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  1. 1. Chapter 31: The Ordeal of Liberalism
  2. 2. John Kennedy <ul><li>John Kennedy was the son of the wealthy and powerful former American ambassador to Britain, Joseph P. Kennedy </li></ul><ul><li>The campaign of 1960 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican candidate: Vice President Richard Nixon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic candidate: John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Senator from Massachusetts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennedy promised a set of domestic reforms, a program he described as the “New Frontier. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He won approval of tariff reductions and began a call for a significant tax cut. </li></ul><ul><li>More than any other president of the century, Kennedy’s personality was an important part of his presidency and a central focus of national attention. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Election of 1960
  4. 4. John Kennedy & The Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>JFK was a supporter of civil rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy did more than any president before him to have more African Americans appointed to federal government posts </li></ul><ul><li>Promised to end racial discrimination in his 1961 Presidential Inaugural Address </li></ul><ul><li>Appointed blacks to many federal positions and selected a number of black judges </li></ul><ul><li>He created the CEEO (Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity) </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 </li></ul>
  5. 5. John Kennedy & The Civil Rights Movement (cont.) <ul><li>Supported the Freedom Riders </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy’s Executive Order #11063 tried to correct the black housing problem in 1962 by banning racial discrimination in housing </li></ul><ul><li>Made attempts to increase black voting </li></ul><ul><li>Supported the desegregation of schools </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Civil Rights Act of 1964 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The civil rights laws that Kennedy proposed involve every American’s right to vote, to go to school, to get a job, and to be served in a public place without discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Civil Rights Act of 1963 had eight section s including grants of access, school desegregation, and black voting rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During Kennedy’s Inaugural address on January 20, 1961, he said, &quot;All this will not be finished in the first hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first thousand days, nor in the lifetime of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.&quot; </li></ul>
  7. 7. President John Kennedy’s Death <ul><li>Kennedy was in Texas with his wife and Vice President Lyndon Johnson for political appearances </li></ul><ul><li>On November 22, 1963 President Kennedy was shot as the presidential motorcade rode through the streets of Dallas </li></ul><ul><li>Lee Harvey Oswald, a Marxist, was arrested for the shootings later that day. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lyndon Johnson <ul><li>Lyndon Baines Johnson, vice president of Kennedy, originated from west Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>With the emotions following Kennedy’s death, Johnson was able to receive support for many New Frontier proposals. </li></ul><ul><li>He also constructed a reform program of his own, the “Great Society.” </li></ul><ul><li>In the November 1964 election, Johnson received a larger plurality of over 61%. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lyndon Johnson & Civil Rights <ul><li>By the mid 1950’s, Johnson had altered his position and clearly supported civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>Supported the 1954 Brown Supreme Court decision </li></ul><ul><li>Refused to sign the Southern Manifesto against Brown </li></ul><ul><li>The 1957 Civil Rights Act and Eisenhower’s second  Civil Rights Act in 1960 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Johnson & Civil Rights (cont.) <ul><li>1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act  </li></ul><ul><li>1965 Higher Education Act  </li></ul><ul><li>1965 Voting Rights Act </li></ul><ul><li>1964 Civil Rights Act </li></ul>
  11. 11. Racial Protests <ul><li>Kennedy’s administration was set out to contain racial problems by strictly enforcing laws and supporting litigation. </li></ul><ul><li>It would help to overturn existing segregation statues without creating politically damaged divisions </li></ul><ul><li>Types of protests </li></ul><ul><li>-Sit-Ins </li></ul><ul><li>-”Freedom Rides” </li></ul><ul><li>Ella Baker: Challenged segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Whites Protested when James Meredith was the first to go to an all white University </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther King, Jr. helped launch a series of nonviolent demonstrations in Alabama </li></ul>
  12. 12. Racial Protests Cont. <ul><li>University of Alabama was now preventing a certain number of blacks to enroll into that university </li></ul>
  13. 13. Freedom Rides Sit-Ins
  14. 14. Commitment to a Nation <ul><li>Kennedy put proposals prohibiting segregation in public accommodations </li></ul><ul><li>Over 200,00 demonstrations marched down on Washington D.C. to protest against segregation and Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous “I Have a Dream” speech </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy was murdered 3 months later and senate passed the most comprehensive Civil Rights Bill </li></ul>
  15. 15. Voting Rights <ul><li>The “Freedom Summer” : to work on the voting rights of the summer of 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>March 1965 Martin Luther King, Jr. helped organize a demonstration in Selma, Alabama to press a demand for the ability for allowing blacks to vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Clark led a brutal attack on demonstrators killing 2 members </li></ul><ul><li>All this led to the Civil Rights Act of 1965, also known as the voting Rights Act </li></ul>
  16. 16. A Change <ul><li>Racial problem was decreasing </li></ul><ul><li>69% of blacks lived in metropolitan areas </li></ul><ul><li>45% outside of South </li></ul><ul><li>Black unemployment was twice as bad as white unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Racism and school discrimination was moving from South to the North </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign of 1966 in Chicago </li></ul>
  17. 17. A change cont… <ul><li>De jure and De facto Segregation    </li></ul><ul><li>the issue of race was moving out the south and into the rest of the nation    </li></ul><ul><li>the battle against school desegregation moved beyond the initial assaults on de jure segregation (segregation by law) to an attack on de facto segregation (segregation in practice) and carrying it into northern cities.    </li></ul><ul><li>Many African American leaders were demanding the battle against job discrimination to move to a new level employers shouldn't deny blacks and should adopt positive measure to recruit minorities </li></ul>
  18. 18. Affirmative Action <ul><li>   Lyndon Johnson supported the concept of  &quot;affirmative action&quot;        </li></ul><ul><li>guidelines that gradually extended to virtually all institutions doing business with or receiving funds from the federal government and to many others as well (including schools and universities) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Urban Violence <ul><li>Watts Riot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer of 1964 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First large race riot since the end of WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The riot spurred from an incident on August 11, 1965 when Marquette Frye, a young African American motorist, was pulled over and arrested by Lee W. Minikus, a white California Highway Patrolman, for suspicion of driving while intoxicated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There was an outbreak of violence during Frye’s arrest when the police officer struck a protesting bystander with his club. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Watts Riot Cont… <ul><ul><li>The riot consisted of rioters overturning and burning automobiles, looting and damaging grocery stores, departments stores, and pawnshops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public officials argued that the riot was caused due to the Watts community’s longstanding grievances and discrimination that they have been experiencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City leaders and state officials failed to implement measure to improve the social and economic conditions of African Americans who lived in the Watts neighborhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Result of the Watts Riot <ul><li>The violent riot was televised and it alarmed millions of Americans and created both a new sense of urgency and a growing sense of doubt among many whites who embraced the cause of racial justice years before. </li></ul><ul><li>Commission on Civil Disorders </li></ul>
  22. 23. Black Power <ul><li>Philosophy of “black power” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It suggested a move away from interracial cooperation and toward increased awareness of racial distinctiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocated the African American to establish control of their political and economic life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most enduring impact of black-power ideology was a social and psychological one: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>instilling racial pride in African Americans, who lived in a society whose dominant culture portrayed blacks inferior to whites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>It produced a new interest among many blacks and their African roots </li></ul>
  23. 24. Division of the Civil Rights Movement <ul><li>Traditional black organizations that had an emphasized cooperation with sympathetic whites faced competition from more radical groups such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress of Racial Equality </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Black Panther Party <ul><li>The Black Panther Party promised to defend black rights even if that required violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized semi-military lines and wore weapons openly and proudly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Called for the restructuring of American society to achieve social, political, and economic equality, based on principles of socialism. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Background of the Nation of Islam <ul><li>Malcolm Little was the leader of the Nation of Islam, a once-obscure nationalist black group that gained new prominence. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a movement that taught blacks to take responsibility for their own lives, to be disciplined, to live by strict codes of behavior and to reject any dependence on whites. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Malcolm X <ul><li>Malcolm Little, was the most celebrated one of the Black Muslims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malcolm was one the movement’s most influential spokesmen, specifically among younger blacks, who opposed all forms of racism and oppression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t advocate violence but insisted that black people had the right to defend themselves, violently if necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His detractors accused him of preaching racism, antisemitism, black supremacy and violence </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. What is Communism? <ul><li>Communism is the social structure in which classes are abolished, property is commonly controlled, and everyone works and is paid according to the need and skill. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we hate it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communism basically goes against what America has been built on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also goes against the basic freedoms in which every person is given the right to pursue life and liberty, rather than just achieving it freely by the masses. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. International Relations <ul><li>John F. Kennedy wanted to stray away from atomic warfare to deal with communism, and instead moved toward more peaceful means such as creating the Special Forces, or “Green Berets”. </li></ul><ul><li>He also tried to expand American influence peacefully. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repairing the relationship with Latin America through the “Alliance for Progress”, which were projects for development and stabilization of the nations surrounding the region. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating the Agency for International Development, which coordinated foreign aid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating the Peace Corps, which sent young American volunteers abroad to work in developing areas. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. International Relations Cont. <ul><li>Bay of Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eisenhower’s project for an invasion on Castro’s Cuba, which further continued with Kennedy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The small anti-Castro Cuban exiles army was well met by Castro forces and immediately lost. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflict with the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Soviet’s resented the U.S. for supporting anti communism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus resulting in the creation of the Berlin Wall to not only divide the East and the West, but to clearly set a border between communism and non communism. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. International Relations Cont. (Last One) <ul><li>Cuban Missile Crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union placed missiles in Cuba, which was seen as an act of aggression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. reacted by a naval and air blockade around Cuba. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, when Khrushchev promised to remove the missile bases in exchange for the Americans not to invade Cuba, Kennedy accepted the request. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Political Challenge McCarthy Johnson Kennedy Humphrey <ul><li>Was chosen to run for the Democrats to go against Lyndon Johnson since Robert Kennedy, at first, declined to run. </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigned so well that he nearly defeated the president in the race. </li></ul><ul><li>Was very disliked due to the fact that he put America into the Vietnamese war. </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity declined massively. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually withdrew from the presidential contest. </li></ul><ul><li>When he finally ran, he basically overshadowed McCarthy within the Democrats. </li></ul><ul><li>Had much more support from blacks, poor, and workers of the antiwar cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Established himself as the champion of the Democratic primaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Point: Anti-War </li></ul><ul><li>Took Johnson’s spot within the race. </li></ul><ul><li>Was well supported by President Johnson. </li></ul><ul><li>Was seen to be the frontrunner of the race within the time. </li></ul>
  32. 33. King and Kennedy Assassinations <ul><li>Martin Luther King, Jr. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of a major leader in the Civil Rights Movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Brought about anger and grief within many American blacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the result of major riots that left 43 people dead, 3,000 injured, and 27,000 people arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Kennedy </li></ul><ul><li>Loss the supporter of the American “underclass”. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on helping the blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to use government to help the powerless. </li></ul><ul><li>Left Humphrey with no opposition for the meantime. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Democratic National Convention <ul><li>Was surrounded on the Democrats finding a nominee who supported antiwar. </li></ul><ul><li>While the convention occurred, protests occurred staging public demand for antiwar. </li></ul><ul><li>Protests were dealt with through tear gas and billie clubs. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing was truly solved within the protests, thus making it seem as if Humphrey’s campaign is almost worthless. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Conservative Response <ul><li>Conservative means holding to traditional attitudes and values and cautious about change or innovation, typically in relation to politics or religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of a violent overthrow of government, the people sought to fight back politically by trying to elect someone who supported public views. </li></ul>
  35. 36. George Wallace <ul><li>Started the conservative movement by becoming successful in his campaign for presidency. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite winning Democratic primaries, he ended up becoming a third-party candidate. </li></ul><ul><li>His main points were sometimes relating race, forced busing of students, the increase of government regulations and social programs, and trying to prevent race riots and antiwar demonstrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite his success, he never truly had a chance to win the election. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Richard Nixon <ul><li>Richard Nixon ran for the Republican Party in hopes to speak on the behalf of those who favored order and stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Noticed that the people disliked having the obligation to help the poor, what they had to give up for racial justice, and tired of reforms that helped criminals. </li></ul><ul><li>He gained appeal by offering stability, law and order, government reduction of spending, and peace in Vietnam. </li></ul>
  37. 38. 1968 Presidential Election <ul><li>The election was between Nixon, Republican, Humphrey, Democratic, and Wallace, American Independent. </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon won by a very small margin. </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon received 43.4%, Humphrey 42.7%, and Wallace 13.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon’s victory marked that the people wanted to restore stability rather than social change. </li></ul>