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  1. 1. Origins of the Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>The United States denies African Americans their rights! </li></ul><ul><li>Voting Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational Speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Racist Laws and Regulations </li></ul>
  2. 2. Voting Restrictions <ul><li>Denied legal equality to African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Poll Tax – an annual tax that had to be paid before qualifying to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Grandfather Clause – Clause stated that even if a man failed the literacy test or could not afford the Poll Tax, he was still entitled to vote if he, his father or his grandfather had been eligible to vote before January 1, 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>The date of the Grandfather Clause is important because before that time, slaves did not have the right to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore the clause allowed African Americans not to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Negative personal freedom because the United States is denying citizens their rights based on color of their skin! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Jim Crow Laws <ul><li>Segregation – laws to separate white and black people in public or private facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow Laws – laws known as segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Named after an old popular minstrel song that ended in the words “Jump, Jim Crow” </li></ul><ul><li>Racial segregation was put into schools, hospitals, parks and transportation systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative personal freedom because the United States is denying the people their rights based on their race. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Plessy vs. Ferguson <ul><li>1896 </li></ul><ul><li>The supreme court ruled that separation of races in public accommodations was legal and did not violate the 14th amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Separate but equal </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed states to maintain segregation facilities for blacks and whites </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted almost 60 years </li></ul><ul><li>Negative personal freedom because the government did nothing to stop a violation of the 14 th amendment </li></ul>
  5. 5. Malcolm X <ul><li>Malcolm X – Leader for African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you think we are here to tell you to love the white man, you have come to the wrong place. ” Malcolm X to Harlem audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Went to jail at age 20 for burglary </li></ul><ul><li>While in prison, he studied teachings of Elijah Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Elijah Muhammad – Head of the Nation of Islam, also known as Black Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>After getting out of prison he became an Islamic Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Ballots or Bullets? “Well, if you and I don’t use the ballot, we’re going to be forced to use the bullet. So let us try the ballot.” </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm worried his life might be in danger because of what he was trying to accomplish and on February 21, 1965 he was shot while and killed while giving a speech in Harlem. </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm X dead at age 39! </li></ul><ul><li>Positive respect for human dignity because he cared about civil rights and he knew that he had to take individual responsibility and prove to the world that Civil Rights needed to pull through! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Goals of the Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>Full Equality Between Races </li></ul><ul><li>Dream of Equality </li></ul><ul><li>Fight against the United States for African American Rights </li></ul>
  7. 7. NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) <ul><li>W.E.B Dubois – helped establish the NAACP </li></ul><ul><li>NAACP had over 6,000 members by 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed for nothing less than full equality among the races </li></ul><ul><li>Positive personal freedom because they were fighting for the rights of African Americans. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Rights on the Rise <ul><li>Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) – purpose was to carry on nonviolent crusades against the evils of second-class citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) – national protest group </li></ul><ul><li>Positive personal freedom because they were fighting for the rights of African Americans. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Dream of Equality <ul><li>August 28, 1963 – more than 250,000 people converged on the nations capital </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to speakers demand immediate passage of the civil rights bill </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: we hold these truths to be self – evident; that all men are created equal… I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not bed judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character… I have dream that one day the state of Alabama… will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brother.” </li></ul><ul><li>July 2, 1964 – Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender. It gave all citizens the right to enter libraries, parks, washrooms, restaurants, theaters, and other public accommodations. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive respect for human dignity because Martin Luther King Jr. cared about the African American community and respected them and fought for their personal freedom! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Key Events of the Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>Presidential Support of Civil Rights Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for Freedom & Equality </li></ul><ul><li>The Fight for African American Equality </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans Take Action! </li></ul>
  11. 11. President Fails to Support Civil Rights <ul><li>Roosevelt never committed to full civil rights for African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Refused to approve a federal anti-lynching law and end the poll tax (two key goals of the civil rights movement) </li></ul><ul><li>New Deal agencies failed to support African Americans (NBA, CCC, TVA) </li></ul><ul><li>1934, African Americans organized The Southern Tenant Farmers Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Sought to protect the rights of tenant farmers and sharecroppers </li></ul><ul><li>Negative individual responsibility because he is the president of the United States he should be taking action for Civil Rights, not disregarding it! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Truman Supports Civil Rights <ul><li>Put presidency on the line for Civil Rights </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am asking for equality of opportunity for all human beings… and if that ends up in my failure to be re-elected, that failure will be in a good cause.” </li></ul><ul><li>In July 1948, Truman issued an executive order for integration of armed forces, calling for “equality of treatment and opportunity in the armed forces with out regard to race, color, region, or national origin.” </li></ul><ul><li>He also ordered end to discriminations in the hiring the of government employees </li></ul><ul><li>Positive respect for human dignity because he is making an effort to help African Americans and their fight for Civil Rights. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Kennedy & Civil Rights <ul><li>Atlanta, Georgia – Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested along with 33 other African Americans, for sitting at a segregated lunch table. </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy heard of arrest and sentencing, called Coretta Scott King (Wife) and expressed his sympathy. </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy persuaded the judge to release Mr. King Jr. on bail, pending an appeal. </li></ul><ul><li>News spread quickly through African American population and helped Kennedy in his Presidential Campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive respect for human dignity because Kennedy is helping African Americans fight for Civil Rights! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Segregation Continues Into The 20th Century <ul><li>After Civil War ended many African Americans tried to escape the South by moving up North </li></ul><ul><li>This migration sped up greatly during World War I </li></ul><ul><li>However they also found Racism and discrimination in the North as well </li></ul><ul><li>All Black communities </li></ul><ul><li>Led To Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Whites vs. Blacks competing for jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Negative respect for personal freedom and human dignity because racism is starting to take a huge turn in white people vs. black people. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Crisis in Little Rock <ul><li>1948, Arkansas became first state to admit African Americans to state universities without requiring a court order </li></ul><ul><li>In September 1957 – Governor Orval Faubus ordered National Guard to turn away the “Little Rock Nine” </li></ul><ul><li>Little Rock Nine – nine African American students who volunteered to integrate Little Rock’s Central High School </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Eisenhower to act </li></ul><ul><li>Placed Arkansas National Guard under federal control </li></ul><ul><li>The nine African Americans attended class under the watch of soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>September 9, 1957 – Civil Rights Act 1957 was passed, stated that the law gave the attorney general greater power over school desegregation. It also gave the government jurisdiction or authority over violations of African American voting rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative respect for personal freedom because adults and children are racially disturbed by the color of peoples skin. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Boycotting Segregation <ul><li>December 1, 1955 – Rosa Parks (seamstress and NAACP officer) </li></ul><ul><li>Refused to move from her seat on a bus to make room for white people </li></ul><ul><li>The bus driver told her to move and she refused, the driver told Parks that he would call the police if she did not move and Parks responded with “you may do that” </li></ul><ul><li>Montgomery Improvement Association for the bus boycott </li></ul><ul><li>Lead by Martin Luther King Jr. a 26 year old pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church </li></ul><ul><li>381 days African Americans refused to ride the buses </li></ul><ul><li>In 1956, the Supreme Court finally outlawed bus segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Negative respect for human dignity and personal freedom. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Demonstrated Freedom? <ul><li>SNNC had a model to build upon </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago 1942, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) – staged the first sit ins </li></ul><ul><li>Sit Ins – African American protesters sat down at segregated lunch counters and refused to move until they were served. </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans that went on these sit ins suffered through verbal abuse, arrests, beatings, suspension from college, tear gas and fire hoses. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive and negative for personal freedom because African Americans were fighting for their rights! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Freedom Riders <ul><li>Historic two-bus trip across the South </li></ul><ul><li>Made to test the Supreme Courts decision in banning segregated seating on interstate bus routes and segregated facilities in bus terminals. </li></ul><ul><li>Anniston, Alabama – 200 angry whites attacked Bus 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Popped tire, smashed windows and tossed in a fire bomb (nobody was hurt) </li></ul><ul><li>President Kennedy arranged to have the freedom riders directly supported </li></ul><ul><li>The Justice Department sent 400 United States Marshals to protect the riders on their last journey </li></ul><ul><li>Positive personal freedom because the United States started to support the Civil Rights movement directly. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Northern Segregation <ul><li>De Facto Segregation – Segregation that exists by practice and custom </li></ul><ul><li>De Jure Segregation – Segregation by law, because eliminating it requires changing people’s attitudes rather than repealing laws. </li></ul><ul><li>July 10, King led 30,000 African Americans in a march on City Hall </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Clashes between white and black civilians </li></ul><ul><li>New York City, July 1964 – Clash between African American teenagers and white police resulted in death of 15 year old student, this sparked a riot in Harlem. </li></ul><ul><li>Watts, Los Angeles - African American neighborhood was set on fire, 34 people killed and millions of dollars worth of property damaged! </li></ul><ul><li>Many more riots happening like a chain reaction to one another… </li></ul><ul><li>Negative respect for human dignity because innocent people were dying due to the color of their skin. </li></ul>