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Chapter 30

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Chapter 30

  1. 1. Physical Geography of Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica: A Region of Extremes This wide and varied region includes the South Pole icescape, volcanic Pacific islands, Southeast Asian tropics, and Australian deserts. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 Landforms and Resources SECTION 2 Climate and Vegetation NEXT SECTION 3 Human-Environment Interaction Physical Geography of Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica: A Region of Extremes
  3. 3. NEXT Section 1 Landforms and Resources • This region includes two peninsulas of Asia, two continents, and more than 20,000 islands. • Its landforms include mountains, plateaus, and major river systems.
  4. 4. Southeast Asia: Mainland and Islands Peninsulas and Islands • Mainland Southeast Asia lies on two peninsulas - rectangular Indochinese Peninsula is south of China - Malay Peninsula is 700-mile strip south from mainland • Malay Peninsula bridges mainland and island archipelagoes - archipelago—set of closely grouped islands, often in a curved arc - Malay Archipelago includes the Philippines, Indonesian islands Landforms and Resources SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . .
  5. 5. SECTION 1 NEXT continued Southeast Asia: Mainland and Islands Mountains and Volcanoes • Mainland mountain ranges, like Annamese Cordillera, run north-south - fan out from northern mountainous area • Island mountains are volcanic in origin, part of Pacific Ring of Fire - volcanic eruptions, earthquakes are common in region Continued . . .
  6. 6. SECTION 1 NEXT Rivers and Coastlines • Several large mainland rivers run south through mountain valleys - spread out into fertile deltas near coast • Mekong River starts in China, ends in wide delta on Vietnam coast - farming, fishing along river support millions of people continued Southeast Asia: Mainland and Islands Resources • Volcanic activity, flooding rivers create nutrient-rich, fertile soil • Rivers, seas provide fish; some areas have petroleum, tin, gems
  7. 7. Lands of the Pacific and Antarctica No Exact Number • No one knows how many islands there are in the Pacific - some estimate there are more than 20,000 - hard to count because islands vanish and new ones appear • As a group, the Pacific Islands are called Oceania - includes New Zealand, Australia (a continent, not an island) - doesn’t include Philippines, Indonesia—culturally Asian SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . .
  8. 8. SECTION 1 NEXT Oceania’s Many Islands • Some islands vanish due to erosion, new ones are created • Volcanoes create high islands, coral reefs make up low islands - most islands are small; total land area is smaller than Alaska • In general, islands lack minerals but: - New Caledonia has nickel, chromium, iron - New Guinea has copper, gold, oil - Nauru has phosphate continued Lands of the Pacific and Antarctica Continued . . .
  9. 9. SECTION 1 NEXT Majestic New Zealand • New Zealand has two main islands, North Island and South Island • Southern Alps—300-mile mountain range down center of South Island - 16 peaks over 10,000 feet; over 360 glaciers • North Island has hilly ranges, volcanic plateau - fertile farmland; forests for lumber; natural harbors • Few mineral resources, but dams generate electricity continued Lands of the Pacific and Antarctica Continued . . .
  10. 10. SECTION 1 NEXT Flat Australia • Australia is earth’s smallest, flattest continent • Great Dividing Range—chain of highlands parallel to east coast • West of range are plains and plateaus • Murray River is largest of continent’s few rivers • Little forestry, but rich in bauxite, diamonds, opals, lead, coal • Great Barrier Reef—1,250-mile chain of 2,500 reefs, islands continued Lands of the Pacific and Antarctica Continued . . .
  11. 11. SECTION 1 NEXT Icy Antarctica • Fifth-largest continent is circular in shape, centered on South Pole • Thick ice sheet covers landscape—world’s largest fresh-water supply • Transantarctic Mountains divide continent - East Antarctica is plateau surrounded by mountains, valleys - West Antarctica is group of separate islands linked by ice • There could be coal, minerals, petroleum under ice - in 1991, 26 nations agreed not to mine region for 50 years continued Lands of the Pacific and Antarctica
  12. 12. NEXT Section 2 Climate and Vegetation • This region’s climates range from tropical to desert to polar icecap. • There is a great diversity of plant and animal life, including some species found nowhere else in the world.
  13. 13. Widespread Tropics Year-Round Rains • Tropical wet climate in coastal Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Oceania - also in most of Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines • High temperatures—annual average of 80 degrees in Southeast Asia • Parts of Southeast Asia get 100, even 200 inches of rain annually • Some variations—high elevations in Indonesia have glaciers Climate and Vegetation SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
  14. 14. SECTION 2 1 NEXT Wet and Dry Seasons • Tropical wet and dry climate borders the wet climate - weather is shaped by monsoons - found in parts of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam • Temperatures are consistently hot, but rainfall varies • Monsoon areas often have disastrous weather - typhoons can occur in region during the wet season continued Widespread Tropics Continued . . .
  15. 15. SECTION 2 1 NEXT Tropical Plants • Southeast Asia has great vegetation diversity - tropical evergreen forests near equator - deciduous forests in wet and dry zone - teak is harvested commercially • Oceania doesn’t have diverse vegetation - low islands have poor soil, little rain (few plants) - high islands have rich volcanic soil, rain (flowers, coconut palms) continued Widespread Tropics
  16. 16. Bands of Moderate Climate Hot Summers, Mild Winters • Australia and New Zealand have generally mild climates • Mountain chain runs parallel to east coast of Australia • Strip between mountains and coast divides into two climate zones - northern part is humid subtropical—hot summers, mild winters - heavy rainfall—gets 126 inches of rain annually - also climate of northern Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
  17. 17. SECTION 2 1 NEXT Mild Summers, Cool Winters • Marine west coast climate on Australian southeast coast, New Zealand - ocean breezes warm the land in winter, cool it in summer - New Zealand’s forests are primarily evergreens, tree ferns • New Zealand gets rain all year; regional amounts vary dramatically - South Island mountains bring rain down on western slopes • Australia’s Great Dividing Range keeps rain on populous east coast continued Bands of Moderate Climate
  18. 18. Hot and Cold Deserts Arid Australia • One-third of Australia is desert, located in the continent’s center - under 10 inches of rain annually; too dry for agriculture • Band of semiarid climate encircles desert - 20 inches of rain annually; crops need irrigation • Dryness caused by tropical, subtropical heat that evaporates rain • Few live in dry inland region called the outback SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
  19. 19. SECTION 2 1 NEXT The White Desert • Antarctica is earth’s coldest, driest continent - icecap climate: temperatures can drop to –70 degrees • Cold air doesn’t hold moisture well - has 1/10 the water vapor of temperate zones • Area receives little precipitation; called a polar desert • Plants are lichens, mosses; animals are sea life, birds (penguins) continued Hot and Cold Deserts
  20. 20. NEXT Section 3 Human-Environment Interaction • Pacific Islanders developed technology that enabled them to travel the Pacific Ocean. • This region has been damaged by nuclear testing and the introduction of European animals.
  21. 21. Traveling the Pacific Navigation Charts • It’s believed Pacific Island settlers came from Southeast Asia - use land bridges, small rafts, canoes to reach nearest islands • Later venture further out, use stars and charts to navigate - on charts, sticks show wave patterns, shells show islands • Islanders keep secrets of charts until late 1800s - then begin using European navigation methods Human-Environment Interaction SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . .
  22. 22. SECTION 3 NEXT Special Canoes • To sail ocean, islanders develop special voyaging canoes - double hulls stabilize canoe, allow it to carry lots of weight - canoes use sails, sometimes have cabin on top for shelter - carry plants to be grown at destination • Large voyaging canoes are awkward in island lagoons - use outrigger canoe—float attached on one side for balance continued Traveling the Pacific
  23. 23. Invasion of the Rabbits The Rabbit Problem • European colonizers bring animals to Australia, including rabbits • In 1859, Thomas Austin releases 24 rabbits into Australia to hunt - one pair can have 184 descendents in 18 months - Australia has over one billion rabbits by 1900 • Rabbits strip sparse vegetation, ruin sheep pastures, cause erosion - resulting lack of food endangers native animals SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . .
  24. 24. SECTION 3 NEXT Control Measures • Efforts are made to control number of rabbits - import foxes to prey on them, but foxes also endanger native wildlife • In 1950s, they’re intentionally infected with myxomatosis; 90% die - ranches then able to support twice as many sheep - rabbits become immune to disease; back to 300 million by 1990s • Today a combination of poisons, diseases, fences are used continued Invasion of the Rabbits
  25. 25. Nuclear Testing Tests in Bikini Atoll • Nuclear arms race between U.S., USSR begins in the 1940s - U.S. conducts 66 nuclear bomb tests on Bikini, Enewetak atolls - atoll—ringlike coral island, or islands, surrounding a lagoon • Marshall Islands’ Bikini Atoll is far from shipping, air routes • “Bravo” hydrogen bomb test vaporizes several islands - radiation contamination injures or sickens many islanders SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . .
  26. 26. SECTION 3 NEXT Long-Term Effects • Bikini Islanders moved to the island of Kili in 1948 - conditions there don’t allow them to fish or grow enough food • U.S. declares Bikini safe in late 1960s, some islanders return - in 1978, doctors find dangerous radiation levels in islanders - islanders leave again • Cleanup of Bikini Atoll begins in 1988 - still unknown when Bikini will be suitable for humans again continued Nuclear Testing
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