PGCLT(HE) - Supporting students with TEL


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The "Supporting Students with TEL" is a module within the PGCLT(HE) at Canterbury Christ Church University. This is the presentation that was given to academic staff that puts TEL in an historical and cultural context before looking at what CCCU does now

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  • Can I have a show of hands for those who represent the: a) Silent Generation; b) Baby Boomers; c) Generation X and d) Net Generation There are many variations of this type of table. Some had different names: Silent > Greatest > Mature Baby Boomers > made up of “Early” Baby Boomers and “Late” Baby Boomers Net Generation > Generation Y > Millennials There are even differences between the “Birth Dates”. Whilst the generalisations may not necessary apply to everyone, they do provide a useful benchmark towards predicting trends. Trends that can inform policies, such as those to do with the economy, health and education. In many ways, this kind of table came about as a response to Prensky’s paper.
  • Whilst Prensky may have popularised the “digital native”, “digital immigrant” moniker. Other have added to that lexicon to create a continuum of “Wild West” stereotypes. Whilst these terms may offer a convenient reductionist approach to understanding the essence of the “digital native” / “digital immigrant” dichotomy; in many ways, it befits the, almost, catalogue-mentality of the Victorian Naturalist – a need for order and for everything to have its place in life. The language itself, as noted by Bayne and Ross (2007) is intrinsically racist and imperialist in tone and content; as clearly depicted in Prensky’s negative description of the “digital immigrant” as a dour “heavily accented, unintelligible foreigner” from the “old country”. In the current political climate, talk of immigrants and natives inevitably evokes complexities and anxieties around migration, integration, and racial and cultural differences in Western society – these are not useful terms. Stereotypes are not useful, we need to recognise people as being unique individuals. As we shall see, this becomes a recurring theme.
  • Are all youth’s Digital Natives? Simply put no. While we frame digital natives as a generation “born digital,” not all youth are digital natives. Digital natives share a common global culture that is defined not by age, strictly, but by certain attributes and experiences in part defined by their experience growing up immersed in digital technology, and the impact of this upon how they interact with information technologies, information itself, one another, and other people and institutions. Those who were not "born digital" can be just as connected, if not more so, than their younger counterparts. And not everyone born since, say, 1982, happens to be a digital native. Part of the challenge of this research is to understand the dynamics of who exactly is, and who is not, a digital native, and what that means. 
  • The eminent neuroscientist and current Director of the Royal Institution of Great Britain The last 10 years have seen a three-fold increase in the prescription of the drug Ritalin, a drug used for Attention Deficit Disorder "Could it be, and this is just a suggestion which I think we should look into, could it be if a small child is sitting in front of a screen pressing buttons and getting reactions quickly for many hours, they get used to and their brains get used to rapid responses?" If children do not have stories read to them and have little practice of concentrating for long periods this could effect how they handle the sedate pace of school life "Could it be that they then have to sit still for half an hour and of course they're not used to that because they're used to the rapid interaction with the screen, and could it - again a question - be that they are fidgety and hyperactive and then diagnosed as having a disorder?"
  • The media make a big play on how technology is making students “dumper” or “smarter”. Only recently we are reading reports that there is no need for students to have to remember anything, they can find it on the Internet – suggesting that technology like mobile phones, PDAs, iPods and laptops becomes a form of “Augmented Memory” where information can be easily accessed from the likes of Google, Wikipedia, podcasts and blogs. Don Tapscott, author of the bestselling book “Wikinomics”, who coined the phrase “Net Generation” in 1988 suggests that students no longer need to remember things as it is a “waste of time” especially as such information is available freely on the Internet. He goes on to suggest that it is much better to teach students to think creatively so that they can learn to interpret and apply the knowledge available online. We live in a world where we have to process new information at lightening speeds – People are going to have to reinvent their knowledge base multiple times, so to memorise facts and figures are a complete waste of time.
  • Moral panic is a sociological term, coined by Stanley Cohen (1972), meaning a reaction by a group of people based on the false or exaggerated perception that some cultural behaviour or group, frequently a minority group or a subculture, is dangerously deviant and poses a menace to society. The claim made for the existence of a generation of ‘digital natives’ is based on two main assumptions in the literature, which can be summarised as follows: 1. Young people of the digital native generation possess sophisticated knowledge of and skills with information technologies. 2. As a result of their upbringing and experiences with technology, digital natives have particular learning preferences or styles that differ from earlier generations of students. The time has come for a considered and disinterested examination of the assumptions underpinning claims about digital natives such that researchable issues can be identified and dispassionately investigated. This is not to say that young people are not engaged and interested in technology and that technology might not support effective learning. It is to call for considered and rigorous investigation that includes the perspectives of young people and their teachers, and genuinely seeks to understand the situation before proclaiming the need for widespread change.
  • PGCLT(HE) - Supporting students with TEL

    1. 1. Wayne Barry Learning & Teaching Enhancement Unit (LTEU) supporting students with technology-enhanced learning
    2. 2. in other words... How can technology enhance the student learning experience?
    3. 3. the programme... 03.02.2010 1) what is TEL? 2) a potted history of policies and initiatives 3) playing the generation game 4) getting under the microscope 5) what are we using at Christ Church? 6) technology-enhanced learning? 7) developing new skills and literacies 8) where to now?
    4. 4. Source: HEFCE. (2009). A revised approach to HEFCE's strategy for e-learning . HEFCE Publication 12/2009. Bristol: HEFCE what is technology-enhanced learning? created using “ understanding, creating, and exploiting digital technologies for learning…” (ESRC, 2006)
    5. 5. Image: a potted history of educational policies and initiatives…
    6. 6. some key initiatives and policies (1980s)… “ Schools should be provided with small and low-cost microcomputers and software systems. To give a boost to our own hardware industry they should be asked to design and supply these quickly ” National Strategy for IT, 1980 National Strategy for IT 1980: Microelectronics in Education Programme 1981: 1982: Micros for Schools scheme Technical & Vocational Education Initiative BBC launches "Computer Literacy Project" New Technology for Better Schools 1987:
    7. 7. some key initiatives and policies (1990s)… “ C&IT will overcome barriers to higher education, providing improved access and increased effectiveness, particularly in terms of lifelong learning. Physical and temporal obstacles to access for students will be overcome with the help of technology. Those from remote areas, or with work or family commitments need not be disadvantaged. Technology will also allow the particular requirements of students with disabilities to be more effectively met by institutions ” The Dearing Report, 1997 Teaching and Learning Technology Programme 1992: 1997: The National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education (Dearing) Connecting the Learning Society 1998: The Learning Age National Grid for Learning
    8. 8. some key initiatives and policies (2000s)… “ We will empower our universities to be world leaders in the growing market in transnational education based on e-learning ” Higher Ambitions, 2010 Prosperity for all in the global economy - world class skills (Leitch Review) 2006: Higher Ambitions: The future of universities in a knowledge economy 2010: The Future of Higher Education 2003: Widening Participation in Higher Education Digital Britain 2009:
    9. 9. Image: playing the generation game…
    10. 10. Source: Oblinger, D.G., & Oblinger, J.L. (2005). Educating the Net Generation . Technologies Television Telephone Telex Vinyl Record Nuclear Family Technologies Video Games Walkie Talkie E-mail Compact Disc Individual Technologies The Internet Cell Phone I.M. MP3 Online Communities Technologies Cinema Telegraph Biro Pen Radio Extended Family attitudes and technology through the generations… Silent Generation Baby Boomers Generation X Net Generation Birth Dates 1900-1946 1946-1964 1965-1982 1982-1991 Attributes Command and control Self-sacrifice Optimistic Workaholic Independent Sceptical Hopeful Determined Likes Respect for authority Family Community involvement Responsibility Work ethic Can-do attitude Freedom Multitasking Work-life balance Public activism Latest technology Parents Dislikes Waste Technology Laziness Turning 50 Red tape Hype Anything slow Negativity
    11. 11. rise of the digital natives? Source: Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants . On the Horizon . 9(5) have grown up and surrounded by digital technologies… ubiquitous digital environment has resulted in thinking and processing information differently… suggests that their brains have physically changed… … native speakers of a digital language have parallel processing & multi-tasking abilities… have hypertext-like minds… prefer visual information… zero tolerance for step-by-step instruction…
    12. 12. fall of the digital immigrants? Source: Prensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants . On the Horizon . 9(5) Image: have sequential processing & linear abilities… don’t understand the new ways in which the Digital Native learns… … speaks with an outdated language speak with an “accent”… teaching should not be fun… prefer textual information… prefer step-by-step instruction…
    13. 13. digital native digital immigrant digital colonist digital refugee digital explorer digital savage digital dissident digital pioneer digital settler the digital continuum… digital nomad
    14. 14. “ Rather than calling Digital Natives a generation – an overstatement, especially in light of the fact that only 1 billion of the 6 billion people in the world even have access to digital technologies – we prefer to think of them as a population …” Source: Palfrey, J. & Gasser, U. (2008). Born Digital: Understand the First Generation of Digital Natives . New York: Basic Books. the digital population… “… the vast majority of young people born in the world today are not growing up as Digital Natives.”
    15. 15. “ Why suddenly is there greater demand for [the] drug [Ritalin] for attentional problems? This might, and I stress might, be something to do with the increased exposure of young children to unsupervised and lengthy hours in front of a [computer] screen … they get used to and their brains get used to rapid responses .” Source: BBC Radio 4. (2008). iPM: Baroness Susan Greenfield on the Internet . BBC. 15.08.08 what the academics say?
    16. 16. what the papers say?
    17. 17. “ proponents arguing that e ducat ion must change dramatically to cater for the needs of these digita l natives have sparked an academic form of ‘moral panic’ using extreme arguments that have lacked empirical evidence.” Source: Bennett, S., Maton, K., & Kervin, L. (2008). “The ‘digital natives’ debate: A critical review of the evidence”. British Journal of Educational Technology. a moral panic? Image:
    18. 18. the digital divide debate - a postscript... Source: Prensky, M. (2009).”H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom”. Innovate , 5(3). “ Although many have found the terms useful … the distinction between digital natives and digital immigrants will become less relevant … I suggest we think in terms of digital wisdom .” Image:
    19. 19. Image: getting under the microscope...
    20. 20. some key research and studies... In Their Own Words (JISC) 2007: Students Expectations Study (JISC) Great Expectations of ICT (JISC) 2008: Information behaviour of the researcher of the future (JISC) ICT and the Student First Year Experience (JISC) 2009: Higher Education in a Web 2.0 World (JISC)
    21. 21. some key findings (1/2)... want tutors to be fully engaged with e-learning… search engines preferred to libraries… not interested in technology for “own sake”, only as a means to an end ... face-to-face interaction with a lecturer is a “back bone” to learning .. unable to make the connection on how technology can help them learn... suspects that learning mediated through technology could diminish the value of learning… older users catching up fast with technology usage... all generations have “zero tolerance” for information delays... want clear explanations about technologies that they are expected to use…
    22. 22. some key findings (2/2)... 69% of students believe they critically evaluate internet sources used for research... internet usage – determined by individual / personality / background NOT generation... certain technologies (e.g. online quizzes) can appear familiar and hence comfortable for new students to use… value authority figures over the Internet for information... technology is part of students’ lives: the term e-learning does not mean much to them … use of technology should be based on needs and be education driven not technology or product driven… students are social ; learning and support often takes place informally in groups, often facilitated by technology … skills do not belong to a particular generation…
    23. 23. challenges for institutions introducing ICT… Source: Ipsos MORI. (2008). Great Expectations of ICT . Bristol: JISC
    24. 24. challenges for institutions investing in ICT… Source: UCISA. (2009). UCISA Top Concerns Survey 2008 . Oxford: UCISA adopting Web 2.0 tools to supplement the “official” VLE… should tutors interact with students on social networking sites like Facebook? involving the University Library more fully into TEL… developing e-portfolio from within the VLE and making available to those outside of the University… using personal and mobile devices to support learning… risks to the learning process posed by the informal use of external services as a replacement for, or to supplement , the “official” VLE…
    25. 25. what do students find useful over time? Source: Ipsos MORI. (2008). Great Expectations of ICT . Bristol: JISC
    26. 26. what are we doing at Christ Church? Image:
    27. 27. what technologies (desktop) are we using?
    28. 28. what technologies (services) are we using?
    29. 29. what technologies (hardware) are we using?
    30. 30. what technologies (physical) are we using? books journals CDs DVDs videos 28 OPACS 120 fixed Desktop PCs 200 wi-fi enabled netbooks large touch-screen computers configurable furniture mobile divider screens interactive white boards drinks and snack vending machines space
    31. 31. technology-enhanced learning? Image:
    32. 32. the case for and against for using VLEs... FOR AGAINST a) Easy online delivery of material and resources a) Filing cabinet or dumping ground b) Problems occur if not linked or integrated properly c) Copyright b) Easy to use d) “Easy” depends on the software and the skills of the user c) Always accessible - 24/7 e) Depends of hardware, networks, infrastructure and other aspects d) Affords new kinds of independent learning with a greater responsibility for own learning f) Independent learning isn’t independent at all g) Needs to be guided, supported and facilitated e) Can return feedback and grades back to students h) In some institutions, the VLE is not linked up to the Student Records System f) More control for tutors i) Student cannot personalise the interface as it looks “ugly”
    33. 33. adopting a more blended approach... Image: “ Blended learning involves increasing flexibility : options for what, how, when, where, and with whom they participate in the course. The focus ... is not about presenting content: Start with a learning model focused on what the learners will be doing and contributing ” Source: Collis, B. (2005). ICT for blended learning . Bordeaux, 6 July 2005 Ingredients: a) Offline Elements (Seminars / Lectures) b) Online Elements (Discussion Boards / Wikis) c) Resources (Staff / Skills / Print / Digital) d) Learning Tasks and Activities e) Space (Co-located / Distributed) f) Structure & Scaffolding g) Variety h) Interaction / Interactive i) Motivators & Feedback j) Community Building Caveats: a) Should not be viewed as a cheap option b) Takes time to develop – time effort is mainly up front c) May result in increase in staff time d) Higher drop-out rate if offered “at a distance” with technology
    34. 34. personal learning environments (PLEs)... “ A system that helps learners take control of and manage their own learning. This includes providing support for learners to set their own learning goals, manage their learning, manage both content and process, and communicate with others in the process of learning” Source: van Harmelen, M. (2006). Personal Learning Environments . 6 th ICALT, IEEE . Features: a) Uses current and emergent tools b) More personalised c) Low or no cost d) Flexible to needs and requirements e) More engagement f) Provides context and meaning g) Supports lifelong / informal learning h) Share resources and artefacts i) Supports self and peer group learning j) Content is reused and remixed Paradigm Shift: a) Social involvement b) Content c) Ownership d) Educational & Organisational culture e) Personalisation f) Role of the learner g) Technology (MashUp / Widgets) Image:
    35. 35. what technologies (web) could we use?
    36. 36. what technologies (resources) could we use?
    37. 37. Image: developing new skills and literacies
    38. 38. “ Giving children and young people the skills and tools that they need to participate in Digital Britain is of critical importance from both a social and economic perspective. If we are to truly maximise the potential of these digital economy and the benefits it can bring to all sections of society, we must ensure that children and young people are confident and empowered to access , use and create digital media.” Source: DCMS & DBIS. (2009). Digital Britain: Final Report – June 2009 . London: HMSO. digital britain…
    39. 39. developing digital literacy skills… Source: Martin, A. & Grudziecki, J. (2006). “ DigEuLit: Concepts and Tools for Digital Literacy Development ”. ITALICS , 5(4), pp. 249-267. “ ... digital literacy is the awareness , attitude and ability of individuals to appropriately use digital tools and facilities to identify , access , manage , integrate , evaluate , analyse and synthesise digital resources, construct new knowledge , create media expressions , and communicate with others, in the context of specific life situations, in order to enable constructive social action , and to reflect upon this process.” suggests that digital literacy is cultural rather than technological and is socially located ... no ‘ one size fits all ’ , e-literacy is dynamic – needs of individuals will change as their situation and environment change ...
    40. 40. developing digital literacy skills… trust risk copyright responsibility identity privacy ethics authorship accountability criticality evaluation understand textual, visual, auditory & kinaesthetic information technology communication reflection awareness adaptability confidence
    41. 41. Image: where to now?
    42. 42. talk with colleagues… Image: your department your programme your Faculty other Institutions ...on your PGCHE(LT) course ...within your subject discipline
    43. 43. go on a staff development programme... “… the aim is to enable programme participants to be more aware and more confident in exploiting a wide range of modern technologies – to be become digitally literate …” “… uses a personalised, contextualised, approach to developing digital literacy in staff based on the individual context and needs of participants…” DEBUT D igital E xperience B uilding in U niversity T eaching