West-Central Europe<br />Chapter 13<br />
Physical Geography<br />Section 1<br />
Physical Features<br />Countries<br />France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, & Austria<br />B...
Lowlands, Uplands, & Mountains<br />Landforms arranged like a fan<br />Northern European Plain: forms outer edge of fan; f...
Climate & Waterways<br />Marine west coast climate<br />Mild winters, mild summers; Low annual temperature range; Heavy cl...
Resources<br />Forests<br />Most cut down centuries ago<br />Fields that remain are very productive<br />Germany’s plains:...
Section 2<br />France<br />
History<br />Been occupied by many European countries<br />Ancient times<br />Part of Gaul<br />Early History<br />600 B.C...
Dreamed of building Christian empire as great as old Roman Empire<br />A.D. 800 crowned Emperor of Romans<br />Strengthene...
Middle Ages<br />Period from collapse of Roman Empire to 1500<br />Kings were not very powerful<br />Depended on nobles co...
Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris<br />
Revolution and Napoleon’s Empire<br />1500s to 1700s<br />France built global empire<br />Est. colonies in America, Asia, ...
1815<br />Alliance of Austria, U.K., Prussia, & Russia defeated Napoleon<br />French king regained throne<br />
World Wars<br />WWI<br />German army controlled northern & eastern France<br />WWII<br />German army controlled northern &...
Government<br />1950s & 1960s<br />French colonies in Asia & Africa became independent<br />Other smaller territories arou...
Culture<br />85% are Roman Catholic<br />5%-10% are Muslim<br />Speak French mostly<br />Immigrants from Africa, Caribbean...
Customs<br />Mediterranean foods<br />Wheat, olives, cheeses, & garlic<br />Wine is produced in many regions<br />Many fes...
The Arts & Literature<br />Great tradition of poetry, philosophy, music, & visual arts<br />Late 1800s & early 1900s<br />...
France Today<br />Major agricultural & industrial country<br />Resources, labor force, & location help spur economic growt...
Section 3<br />Germany<br />
History<br />Germans<br />Descendants of tribe from northern Europe<br />Conquered by Romans<br />Land named Germania<br />
Growth of a Nation<br />Small cities states developed region<br />Ruled by princes& with help of Roman Catholic Church bec...
War and Division<br />1914-1918<br />Fought and lost WWI<br />War damages and depression hurt economy<br />1920s<br />Adol...
Concentration camps<br />Were people were forced to from occupied countries<br />Were enslaved or killed<br />6 million Je...
Allies of Britain, Soviet Union, U.S., & others eventually defeated Germany in 1945<br />Germany was divided into occupati...
Reunification & Modern Government<br />West Germany<br />Roads, cities, railroads, & industries rebuilt after the war w/ U...
Culture<br />34% are Roman Catholic<br />38% Protestant<br />Diversity<br />90% are ethnic Germans<br />Turks, Poles, & It...
Customs<br />Food emphasizes products of the forests, farms, & seasons<br />Sausage, cheese, wine, & beer<br />Celebration...
The Arts & Literature<br />Johannes Gutenberg<br />1st European to print books using movable metal type<br />1700s & 1800s...
Germany Today<br />Federal Republic<br />Parliament chooses chancellor (prime minister)<br />Also elects president (ceremo...
The Alpine Countries<br />
Names after Alps<br />Draw tourists<br />Both landlocked<br />Influenced by German culture<br />General Background Info.<b...
Austria<br />Home to Habsburgs (powerful family of German nobles)<br />At their height of power they ruled Spain, Netherla...
Switzerland<br />Independent since 1600s<br />Swiss Cantons (26 districts)<br />each controls own affairs; national gov’t ...
Culture<br />Switzerland<br />46% is Roman Catholic<br />40% Protestant<br />Austria<br />Mainly Roman Catholic<br />5% Pr...
Languages & Diversity<br />Switzerland<br />64% speak German<br />18% speak French<br />10% speak Italian<br />Southeast s...
Customs<br />Christmas is a major festival<br />Rural Switzerland<br />Take cattle up to high mts. in late spring & return...
The Alpine Countries Today<br />Both produce dairy products<br />Switzerland<br />Manufactures watches, optical instrument...
Section 4<br />The Benelux Countries<br />
Once inhabited by Celtic & Germanic tribes<br />Were conquered by the Romans<br />Charlemagne ruled area after fall of Rom...
Scarred region<br />Many WWI battles took place in Belgium<br />WWII<br />Germany occupied Low Countries<br />1949<br />Be...
Religion<br />Roman Catholic, Protestant, & those w/ no religious ties<br />Language<br />Dutch is spoken in the Netherlan...
Diary products, fish, & sausage<br />Spices from Southeast Asia are used in many Dutch  dishes<br />Belgians claim to have...
Netherlands & Belgium are world leaders in fine arts<br />Vincent van Gogh, Rembrandt & Jan Vermeer<br />Arts<br />
Netherlands<br />Famous for flowers<br />Export: cheeses, Chocolate, & cocoa<br />imports/refines: oil<br />Belgium<br />K...
Section 5<br />The Alpine Countries<br />
History<br />Austria & Switzerland<br />Celtic Occupation<br />Roman & Germanic invasion<br />Ruled by Holy Roman Empire<b...
Switzerland<br />Swiss Cantons (districts)<br />Broke away from Holy Roman Empire<br />1600s became Independent<br />Today...
Austria<br />Home to Habsburgs (powerful family of German nobles)<br />1400s on Holy Roman emperor was always a Habsburg<b...
Culture<br />Switzerland<br />46% is Roman Catholic<br />40% Protestant<br />Austria<br />Mainly Roman Catholic<br />5% Pr...
Languages & Diversity<br />Switzerland<br />64% speak German<br />18% speak French<br />10% speak Italian<br />Southeast s...
Customs<br />Christmas is a major festival<br />Rural Switzerland<br />Take cattle up to high mts. in late spring & return...
The Alpine Countries Today<br />Both produce dairy products<br />Switzerland<br />Manufactures watches, optical instrument...
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  1. 1. West-Central Europe<br />Chapter 13<br />
  2. 2. Physical Geography<br />Section 1<br />
  3. 3. Physical Features<br />Countries<br />France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, & Austria<br />Benelux countries (Low Countries)<br />Belgium, the Netherlands, & Luxembourg<br />Alpine countries (lie in the Alps mt. range)<br />Switzerland & Austria<br />
  4. 4. Lowlands, Uplands, & Mountains<br />Landforms arranged like a fan<br />Northern European Plain: forms outer edge of fan; falls below sea level in some areas<br />Uplands: form middle of fan; begin at the Pyrenees Mts.; Massif Central in France & the Schwarzwald (black forest) in Germany are also important upland landforms<br />Mountains: center of fan; the Alps are highest range in Europe<br />Large glaciers are present & avalanches occur often<br />
  5. 5. Climate & Waterways<br />Marine west coast climate<br />Mild winters, mild summers; Low annual temperature range; Heavy cloud cover & high humidity; Frequent cyclonic storms, with prolonged rain, drizzle and fog.<br /> areas farther from North Atlantic are colder (Germany)<br />The Alps feed west-central Europe’s navigable rivers<br />Deep enough & wide enough to used by ships<br />France: the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, & the Rhone Rivers<br />Germany: the Rhine, the Danube, the Elbe, the Oder, & the Weser Rivers<br />Important for trade & travel<br />
  6. 6. Resources<br />Forests<br />Most cut down centuries ago<br />Fields that remain are very productive<br />Germany’s plains: rich in loess (fine, wind blown soil deposits)<br />Germany & France produce grapes for wines<br />Switzerland: pastures support dairy cattle<br />Mineral resources<br />Iron ore, oil, coal, & natural gas<br />Nuclear power & hydroelectric power supply region w/ energy needs<br />Resources are unevenly distributed throughout region<br />
  7. 7. Section 2<br />France<br />
  8. 8. History<br />Been occupied by many European countries<br />Ancient times<br />Part of Gaul<br />Early History<br />600 B.C.<br />Greeks set up colonies<br />Gaul conquered by the Romans; est. Latin-based lang. that developed into French; rule lasted until A.D. 400<br />Franks (Germanic people) conquered Gaul<br />Charlemagne was ruler of Franks<br />
  9. 9. Dreamed of building Christian empire as great as old Roman Empire<br />A.D. 800 crowned Emperor of Romans<br />Strengthened gov’t & improved education & arts in Europe<br />Empire divided after his death<br />Norsemen<br />Invaded from northern Europe; settled in western France (Normandy)<br />
  10. 10. Middle Ages<br />Period from collapse of Roman Empire to 1500<br />Kings were not very powerful<br />Depended on nobles cooperation<br />1066<br />Duke of Normandy conquered England<br />Kings of England also ruled part of France<br />1300s<br />King of England tried to claim throne of France<br />lead to Hundred Years’ War (1337 to 1453)<br />French armies drove English out of France & French kings slowly increased their power over nobles<br />Roman Catholic church united Europe during this period<br />Cathedrals were built<br />
  11. 11. Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris<br />
  12. 12. Revolution and Napoleon’s Empire<br />1500s to 1700s<br />France built global empire<br />Est. colonies in America, Asia, & Africa<br />People of France lived in poverty & <br /> had few rights<br />1789<br />French Revolution began<br />King was overthrown & elected gov’t<br /> est.<br />1799<br />Napoleon Bonaparte took power<br />Great military leader & later took title as emperor<br />Conquered most of Europe<br />Built new roads in France, reformed education, <br /> est. metric system<br />
  13. 13. 1815<br />Alliance of Austria, U.K., Prussia, & Russia defeated Napoleon<br />French king regained throne<br />
  14. 14. World Wars<br />WWI<br />German army controlled northern & eastern France<br />WWII<br />German army controlled northern & western parts of France<br />1944<br />Allies (U.S., British, & Canada) landed in Normandy & push Germans out<br />Two wars in 30 years destroyed France<br />Factories, cities, bridges, railroads, & train stations<br />1949<br />North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed<br />France was founding member<br />Alliance was created to protect western Europe from future attacks<br />
  15. 15. Government<br />1950s & 1960s<br />French colonies in Asia & Africa became independent<br />Other smaller territories around the world remained<br />France Today<br />Republic with parliament & elected president<br />Founding member of European Union (EU)<br />Trying to replace currency<br />The franc & EU currency the euro<br />
  16. 16. Culture<br />85% are Roman Catholic<br />5%-10% are Muslim<br />Speak French mostly<br />Immigrants from Africa, Caribbean, & Southeast Asia influence French food, clothing, music, & art<br />
  17. 17. Customs<br />Mediterranean foods<br />Wheat, olives, cheeses, & garlic<br />Wine is produced in many regions<br />Many festivals celebrated<br />Bastille Day (July 14)<br />1789 a mob stormed the Bastille, a royal prison in Paris; recognized as start of French Revolution<br />
  18. 18. The Arts & Literature<br />Great tradition of poetry, philosophy, music, & visual arts<br />Late 1800s & early 1900s<br />Center of impressionism (capture the rippling of light rather than an exact, realistic image<br />
  19. 19. France Today<br />Major agricultural & industrial country<br />Resources, labor force, & location help spur economic growth<br />Exports<br />Wheat, olives, wine, & cheeses<br />Factories: cars, airplanes, shoes, clothing, machinery, & chemicals<br />Major cities linked by high-speed trains & excellent highways<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Section 3<br />Germany<br />
  22. 22. History<br />Germans<br />Descendants of tribe from northern Europe<br />Conquered by Romans<br />Land named Germania<br />
  23. 23. Growth of a Nation<br />Small cities states developed region<br />Ruled by princes& with help of Roman Catholic Church became part of Holy Roman Empire<br />Prussia<br />1871- United German city states into one nation<br />Developed into industrial and military world power<br />
  24. 24. War and Division<br />1914-1918<br />Fought and lost WWI<br />War damages and depression hurt economy<br />1920s<br />Adolf Hitler led Nazis in Germany<br />1933 Nazis took power & invaded Austria, Czechoslovakia, & Poland and started WWII<br />1942 Germany & Italy had conquered most of Europe<br />
  25. 25. Concentration camps<br />Were people were forced to from occupied countries<br />Were enslaved or killed<br />6 million Jews & millions of other people were murdered in a mass killing called the Holocaust<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. Allies of Britain, Soviet Union, U.S., & others eventually defeated Germany in 1945<br />Germany was divided into occupation zones by allies<br /> Britain, France, & U.S. later combined zones to form West Germany <br />Soviet Union set up communist country of East Germany w/ an unlimited totalitarian government<br />1961 Berlin Wall was built to stop East Germans from escaping to the West<br />
  28. 28. Reunification & Modern Government<br />West Germany<br />Roads, cities, railroads, & industries rebuilt after the war w/ U.S. financial aid<br />Free enterprise economy<br />East Germany<br />Rebuilt but was less prosperous<br />Gov’t allowed little freedom<br />Command economy was less productive<br />1980s<br />East Germans demanded for democratic reform<br />1989<br />Berlin Wall was torn down<br />1990<br />East & West Germany reunited<br />Today<br />Democratic rights<br />Parliament elects president & prime minister (chancellor)<br />Member of EU & NATO<br />
  29. 29. Culture<br />34% are Roman Catholic<br />38% Protestant<br />Diversity<br />90% are ethnic Germans<br />Turks, Poles, & Italians live & work in Germany<br />“guest workers” do not have citizenship<br />Thousands of refugees from Easter Europe in last 50 years<br />
  30. 30. Customs<br />Food emphasizes products of the forests, farms, & seasons<br />Sausage, cheese, wine, & beer<br />Celebrations<br />Oktoberfest, Sangerfast, & Fastnacht<br />Christmas is major festival<br />
  31. 31. The Arts & Literature<br />Johannes Gutenberg<br />1st European to print books using movable metal type<br />1700s & 1800s<br />Germany led Europe in development of classical music<br />Ludwig van Beethoven<br />Richard Wager operas of folktales of ancient Germany<br />
  32. 32. Germany Today<br />Federal Republic<br />Parliament chooses chancellor (prime minister)<br />Also elects president (ceremonial duties)<br />Belongs to EU and NATO<br />Europe’s largest economy<br />1/5 of all good and services in EU<br />Based on industry (chemicals, engineering, and steel)<br />Major crops<br />Grain, potatoes, and grapes<br />
  33. 33. The Alpine Countries<br />
  34. 34. Names after Alps<br />Draw tourists<br />Both landlocked<br />Influenced by German culture<br />General Background Info.<br />
  35. 35. Austria<br />Home to Habsburgs (powerful family of German nobles)<br />At their height of power they ruled Spain, Netherlands, areas of Germany, eastern Europe, & Italy<br />On losing side of WWI<br />Became republic after war<br />Today modern industrialized nation<br />Member of EU<br />Speak German<br />Prosperous economy<br />Little unemployment<br />
  36. 36. Switzerland<br />Independent since 1600s<br />Swiss Cantons (26 districts)<br />each controls own affairs; national gov’t handles defense & international relations<br />Location in high Alps has allowed it to remain neutral in European wars<br />Not a member of EU or NATO<br />2002 joined UN (United Nations)<br />Language<br />German, French, Italian, and Romansh<br />World’s highest standards of living<br />Famous for banks, watches, chocolate and cheese<br />
  37. 37. Culture<br />Switzerland<br />46% is Roman Catholic<br />40% Protestant<br />Austria<br />Mainly Roman Catholic<br />5% Protestant<br />17% follow Islam<br />
  38. 38. Languages & Diversity<br />Switzerland<br />64% speak German<br />18% speak French<br />10% speak Italian<br />Southeast speak Romansh<br />Other European languages<br />Austria<br />German speaking<br />Small minorities of Slovenes & Croatians<br />
  39. 39. Customs<br />Christmas is a major festival<br />Rural Switzerland<br />Take cattle up to high mts. in late spring & return in the fall<br />Big celebration when they return<br />Alpine region<br />Well known for its music<br />Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart<br />
  40. 40. The Alpine Countries Today<br />Both produce dairy products<br />Switzerland<br />Manufactures watches, optical instruments, & other machinery<br />Chemists discovered how to make chocolate bars<br />Major producer, but has to import cocoa beans<br />Alpine countries linked by highways, trains, & airports<br />Tourists are attracted by mountain scenery, lakes, & ski slopes<br />
  41. 41. Section 4<br />The Benelux Countries<br />
  42. 42. Once inhabited by Celtic & Germanic tribes<br />Were conquered by the Romans<br />Charlemagne ruled area after fall of Roman Empire<br />Region was ruled by various French rulers & by the Holy Roman emperor after Charlemagne<br />1555<br />King Philip II of Spain was given Low Countries<br />1570s Protestants in the Netherlands won freedom from Spanish rule<br />Netherlands became a great naval & colonial power<br />1830<br />Belgium became an independent kingdom<br />History<br />
  43. 43. Scarred region<br />Many WWI battles took place in Belgium<br />WWII<br />Germany occupied Low Countries<br />1949<br />Belgium, Netherlands, & Luxembourg were founding members of NATO<br />Later joined EU<br />Today<br />Ruled by parliament & monarch<br />Monarch duties are mostly ceremonial<br />Netherlands controls several Caribbean islands<br />World Wars<br />
  44. 44. Religion<br />Roman Catholic, Protestant, & those w/ no religious ties<br />Language<br />Dutch is spoken in the Netherlands<br />Flemish is spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium<br />French is spoken in other parts of Belgium<br />Benelux countries are also home to immigrants from Asia & Africa<br />Culture<br />
  45. 45. Diary products, fish, & sausage<br />Spices from Southeast Asia are used in many Dutch dishes<br />Belgians claim to have invented French fries, which they eat w/ mayonnaise<br />Food<br />
  46. 46. Netherlands & Belgium are world leaders in fine arts<br />Vincent van Gogh, Rembrandt & Jan Vermeer<br />Arts<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Netherlands<br />Famous for flowers<br />Export: cheeses, Chocolate, & cocoa<br />imports/refines: oil<br />Belgium<br />Known for diamond-cutting centers<br />Brussels is headquarters of EU & Nato<br />Luxembourg<br />Important banking services<br />Produces: steel, chemicals, and machines<br />International businesses & governments<br />The Benelux Countries Today<br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Section 5<br />The Alpine Countries<br />
  51. 51. History<br />Austria & Switzerland<br />Celtic Occupation<br />Roman & Germanic invasion<br />Ruled by Holy Roman Empire<br />
  52. 52. Switzerland<br />Swiss Cantons (districts)<br />Broke away from Holy Roman Empire<br />1600s became Independent<br />Today<br />26 cantons; each controls own affairs; national gov’t handles defense & international relations<br />Location in high Alps has allowed it to remain neutral in European wars<br />Not a member of EU or NATO<br />2002 joined UN (United Nations)<br />
  53. 53. Austria<br />Home to Habsburgs (powerful family of German nobles)<br />1400s on Holy Roman emperor was always a Habsburg<br />At their height of power they ruled Spain, Netherlands, areas of Germany, eastern Europe, & Italy<br />Empire was ethnically diverse & united only by allegiance to emperor & Roman Catholic religion<br />Austria Empire replaced Holy Roman Empire, also under Habsburg control<br />Nationalism (demand for self-rule)developed within empire<br />1867<br />Austrians & Hungarians agreed to share political power<br />Became Austro-Hungarian Empire, but dissolved after WWI<br />Germany occupied Austria during WWII<br />Allies occupied Austria after WWII<br />Today<br />Independent member of EU<br />
  54. 54. Culture<br />Switzerland<br />46% is Roman Catholic<br />40% Protestant<br />Austria<br />Mainly Roman Catholic<br />5% Protestant<br />17% follow Islam<br />
  55. 55. Languages & Diversity<br />Switzerland<br />64% speak German<br />18% speak French<br />10% speak Italian<br />Southeast speak Romansh<br />Other European languages<br />Austria<br />German speaking<br />Small minorities of Slovenes & Croatians<br />
  56. 56. Customs<br />Christmas is a major festival<br />Rural Switzerland<br />Take cattle up to high mts. in late spring & return in the fall<br />Big celebration when they return<br />Alpine region<br />Well known for its music<br />Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart<br />
  57. 57. The Alpine Countries Today<br />Both produce dairy products<br />Switzerland<br />Manufactures watches, optical instruments, & other machinery<br />Chemists discovered how to make chocolate bars<br />Major producer, but has to import cocoa beans<br />Alpine countries linked by highways, trains, & airports<br />Tourists are attracted by mountain scenery, lakes, & ski slopes<br />

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