned violent and a depressed King returned to his hotel the next morning he was assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>In over 100 cities across America his death was marked by violent riots in which 46 people were killed </li></ul>
  33. 33. The results of the Civil rights campaign <ul><li>For many of those involved the death of King marked the end of the Civil Rights Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Black people with money and education could now get jobs that had been previously closed to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Black people could register to vote and some got elected to office, in 1967 the first black mayor was elected and in 1989 the first black governor </li></ul><ul><li>Legal segregation disappeared through that did not mean that the races mixed a great deal </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson did start the Early Start Program to help back children with pre school courses so they could literally catch up. Still in use today </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>In theory schools were no longer segregated, but in practice they continued to be. In cities North and South whites moved into white suburbs and sent their children to local mainly white schools. Older state schools in the city centre became in practice mostly black. </li></ul><ul><li>To deal with this inequality the Supreme Court ordered that children be ‘bused’ from one school district to another, but this was not successful and was later reversed. White people just started to send their children to private schools. </li></ul><ul><li>After Ronald Reagan became president in 1980, the Federal government reduced the help it gave to poor (mostly black) communities and largely ceased the pursuit of social justice. </li></ul><ul><li>Rodney King cases where LA police beat a black youth savagely emphasised that racism is still a problem for African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty is still a problem for black people in America </li></ul>

×