The End of the White Primary and County Unit System Georgia had a law declaring that only whites could vote in primary elections. It kept African-Americans from participating in the important primary elections. (example of disenfranchisement) The White Primary was found unconstitutional in 1946. Since the County Unit System was found to support racist candidates it was removed in 1962. Greatly increasing the weight of minorities with each vote counting the same.
The 1946 Governor’s Election According to the new state Constitution, Ellis Arnall could not run for governor again. Eugene Talmadge was elected but died before taking office. The General Assembly unsuccessfully tried to give the election to Herman Talmadge (Eugene’s son) instead . Ellis refused to give up the position of Governor to Herman Talmadge. The GA Supreme Court ruled a new election was required. Herman Talmadge was elected in 1947.
Herman Talmadge Elected governor in 1948 and continued his father’s segregation policies. Served as Governor (1948-1954) and U.S. Senator (1956-1980) Believed in White Supremacy.
Benjamin E Mays Educator and civil rights activist. President of Morehouse College. Strongly influenced Martin Luther King Jr. Promoted human dignity and its relationship to American ideals. Believed in non-violent protest as a means of change. • Was a mediator between blacks & whites during the SNCC protests in Atlanta • Gave a speech at Dr. King’s funeral
Brown V. Board of Education• 1950, Topeka Kansas, 7-year old, Linda Brown was not allowed to enroll in an all white school• The NAACP (group of educated black men improving rights) helped Brown’s father sue the Board of Education in Kansas; the case went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court• The 1954 Court ruled the Plessy case was unconstitutional and that all schools were to be integrated “with all deliberate speed”. • Many states were very slow in executing the order
Brown vs Board of Education- 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruled that schools must be desegregated. It decided that segregation denied equal opportunity to all groups of people. It took many years to fully enforce the law.
1956 Flag Controversy Georgia politicians (many were white supremacists) responded to desegregation by changing the state flag. It added the confederate battle flag to remind people of its past. Many people took it to symbolize a connection to a time when Georgia promoted slavery. • Modern leaders were discouraged that people were looking at the past & not into the future
State Flags1920-1956 2001-2003 2003-present1956-2001
State Flag• The use of the flag damaged the reputation and tourist industry in GA • Lost convention & exhibition money • Boycotts imposed on conventions• 2001- Gov. Roy Barnes was asked to change the flag by civic leaders, business men/developers, the hospitality industry, the Atlanta Convention & Visitors Bureau and the legislative Black Caucus• It was changed but still contained the illustration of the confederate flag• 2003 -Sonny Perdue used the flag as a campaign issue and won against Gov. Barnes • The 2003 flag is based on the first flag of the Confederacy, 2004 the flag was voted on 3-1 by the people of Georgia
Terms to KnowWrite two definitions for each of the following words. A. The Text B. Your own words1. Integration2. segregate3. sit-in4. discrimination5. racism
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Leader of the U.S. civil rights movement. Gifted speaker and leader. Led freedom marches to draw attention to the movement. Gave famous “I have a Dream” speech in Washington D.C. to 250,000 people. Believed in a non-violent approach to social change. Was assassinated for his beliefs in 1968.
Student Non-violent-Coordinating Committee SNCC SNCC was a student formed civil rights organization . Students felt that older black community was too accepting and not advancing change fast enough Used non-violent / direct action methods (sit-ins, marches). Protestors would occupy buses, restaurants, etc. and refuse to leave in order to bring attention to the civil rights movement. Organization helped plan the March on Washington
Sibley Commission Formed to gather information about how Georgians felt about integration. Most GA school systems refused to integrate Federal law was demanding that Georgia desegregate its schools. John Sibley (attorney/banker) was put in charge of a committee ordered by the courts to investigate the problem of integration He found the majority of Georgians were willing to close schools rather than accept integration. Sibley came up with a plan that would allow spots of integration in the state where each school board could hold a vote and decide in if they were integrate or not.
Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes Before Sibley’s plan could be put in place two students sued for admission into the UGA. These were first black students to attend the University of Georgia in 1961. There were many protests against their attendance and some alumni wanted the school to close rather than accept them.
UGA Admissions The two students had to leave for awhile due to harassment/threats from other students Homes graduated & was an orthopedic surgeon until his death in 1995 Hunter-Gault married and was a nationally known newspaper/television reporter
Albany Movement Freedom march organized by SNCC and the NAACP. Martin Luther King led hundreds of protestors in Albany, GA to resist segregation. King and many others were arrested. Although considered a failure at the time, it led to the removal of many segregation laws.
March on Washington March for jobs and freedom- August 1963. Congress had been slow to pass President Kennedy’s civil rights bill. Martin Luther King gave his famous “ I have a Dream” speech. Goals were to raise attention to civil rights, fair employment, education, and housing.
Left Side Assignment 3 Facts and an Opinion In complete sentences, write 3 important facts about what you have learned and one opinion that you believe is significant about today’s information. Facts:1. Factual sentence 12. Factual sentence 23. Factual sentence 34. A thoughtful opinion.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson, after JFK’s assassination. The Equal Protection clause gave the 14th amendment more influence; prohibiting segregation in restaurants, hotels, theaters, public recreation areas, schools, & libraries Guaranteed equal voting rights (justifying the end of the county unit system). Created an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Gave the Federal Government the right to withhold funds from states that resisted the law.
Lester Maddox – “People Person” Governor 1966-1970, by defeating Ellis Arnall. a segregationist/restaurant owner that closed his restaurant rather than integrate it who became a governor. Promoted segregation and resisted civil rights. (He said “forced” integration/segregation was wrong) Found it difficult to resist against the Civil Right Act. He later surprised people by appointing more Africa Americans to state boards/commissions than all other governors combined
End of County Unit System Georgia’s voting system favored rural white voters. In 1962, Federal Court decided that it violated the 14th Amendment. It was replaced with a “one person-one vote” system. Blacks were elected to state offices for the first time since Reconstruction.
Maynard Jackson Elected mayor of Atlanta in 1973 First African-American mayor of a major U.S. city. Helped blacks reach higher status jobs. Expanded Atlanta’s Hartsfield Airport and MARTA transportation systems. his name was added to airport; recognized as one of Atlanta’s great leaders
Andrew Young Aide to Martin Luther King Jr. Worked with King on Poor People’s campaign in 1968 (was there at King’s assassination) Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1972. First black congressman from GA since Reconstruction. Appointed U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations by President Jimmy Carter. After encouragement from Maynard Jackson he was later twice elected Mayor of Atlanta.
Left Side Timeline There are 12 dates given in your notes. Pick at least 10 of those dates and place them in a timeline with the key information that goes with them. The first is given here:1946- The Three Governors Controversy.Other dates include: 1948,1954,1956,1961,1962,1963,1964,1966, 1968,1972,1973List your dates from top to bottom on your page.
Civil Rights Notes ReviewJohn Sibley Eugene Talmadge Martin Luther King Ellis Arnall Andrew Young Maynard Jackson Charlayne Hunter Lyndon Johnson Benjamin Mays Lester Maddox1. Mentor (influential) to Martin Luther King.2. President who signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964.3. One of the first black students at University of Georgia.4. Led a commission to see if Georgians would desegregate.5. Died before taking office as Georgia governor in 1946.6. Atlanta’s first black mayor.7. Governor who ordered a mass police force at MLK’s funeral.8. First black U.S. Congressman from Georgia since the 1800s.9. Gave the “I have a Dream” speech in 1963.10. Governor who lowered the voting age to 18 years.
Who would you meet? If you could have had lunch with one of the civil rights leaders we have learned about, who would you have liked to meet and why? A good paragraph-5-7 sentences.