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Chapters 18 & 19
Big Business and Organized Labor
The South and theWest
Chapter 18
Big Business and Organized Labor
Focus Questions
• What fueled the growth of the post Civil War economy?
• What is “Big Business”?
• What were the social a...
Major Catalysts of the 2nd Industrial Revolution
• Creation of interconnected transportation and communication networks
• ...
Corporations and the 2nd Industrial Revolution
• Businesses grew as a result of rapid expansion of technology, population,...
Convergence and Economic Growth
• Convergence
• Natural resources: forests; minerals; rivers
• Rapidly expanding populatio...
Advances in Agriculture
• By 1870 US was the world leader in production of wheat and corn
• Commercial cattle industry
• S...
The Rise of Big Business
• Railroads
• First industries to represent big business
• Building the Transcontinentals
• Centr...
May 10th 1889
Central Pacific Railroad workers
The Rise of Big Business
• Financing the Railroads
• Railroads constructed by private companies who raised the funds by se...
The Rise of Big Business
Route ofTranscontinental RR
Questions to consider
• Why was the transcontinental RR
not in the So...
Government Subsidies, Corruption and Big
Business
• Tammany Hall: Society of St.Tammany-- 1786 Democratic Party political
...
Railroad & Business Entrepreneurs
aka “Robber Barons”
• Jay Gould: involved in a number of businesses and the BossTweed ri...
Entrepreneurs
Andrew Carnegie
Entrepreneurs
Entrepreneurs
J. P. Morgan
Entrepreneurs
• J. P. Morgan, Financier: investment banker
• Sears and Roebuck: Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck—mail order...
Entrepreneurs
Entrepreneurs
The Working Class
The Working Class
• Disorganized Protest
• The Molly Maguires
The Working Class
• The Railroad Strike of 1877
• 1st Interstate Strike
• Financial panic of 1873
• Federal troops stopped...
The Working Class
The Working Class
• Toward Permanent Unions
• 1866 National Labor Union
• Contract Labor Act
• Employers to import employe...
The Working Class
The Working Class
• Anarchism
• Any form of government limits individual freedom and is abusive
• The Haymarket Affair
• 1...
The Working Class
Illustration of the Haymarket Affair
The injured man is a police officer.
The Working Class
• Gompers and the AFL
• 1886 25 skilled workers organizations created the
American Federation of Labor
•...
Black Pullman Porters Union
Pullman cars: hotels on wheels
Pullman hired only African American men as porters
Porters requ...
The Working Class
• The Pullman Strike
• 1894: American RR Worker’s Union refused to handle Pullman cars
• 27 states affec...
The Working Class
The Working Class
• Socialism and the Unions
• Eugene V. Debs
• The Wobblies
• IWW
Debs addresses a crowd of workers
Chapter 19
The South and the WestTransformed
The New South
• Plantation system gave way to tenant farming and sharecropping
• Farmers worked land they did not own
• Tr...
The Myth of the New South
The Myth of the New South
The Myth of the New South
Plessy v. Ferguson and Jim Crow
• Application of Constitutional Amendment to citizens
• Civil Rights Law of 1865
The New West
• The Migratory Stream
• 1870-1900: Americans settled more land in the U.S. than had been occupied
before the...
The New West
• The Indian Wars
• Lieutenant Colonel George Custer
• Miners and Sioux territory
The New West
• Cattle and Cowboys
• Cattle drives ended at rail lines
• The End of the Open Range
• Barbed wire
The New West
Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876 by Amos Bad Heart Bull
The New West
• Range Wars
• Conflicting claims and goals of farmers & ranchers
• Ethnic prejudices
• Farmers and the Land
...
Women in theWest
The New West
• Pioneer Women
• Same social rules as in the East
• Hardships made life more egalitarian
• Widows assumed co...
Photos Used in this Presentation
• Wikipedia Commons
• Courtesy of Amon Carter Museum, Fort WorthTexas
• Courtesy of Union...
His 122 ch 18 & 19 su 14
His 122 ch 18 & 19 su 14
His 122 ch 18 & 19 su 14
His 122 ch 18 & 19 su 14
His 122 ch 18 & 19 su 14
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His 122 ch 18 & 19 su 14

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His 122 ch 18 & 19 su 14

  1. 1. Chapters 18 & 19 Big Business and Organized Labor The South and theWest
  2. 2. Chapter 18 Big Business and Organized Labor
  3. 3. Focus Questions • What fueled the growth of the post Civil War economy? • What is “Big Business”? • What were the social and political consequences of the rise of Big Business?
  4. 4. Major Catalysts of the 2nd Industrial Revolution • Creation of interconnected transportation and communication networks • RR andTelephone/Telegraph • Steamships • By 1880 widespread application of electrical power • Industrial machinery • Trolleys and subways • Production of steel and chemicals • Systematic application of scientific research to industrial processes • Refining of crude oil into kerosene and gasoline • Inventions of new products
  5. 5. Corporations and the 2nd Industrial Revolution • Businesses grew as a result of rapid expansion of technology, population, government incentives and subsidies. • Business owners sought to integrate all the processes of production and distribution of goods into single companies to minimize competition. • Mergers with competitors: intended to dominate entire industries and limit competition
  6. 6. Convergence and Economic Growth • Convergence • Natural resources: forests; minerals; rivers • Rapidly expanding population: immigration • Development of more efficient and labor-saving technology • Entrepreneurs • Government • Tariffs • Government provided land and cash • Little, if any, regulation of business activity or working conditions • Minimal or no regulation of corruption in politics • 1868 NewYork state legislature legalized bribery of politicians
  7. 7. Advances in Agriculture • By 1870 US was the world leader in production of wheat and corn • Commercial cattle industry • Slaughter and Meat packing
  8. 8. The Rise of Big Business • Railroads • First industries to represent big business • Building the Transcontinentals • Central Pacific RR: East from Sacramento • Hired between 12,00-14,000 Chinese laborers who came to US in search of gold • Union Pacific RR: West from Omaha • 1865 Promontory Utah
  9. 9. May 10th 1889 Central Pacific Railroad workers
  10. 10. The Rise of Big Business • Financing the Railroads • Railroads constructed by private companies who raised the funds by selling bonds. • By 1850’s: Congress approved legislation to provide federal land to the RR companies • Inventions Spurred Manufacturing • Barbed wire, refrigerated box cars • The telephone
  11. 11. The Rise of Big Business Route ofTranscontinental RR Questions to consider • Why was the transcontinental RR not in the South ? • Why should government get involved in helping private businesses?
  12. 12. Government Subsidies, Corruption and Big Business • Tammany Hall: Society of St.Tammany-- 1786 Democratic Party political machine that controlled NewYorkCity from 1854-1932 • BossTweed ran the 7th ward in NYC forTammany Hall • Political patronage • Irish Immigrant population • Corruption
  13. 13. Railroad & Business Entrepreneurs aka “Robber Barons” • Jay Gould: involved in a number of businesses and the BossTweed ring in NewYork City. Owned the Erie Railroad with Jay Fiske and put BossTweed on the board of directors. Posted 1 million bail for bossTweed after he was arrested for corruption. 9th richest man in U.S. history. Controlled over 10,000 miles of railroads. Attempted to corner the gold market.
  14. 14. Entrepreneurs Andrew Carnegie
  15. 15. Entrepreneurs
  16. 16. Entrepreneurs J. P. Morgan
  17. 17. Entrepreneurs • J. P. Morgan, Financier: investment banker • Sears and Roebuck: Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck—mail order Sears mail-order homes
  18. 18. Entrepreneurs
  19. 19. Entrepreneurs
  20. 20. The Working Class
  21. 21. The Working Class • Disorganized Protest • The Molly Maguires
  22. 22. The Working Class • The Railroad Strike of 1877 • 1st Interstate Strike • Financial panic of 1873 • Federal troops stopped the strike • The Sand-Lot Incident • Meeting to show support for RR strike turned into an attack on Chinese immigrants • Anti-Chinese Agitation • Chinese worked for less and perceived to steal American jobs • Dennis Kearney and “foreign peril” • 1882: Congress prohibited Chinese immigration for 10 years
  23. 23. The Working Class
  24. 24. The Working Class • Toward Permanent Unions • 1866 National Labor Union • Contract Labor Act • Employers to import employees by paying passage • The Knights of Labor • Secret • Protect workers from retaliation • Hundreds of thousands of workers were members
  25. 25. The Working Class
  26. 26. The Working Class • Anarchism • Any form of government limits individual freedom and is abusive • The Haymarket Affair • 1886 Knights of Labor rally in Chicago • Bomb thrown into a group of police officers • Undermined the Knights of Labor though no one found guilty of incident
  27. 27. The Working Class Illustration of the Haymarket Affair The injured man is a police officer.
  28. 28. The Working Class • Gompers and the AFL • 1886 25 skilled workers organizations created the American Federation of Labor • Samuel Gompers • The Homestead Strike • 1892 Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers went on strike at Carnegie’s Homestead Works near Pittsburgh • An attempt to break the strike ended in bloodshed when members of the Pinkerton DetectiveAgency • state militias were sent in to protect workers not involved in the strike.
  29. 29. Black Pullman Porters Union Pullman cars: hotels on wheels Pullman hired only African American men as porters Porters required to work 400 hours per month or 11,000 miles— to receive full pay. Porters depended on passengers' tips to earn a decent level of pay. Tips > monthly salary earned from the Pullman Company. High social prestige in African American Community Thurgood Marshall’s father was a Pullman porter
  30. 30. The Working Class • The Pullman Strike • 1894: American RR Worker’s Union refused to handle Pullman cars • 27 states affected • Entire RR lines brought to halt • President Grover Cleveland ordered federal troops to remove cars from tracks citing Federal authority to deliver mail • Mother Jones (1837-1930) • Self-declared mother of the labor movement • Higher wages • Shorter hours, safer workplaces • Child labor restrictions
  31. 31. The Working Class
  32. 32. The Working Class • Socialism and the Unions • Eugene V. Debs • The Wobblies • IWW
  33. 33. Debs addresses a crowd of workers
  34. 34. Chapter 19 The South and the WestTransformed
  35. 35. The New South • Plantation system gave way to tenant farming and sharecropping • Farmers worked land they did not own • Traded a percentage of annual yield for the right to work their share of land • Little cash available-most farmers lived in a perpetual state of debt • Some growth in manufacturing • Cotton still King • Railroad improved shipping crops to market
  36. 36. The Myth of the New South
  37. 37. The Myth of the New South
  38. 38. The Myth of the New South
  39. 39. Plessy v. Ferguson and Jim Crow • Application of Constitutional Amendment to citizens • Civil Rights Law of 1865
  40. 40. The New West • The Migratory Stream • 1870-1900: Americans settled more land in the U.S. than had been occupied before the Civil War • Settlers’ ethnicities • African-American Migration • Exodusters • Buffalo Soldiers: “colored” cavalry units
  41. 41. The New West • The Indian Wars • Lieutenant Colonel George Custer • Miners and Sioux territory
  42. 42. The New West • Cattle and Cowboys • Cattle drives ended at rail lines • The End of the Open Range • Barbed wire
  43. 43. The New West Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876 by Amos Bad Heart Bull
  44. 44. The New West • Range Wars • Conflicting claims and goals of farmers & ranchers • Ethnic prejudices • Farmers and the Land • Homestead Act of 1862 • 1900 Progressives encouraged water rights and dams
  45. 45. Women in theWest
  46. 46. The New West • Pioneer Women • Same social rules as in the East • Hardships made life more egalitarian • Widows assumed control of land and independence that would not have been tolerated back home • The End of the Frontier • 1890 Census: no area remained in continental U.S. where fewer than 2 people per square mile resided
  47. 47. Photos Used in this Presentation • Wikipedia Commons • Courtesy of Amon Carter Museum, Fort WorthTexas • Courtesy of Union Pacific Historical Collection • Harper’s Weekly Election Cartoons • A Philip Randolph Museum: Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters http://www.aphiliprandolphmuseum.com/evo_history4.html

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