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Section 4


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Section 4

  1. 1. Section 4<br />The Civil War and American Life<br />
  2. 2. Divisions over the war<br />Nation divided as well as divisions in the North & South<br />Northerners: some did not support the war or want to restore the Union<br />Southerners: some did not support a war to defend slavery or secession<br />
  3. 3. Divisions in the South<br />Georgia<br />Only half supported secession<br />North Carolina<br />Held nearly 100 peace protests<br />Supplied second most number of troops to Confederate army<br />Regions w/ large plantations supported the more stronger than poor black country regions<br />States’ Rights<br />Created divisions<br />Objections to officers from other states leading troops<br />Objection to Confederate government forcing men to do military service<br />
  4. 4. Division in the north<br />Many opposed the Emancipation Proclamation<br />Others believed South had a right to secede<br />Northern Democrats<br />Blamed Lincoln & Republicans of forcing the South into War<br />Called Copperheads; strongest in Ohio, Indiana, & Illinois; criticized the war & called for peace<br />
  5. 5. Dealing with disruptions<br />People on both sides tried to disrupt the war<br />Tried to encourage soldiers to desert<br />Helped prisoners of war escape<br />Southern peace groups worked against the Confederacy<br />Tried to prevent men from volunteering for military service<br />Habeas Corpus suspended<br />Lincoln & Jefferson Davis suspended Habeas Corpus in some places (constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment)<br />Empowered judges to determine if prisoners were being legally held<br />13,000 people in the North were arrested and jailed without trials<br />
  6. 6. The Draft<br />April 1862<br />South: men aged 18-35 & later to 50 were drafted into the army<br />March 1863<br />North: U.S. Congress created a military draft<br />Draft laws<br />Incomplete & discriminatory<br />Could hire a substitute to avoid service<br />Could buy out by paying the government $300.00<br />Critics began calling the Civil War “a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight”<br />Southern governors helped their citizens evade the draft<br />July 1863<br />Riots took place in New York City to show opposition to the draft<br />
  7. 7. Bounty, or lump sum, of $1,500 was paid for a 3-year enlistment<br />This led to the practice of bounty jumping<br />A man would enlist, collect his bounty and then desert, only to reenlist somewhere else<br />
  8. 8. The war and economic strains<br />Northern Industries<br />boomed during the war; turned out goods Union needed<br />Draft did drain away workers<br />August 1861<br />Congress levied 1st income tax in history<br />Union printed $400 million of paper money<br />Pay for expenses<br />1st federal paper money printed<br />Led to inflation; prices of goods in raised 80% during the war in the North<br />South<br />Less able to sustain war<br />Union blockade prevented ability to raise money<br />Shortages made goods more expensive<br />Led to greater inflation than in the North<br />$18 shoes now cost $800<br />Food production fell as Union armies destroyed farmland & crops<br />Led to riots for food, cloth, & shoes<br />
  9. 9. Women in the civil war<br />400 women disguised as men fought in the war<br />Became spies<br />Took over businesses, farms, plantations for men who were fighting in the war<br />Some women in the South worked the field to meet the needs of workers<br />Work in factories<br />Became teachers & nurses<br />Barriers to women fell<br />Elizabeth Blackwell became 1st female physician<br />Dorothea Dix became head of Union army nurses<br />Harriet Tubman continued to lead enslaved people to freedom<br />Clara Barton cared for wounded soldiers on the battlefield<br />