Brain Development in   Children   Genes vs. Environment
<ul><li>Development   of the human brain is   crucial   in the   first 2 years   of a person’s life.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ge...
The  Development  of the  Brain <ul><li>The Brain </li></ul><ul><li>weighs  3 lbs 100 billion  neurons </li></ul><ul><li>6...
<ul><li>Grey   Matter     Cell Bodies  of Neurons </li></ul><ul><li>White  Matter     Axons </li></ul><ul><li>Surface  o...
<ul><li>Development  Foetus    Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all  of neurons are  </li></ul><ul><li>generated during the...
<ul><li>Until   first year   of life,   </li></ul><ul><li>baby   has almost   </li></ul><ul><li>2x amount   of Neurons &  ...
Nature   vs.   Nurture <ul><li>Fight between  Nature vs. Nurture . </li></ul><ul><li>Actually,  Nature  +  Nurture </li></...
Genes <ul><li>Structure Base Compound =  Letter  in alphabet  </li></ul><ul><li>in the  genetic code </li></ul><ul><li>  4...
<ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Genes  Contribute  to talent,  </li></ul><ul><li>language, eye color, disease, etc. </l...
Pax6  &  Emx2 <ul><li>Pax6 and Emx2:  genes  that control  </li></ul><ul><li>regionalization of the  Pre-neuronogenic   </...
<ul><li>Gene  Mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed in the  </li></ul><ul><li>embryonic neo-cortex   </li></ul><ul><li>regi...
Environment <ul><li>Plays an essential  role   </li></ul><ul><li>in determining which  cells  </li></ul><ul><li>& connecti...
Effects   on the Brain’s   Development <ul><li>Rat Study </li></ul><ul><li>2  different  settings </li></ul><ul><li>1-  On...
Results <ul><li>Rats in  CEs  had  more  synapses per neuron than those in  ICs  in both cases </li></ul>
<ul><li>Auditory Study </li></ul><ul><li>2  types of  kids </li></ul><ul><li>1- Kids  deaf  since birth </li></ul><ul><li>...
Results <ul><li>When  deaf kids  did the  </li></ul><ul><li>visual task , they activated  </li></ul><ul><li>the  auditory ...
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Brain development in children

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Brain development in children

  1. 1. Brain Development in Children Genes vs. Environment
  2. 2. <ul><li>Development of the human brain is crucial in the first 2 years of a person’s life. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes + Environment = Full development </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Development of the Brain <ul><li>The Brain </li></ul><ul><li>weighs 3 lbs 100 billion neurons </li></ul><ul><li>60 trillion connections </li></ul><ul><li>Trees in the Amazon Rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Right Hemisphere & </li></ul><ul><li>Left Hemisphere connected </li></ul><ul><li>by a fibre bundle </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Grey Matter  Cell Bodies of Neurons </li></ul><ul><li>White Matter  Axons </li></ul><ul><li>Surface of the Brain = Neocortex </li></ul><ul><li>47 sub-areas of the Neocortex </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Development Foetus  Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all of neurons are </li></ul><ul><li>generated during the </li></ul><ul><li>first half of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Produce 200 000 Neurons / minute </li></ul><ul><li>during early pregnancy </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Until first year of life, </li></ul><ul><li>baby has almost </li></ul><ul><li>2x amount of Neurons & </li></ul><ul><li>Connections as an adult </li></ul><ul><li>Cells that are part of </li></ul><ul><li>functioning networks have access </li></ul><ul><li>to nerve growth factor . </li></ul><ul><li>Cells compete to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Make Connections  survive . </li></ul><ul><li>No Connection  Die </li></ul><ul><li>Peak varies with </li></ul><ul><li>Each area of the brain, </li></ul><ul><li>but same pattern </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Fight between Nature vs. Nurture . </li></ul><ul><li>Actually, Nature + Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Nature  Interaction  Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Brain : </li></ul><ul><li>-Plan governed by genetic expression </li></ul><ul><li>- Influenced by experience of the organism </li></ul>
  8. 8. Genes <ul><li>Structure Base Compound = Letter in alphabet </li></ul><ul><li>in the genetic code </li></ul><ul><li> 4 Letters (A,C,G,U) </li></ul><ul><li>Some have few letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are very long </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Genes Contribute to talent, </li></ul><ul><li>language, eye color, disease, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Very rare that a gene is </li></ul><ul><li>solely responsible for a </li></ul><ul><li>particular structure or function </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pax6 & Emx2 <ul><li>Pax6 and Emx2: genes that control </li></ul><ul><li>regionalization of the Pre-neuronogenic </li></ul><ul><li>Cortical Primordium </li></ul><ul><li>Pax6: high concentration in Back & Middle of brain </li></ul><ul><li>Emx2: high concentration </li></ul><ul><li>in Front & Sides of brain. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Gene Mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed in the </li></ul><ul><li>embryonic neo-cortex </li></ul><ul><li>region very early in development . </li></ul><ul><li>(First 2 months of pregnancy) Compete with each other suppressing the one with mutation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Environment <ul><li>Plays an essential role </li></ul><ul><li>in determining which cells </li></ul><ul><li>& connections are </li></ul><ul><li>lost or stabilized . </li></ul><ul><li>Big effect on the brain’s </li></ul><ul><li>development </li></ul>
  13. 13. Effects on the Brain’s Development <ul><li>Rat Study </li></ul><ul><li>2 different settings </li></ul><ul><li>1- One rat/cage </li></ul><ul><li>No activity , contact, </li></ul><ul><li>input or companionship </li></ul><ul><li>2- Many rats/cage </li></ul><ul><li>Toys , nicely decorated, visitors </li></ul><ul><li>Some rats started as </li></ul><ul><li>babies & some as adults </li></ul>
  14. 14. Results <ul><li>Rats in CEs had more synapses per neuron than those in ICs in both cases </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Auditory Study </li></ul><ul><li>2 types of kids </li></ul><ul><li>1- Kids deaf since birth </li></ul><ul><li>2- Kids with good hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Deaf kids: Something </li></ul><ul><li>visual and respond </li></ul><ul><li>Regular kids: Something </li></ul><ul><li>auditory and respond </li></ul>
  16. 16. Results <ul><li>When deaf kids did the </li></ul><ul><li>visual task , they activated </li></ul><ul><li>the auditory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>This happens when people have </li></ul><ul><li>never heard anything before. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t work with someone </li></ul><ul><li>Normally, in the beginning of who became deaf later in life </li></ul><ul><li>development, the structures of </li></ul><ul><li>the body fight for the </li></ul><ul><li>response from certain parts </li></ul><ul><li>of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes and ears fight </li></ul><ul><li>for the response from </li></ul><ul><li>the auditory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>In these cases, the ear </li></ul><ul><li>doesn’t activate a response </li></ul><ul><li>because no sound is heard, </li></ul><ul><li>so the eyes take over the </li></ul><ul><li>function of this area </li></ul>X

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