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The last 20 years of mobile learning: signposts of the past, present and future

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Keynote at the mLearn 2017 — 16th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning.
30 October - 1 November 2017
Larnaca, Cyprus

Abstract:
Back in 1997 while working at Media Lab Helsinki, Finland my colleagues and I started a research project called Future Learning Environments. Our main partners were educational psychologists at the University of Helsinki. Soon after this we organized ourselves as the Learning Environments research group (LeGroup). The mission of the research group was (and still is) to explore ways to improve the quality of teaching and learning with smart technological solutions. From the very beginning our research focused on the use of mobile devices, with the idea of bringing learning to meaningful contexts, and to support learners' knowledge building and reflective activities. The tools designed and developed, as part of our research, have helped students to develop their self-regulation, a skill closely related to students' well-being, to forms of deep learning and to autonomy. With our research we have not been driven by the common attempt to save time and money, instead we have aimed to abilities to innovate and to create social change.

During my talk I will make a retrospective journey through some of our work, starting with some early experiments in computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) with school children using Nokia Communicators (1997) and Nokia Internet Tablets (2005). I will also introduce some of our research on educational challenges in the Global South that made use of the affordances of basic mobile phones for knowledge sharing (2003-2005). Furthermore I will discuss our more recent work on mobile learning research dealing with the role of mobile devices in reflective and self-regulated learning, an augmented-reality application for workplace learning and on the challenges and possibilities of using biometric measures along wearable computers for collecting data for learning analytics. Through this journey, I aim thus to outline a few signposts of the past and present of mobile learning research, design and development. My hope is to help us discuss the future of education and the future tools to be designed when most things and activities in our life are digitally enhanced and networked.

Published in: Education

The last 20 years of mobile learning: signposts of the past, present and future

  1. 1. Teemu Leinonen www.teemuleinonen.fi The last 20 years of mobile learning: signposts of the past, present and future
  2. 2. Teemu Leinonen education / learning science > New Media > design > design methodology Designer and researcher Media Lab Helsinki Associate Professor Learning Environments research group www.teemuleinonen.fi
  3. 3. pedagogy statement learner-centered collaborative progressive inquiry = students behaving like experts.
  4. 4. Teemu Leinonen www.teemuleinonen.fi The last 20 years of mobile learning: signposts of the past, present and future
  5. 5. Three Things 1. Grand Challenge in Global Learning 2. Mobile Learning in Context 3. The Future: Pedagogy First
  6. 6. Three Things 1. Grand Challenge in Global Learning 2. Mobile Learning in Context 3. The Future: Pedagogy First
  7. 7. Grand Challenge in Global Learning
  8. 8. ? Grand Challenge in Global Learning
  9. 9. 1960’s + Grand Challenge in Global Learning
  10. 10. 1960’s + Literacy and Numeracy for All. Education for All (2000+).
  11. 11. World map indicating literacy rate by country in 2015 (2015 CIA World Factbook) Grey = no data
  12. 12. World illiteracy from 1970 to 2015.
  13. 13. Literacy in the “modern world”.
  14. 14. 2017 ? Grand Challenge in Global Learning
  15. 15. 2017 ? Scientific, Rational and Critical Thinking Skills for All
  16. 16. The War of the Worlds radio play by Orson Welles Halloween episode, October 30, 1938.
  17. 17. 2017 Scientific, Rational and Critical Thinking Skills for All
  18. 18. 2017 Scientific, Rational and Critical Thinking Skills for All
  19. 19. Three Things 1. Grand Challenge in Global Learning 2. Mobile Learning in Context 3. The Future: Pedagogy First
  20. 20. Three Things 1. Grand Challenge in Global Learning 2. Mobile Learning in Context 3. The Future: Pedagogy First
  21. 21. “We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and underestimate the effect in the long run.”
  22. 22. Roy Amara (Amaras Law) The Institute for the Future / Stanford Research Institute “We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and underestimate the effect in the long run.”
  23. 23. Effect Time What we think that will happen
  24. 24. Effect Time What we think that will happen What really happens
  25. 25. Effect Time short run: overestimate long run: underestimate What really happens What we think that will happen
  26. 26. Examples 1. Future Learning Environment, 1998 2. MobilED: Mobile audio wiki / Wikipedia, 2006 3. Shedlight: Augmented reality with virtual annotation, 2006
  27. 27. Three examples 1. Future Learning Environment, 1998
  28. 28. What we think that will happen Effect Tim Berners-Lee: World Wide Web Wikipedia Facebook Google YouTube Twitter What really happens 1991 20082000 Mobile Web
  29. 29. 1991
  30. 30. 1991
  31. 31. 1996
  32. 32. 2000
  33. 33. Effect 20061998 Future Learning Environment, 1998 Wikipedia Facebook Google YouTube Twitter Tim Berners-Lee: World Wide Web 1991 20082000
  34. 34. Future Learning Environment / Fle3
  35. 35. Future Learning Environment / Fle3
  36. 36. Future Learning Environment / Fle3
  37. 37. Future Learning Environment / Fle3
  38. 38. Effect 20061998 Future Learning Environment, 1998 Wikipedia Facebook Google YouTube Twitter Tim Berners-Lee: World Wide Web 1991 20082000 10 years
  39. 39. Examples 1. Future Learning Environment, 1998 2. MobilED: Mobile audio wiki / Wikipedia, 2006 3. Shedlight: Augmented reality with virtual annotation, 2006
  40. 40. Three examples 1. (Mobile) Future Learning Environment, 1998 2. MobilED: Mobile audio wiki / Wikipedia, 2006 3. Shedlight: Augmented reality with virtual annotation, 2006
  41. 41. What we think that will happen Effect Mobile Phones for All Wikipedia Android App What really happens 2000 20122006 Wikipedia for All
  42. 42. 2003
  43. 43. What we think that will happen Effect Mobile phones for All Wikipedia Android App What really happens 2000 20122006 MobilED: Mobile audio wiki / Wikipedia, 2006
  44. 44. What we think that will happen Effect Mobile Phones for All Wikipedia Android App What really happens 2000 20122006 MobilED: Mobile audio wiki / Wikipedia, 2006 6 years
  45. 45. Examples 1. Future Learning Environment, 1998 2. MobilED: Mobile audio wiki / Wikipedia, 2006 3. Shedlight: Augmented reality with virtual annotation, 2006
  46. 46. Three examples 1. Future Learning Environment, 1998 2. MobilED: Mobile audio wiki / Wikipedia, 2006 3. Shedlight: Augmented reality with virtual annotation, 2006
  47. 47. Pokémon GO Effect Mobile augmented reality Pokémon GO What really happens What we think that will happen 1980 Steve Mann: Wearable computer system 20162000
  48. 48. Effect Pokémon GO 1980 2016 Pokémon GO 20061980 Steve Mann: Wearable computer system 2000 Shedlight: Augmented reality with virtual annotation
  49. 49. Effect Pokémon GO 1980 2016 Pokémon GO 20061980 Steve Mann: Wearable computer system 2000 Shedlight: Augmented reality with virtual annotation 10 years 1990
  50. 50. Three Things 1. Grand Challenge in Global Learning 2. Mobile Learning in Context 3. The Future: Pedagogy First
  51. 51. Three Things 1. Grand Challenge in Global Learning 2. Mobile Learning in Context 3. The Future: Pedagogy First
  52. 52. pedagogy statement learner-centered collaborative progressive inquiry = students behaving like experts.
  53. 53. Practices and situations. Paradigm shift ?
  54. 54. Messy connectivity
  55. 55. Computing power
  56. 56. Automation & robots
  57. 57. The future of work?
  58. 58. internet-based networks growing computing capacity automation and robotics Technology mega-trends ?
  59. 59. 2017 Scientific, Rational and Critical Thinking Skills for All
  60. 60. Learning mega-trends ? formal and informal learning social environments analytics, self-regulated learning (SRL) and reflection
  61. 61. internet- based networks formal and informal learning social environments analytics, SRL and reflection growing computing capacity ? automation and robotics
  62. 62. Leinonen, T., Keune, A., Veermans, M. & Toikkanen, T (2016) Mobile apps for reflection in learning: A design research in K-12 education. British Journal of Educational Technology. Põldoja, H., Duval, E., Leinonen, T. (2016) Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 32 (2). Pejoska, J., Bauters, M., Purma, J., Leinonen T. (2016) Social augmented reality: Enhancing context‐dependent communication and informal learning at work. British Journal of Educational Technology. Durall, E. & Leinonen, T. (2015). Why Do We Want Data for Learning? Learning Analytics and the Laws of Media. in The Future of Ubiquitous Learning Learning Designs for Emerging Pedagogies. Springer International Publishing.
  63. 63. Internet- based networks formal and informal learning social environments growing computing capacity automation and robotics Analytics, SRL and reflection
  64. 64. Thank you. !
  65. 65. ? Thank you.
  66. 66. Slide 2: By Cary Bass via Wikimedia Commons Slide 11: By Adriaen van Ostade via Wikimedia Commons Slide 12: By Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum via Wikimedia Commons Slide 13: By Capt. John Severns, U.S. Air Force via Wikimedia Commons Slide 14: By Blue Plover via Wikimedia Commons Slide 15: By StephenPellerine via Wikipedia Slide 16: By Jolly Janner via Wikimedia Commons Slide 17: By By Alfie↑↓© via Wikimedia Commons Slide 18: By Gedefr via Wikimedia Commons Slide 21: By 58th Presidential Inaugural Committee (left) and ewel Samad/AFP/Getty Images via Wikipedia Slide 22: By VOA, a screen from the video “File:White House Spokesman Spicer Holds News Conference.webm” via Wikipedia Slide 23: By premier.gov.ru via Wikimedia Commons Slide 24: From http://jimmywalesfoundation.org/indian-rationalist-in-exile-for-over-4-years-after-being- accused-of-blasphemy/ Photo Credits 1/2
  67. 67. Slide 25: By Apurva1980 via Wikimedia Commons Slide 26: By Acme News Photos via Wikimedia Commons Slide 27: From The New York Times Source: Archives of The New York Times via Wikipedia Slide 28: By Frederick Burr Opper via Wikimedia Commons Slide 29-31: From ITU ICT Facts and Figures 2017 Slide 33 and Slide 87: By John Vachon(w) for the United States Farm Security Administration(w) via Wikimedia Commons Slide 46: Screenshot taken by User:Ozguy89 via Wikipedia Slide 47: By Oldmobil via Wikimedia Commons Slide 48: By J-P Kärnä via Wikimedia Commons Slide 59: by Nokia Oyj Slide 68: Two photos from a work by AngelineStewart via Wikimedia Commons Slide 81: By Anu Koski Slide 82: By Anna Keune Photo Credits 2/2

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