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PRINCIPLES
OF
INTERIOR
DESIGN
2
Submitted to-
Ar Rimaljeet Kaur
Submitted by-
Sumit Ranjan
College of architecture,
Bhaddal, Ropar
6th sem
AR/12/834
What is meant by “Principles of Interior Design”?
3
 The Principles of interior Design are the
ways that designers use the Elements of
interior design to create good
Compositions
(decoration/arragements).
 Design principles are ways of
arranging or organising design
elements.
 These principles evaluate each element
in a design (magnificent vs. mediocre
right vs. wrong).
 The way the elements are arranged to
create a feeling of stability in a work.
Principles of Interior Design
1.Balance 2.Space 3.Focus/Emph
asis 4.Rhythm 5.unity
4
BALENCE
5
Balance
i n t r o d u c t i o n6
 Balance in interior design refers to
the proper distribution of objects in
a room to create visual balance.
 Balance refers to the distribution of
visual weight within a composition.
 Lack of balance disturbs the
harmony of a composition.
 A work that is unbalanced visually
creates tension.
 Balance is created when there is an
equilibrium of elements that need
each other and together they
create Unity.
7
Balance
T y p e s
There’s three different kinds of
balance:
symmetrical (formal),
asymmetrical (informal)
radial.
Symmetrical (formal) Balance
 He easiest way to achieve balance is by
using the symmetrical or formal form,
objects are repeated or mirrored along a
central axis.
 It’s when the space is evenly split into two
sides that mirror each other.
 Symmetry is created by dividing a space
and the elementswithin it equally.
 Symmetry can create order, formality,
calmness and stillness.
 Symmetry Makes Design Simple
8
9
Although it's
primarily a
practical
space, a
bathroom
works its best
when
it's beautiful as
well
as functional.
In this
symmetrical
layout, custom
his-and-her
vanities on
either side of
the central
bathtub divide
the space. The
dark wood
pops
beautifully
against the
neutral
bathtub and
tiles.
10
symmetrical
custom
cabinetry
allows the
tufted head
of the bed to
act as the
focal point in
this
bedroom,
since it
serves as the
cabinetry's
center axis.
Objects
repeated on
the shelving
bring an
additional
calmness.
11  Asymmetrical design is typically created with an odd
number of disparate elements.
 Lines, colours, forms and textures are balanced in a
space without duplication.
 The two sides of a work of art are not exactly the
same, but are still visually balanced.
 Asymmetry can look informal, natural and energetic.
 A design effect in which elementson either side of an
imaginary central line are unmatched but appear to
be in balance.
 Asymmetrical balance makes for a more relaxed and
lively interior space.
 This balance scheme uses a central line but relies more
on the eye's sense of balance to complete the design.
 Rather than having identical objects on either side of
the central axis, asymmetrically balanced spaces have
different objects of equal visual weight on either side
of the line.
 Asymmetry Helps Us Stay Interested
Asymmetrical/informal balance
12
 Asymmetrical interiors tend to feel more dynamic and less
rigid because in these spaces a variety of objects types are
working together to create balance.
 This form of balance can be more difficult to achieve it often
requires an “eye for design”.
13
In this living
room, the
left side of
the fireplace
serves as
the central
line. The
height and
weight of the
sofa and
cushions on
the right
balance the
console on
the left. The
height of the
fireplace
surround
also
balances out
the tall
bookshelves
.
14
You wouldn’t
guess that the
above photo
of Microsoft’s
new office,
designed is
balanced, but
it is. This is
because it’s
balanced in
an
asymmetrical
way using
variety in the
visual weight
of objects.
15
Asymmetrical
elements can
be as big as
statement
furniture or as
small as table
decorations
16
Radial Balance
 When there is a central focal point with other
elements radiating from it or around it, this is
radial balance.
 Radial balance is almost circular – distributed
arrangementof items around a central point
either extending outward or inward.
 You see radial balance less often in traditional
homes; round rooms are difficult to link to
other spaces.Butthe result can be stunning. The
central elements of a radially balanced room
— like the dining table and light fixture in this
dining space — become the immediate focal
points.
 The chairs, sculpture and print all radiate out
from this central point.
The circular furniture placement radiates from the central round
coffee table and makes the arrangement look comfy and
relaxed.
17
D-CRAIN Design and Construction
We can use
radial
symmetry in
the landscape
not only to
create a focal
point, but also
as a practical
approach to
design. This
swimming pool
is offset into a
circular
retaining wall;
the circular
stepping
stones show
people the way
to the pool and
add balance
and stability.
18
This circular staircase creates a feeling of grandeurand focus.
The hall table embraces the radial balance of the space, and
the circular planter attracts the eye. The dark color of the table
is an eye-pleasing link to the black metal railing.
The placement chairs and other furnishings in the room are
based on the table as a central focal point.
19
The central
elements of a
radially
balanced
room — like
the dining
table and light
fixture in this
dining space
— become the
immediate
focal points.
The chairs,
sculpture and
print all
radiate out
from this
central point.
Visual Balance
20
 There are instances when this is the
desired effect, but for the majority
of spaces one goal is visual balance.
 This is achieved by distributing the
visual weight of objects within a
space to achieve a feeling of
equilibrium.
 The size, color, texture, shape of an
element can change its visual weight.
 For example, larger, darker, brighter,
highly textured, complexly shaped
objects typically feel heavierand
require balance through the
placement equally “heavy” items or
multiple less heavy items.
21
 Very dark or saturated areas
of color demand attention
within a composition.
 An area of high contrast,
even at a small size, will
automatically draw the
viewerʼ s eye.
 Forms placed near the edge
of a page can also draw
more
visual attention than forms
placed directly in the center
of a page.
The Rule of Thirds
22  The Rule of Thirds refers to the idea of dividing a
composition into thirds based on a grid.
 The most important elementsof the composition fall on
the lines in between to create a strong composition.
 A slightly off center balance is more visually interesting
and harmonious than an evenly centered composition.
 A rectangle has been divided horizontally and vertically
by four lines.
 The rule of thirds states that the centers of interest for
any rectangle lie somewhere along those lines.
The Golden Mean
23
 Golden Mean: Relationship between sizes that is pleasing to the
human eye.
 This concept was first formally recognized by the ancient Greeks,
and examples of the golden mean can be observed through
Greek artwork and architecture.
 The golden mean appears in everything from atomic
structures to galaxies.
 Graphic designerscan use these proportions to create work that
instinctively looks “right.”
 There’s a mathematical ratio commonly found in nature—the ratio
of 1 to 1.618—that has many names.
 Most often we call it the Golden Section, Golden Ratio, or Golden
Mean, but it’s also occasionally referred to as the Golden Number,
Divine Proportion, Golden Proportion, Fibonacci Number, and Phi.
Fibonacci sequence
24
 The Fibonacci Sequence is also one of the most
elemental building blocks found in nature.
 This principle is based on the Fibonacci sequence, which is a
series if numbers to denote proportions:
2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89,144,233, etc. The each number in this
series is the sum of the two numbers proceeding it.
 Proportions are based on the number Pi, in which
measurements are approximately1.618 times one another in
a layout.
 In the example above, segment A is 1.618 times the size of
segment B, and segment B is
1.618 times the size of segment C.
25
26
SPACE
Space
i n t r o d u c t i o n27
 Space is the area in and around
something.
 Designing involves arranging design
elements in space.
 The distance or area between,
around, above, below, or within
things.
 Three-dimensional designs have:
• form
• length
• width
• height
and occupy space.
28
29
FOCUS/
EMPHASIS
30
Focus/Emphasis
i n t r o d u c t i o n
 Accent, stress, or importance placed on a part of
a piece of artwork.
 Focus is used to centre attention.
 Focus can be created by contrasting elements so
that they attract attention.
 Emphasis is something we all know about. It simply
means that every room or space has a focal point,
whether it is architectural or an object.
 A fireplace is the most common architectural focal
point.
 Oversized artwork or a large piece of furniture
can also be a focal point in a room.
 Interior design elements like color, texture and
form are used to add emphasis to a focal point.
 If you refaced your fireplace with bronze glass
tiles, you have used color and texture to create
emphasis.
The fireplace and mirror collection
exemplifies emphasis in a room.
31
Movie posters creating focus of interest
32
33
The single element of emphasis in this
bathroom is the sink structure. The sink draws
your eye to it because of the bold gold and
brown color, the shape and size of the
element in the room. The shape provides
movement in the space and the colors
complement the wall color behind it. In this
small area, the sink dominates the space.
The ceiling in this kitchen is amazing, its the first thing my
eyes went to when I saw the image. The placement, color,
shape, and size of the lighting makes this kitchen different
and exciting.
34
The sofas
frame the
painting as
the focal point
of this room,
with a white
wall-to-ceiling
construct
juxtaposed
against the
wall and
ceiling for
further
contrast.
35
36
37
RHYTHM
38
 The design principle that suggests connected movement between different parts of
a design by using colors, lines, forms, or textures; also referred to as continuity
 Rhythm is visual flow: the eye should be able to ‘flow’ smoothly across the room.
 Regular repetition of lines, shapes, or colors that create a movement.
 Patterns have rhythm .
 Rhythm refers to a way of utilizing the art elements to produce the look and feel
of rhythmic movement with a visual tempo or beat.
 Rhythm is a feeling of structured movement created by the repetition of elements.
 Rhythm can be used to create a sense of movement in, through or around a
design.
 Repeated elements and the spaces between them make patterns that we
experience as rhythm.
 This helps to give a composition visual harmony by creating unity in a layout.
 Examples include the repetition of similar shapes, colors or textures.
Rhythm
i n t r o d u c t i o n
39
Rhythm
40
Rhythm can be accomplished through the
following means:
1. Repetition
2. Alternation
3. Progression
Repetition
 The repeated use of certain objects or
physical attributes of decor elements.
 For example: chevron patterns on both
your sofa and wall tapestry, a series
of similar vases lining a mantle or a
stack of books on a shelf.
 Similarly-themed homeware and arts
will also contribute to the theme of
your interior design.
 Repetition is the simplest way to attain rhythm and can be
achieved by repeating any of the elements of design
(line, colour, texture and pattern, light, and scale and
proportion) or other design concepts in an organized and
regular way.
41
He repeating wood slats on the wall of this pizza
shop creates a playful rhythm and draws your eye
through the space.
42
Repetition is the
simplest way to
attain rhythm
and can be
achieved by
repeating any
of the elements
of design
(line, colour, tex
ture and
pattern, light,
and scale and
proportion)
43
Alternation
 Alternation is used to create
rhythm by alternating two or
more elements in a regular
pattern.
 The pattern may be
ABCABC or ABBABB, but
always repeating in the
same order
 a modular sofa with
alternating colours of white
and green, placing a small
roundtable between two
armchairs, or even
differently-shaped wall
recesses can achieve this
effect, as seen below.
44
This restaurant
displays both
repetitive
rhythm, in the
booths and
chairs, as well
as alternation
which can be
seen in the
pendant lights
that hang in
groupings with
an ABAAAABA
rhythm.
45
Progression
 Interior design elements placed according to size from smaller to bigger ones, or perhaps according to the
gradient of their colours.
 Rhythm can also be achieved through progression. Examples are a gradation of colour or a series of objects
that start small and become large in a very regular manner.
46
The Barajas
Airport is an
excellent
example of
rhythm
achieved
through
repetition
and
progression
of colour.
47
UNITY
Unity
i n t r o d u c t i o n48
 Unity is achieved when all of the different elements in a design work together to create a unified whole.
 Designers use unity to make elements in a composition appear to belong together.
 When each elements has a clear visual relationship to one or more other elements, the composition is
unified.
 Unity is what draws the whole design together. Simply put, every single item in your home should
contribute to the overall interior design concept, not draw away from it.
 All Parts of a work of art are interrelated, balanced, and organized to achieve a quality of oneness .
 A unified design is greater than the sum of its parts; the design is seen as a whole first, before the
individual elementsare noticed .
 Unity can be compared to harmony, integrity or wholeness.
When unity is achieved:
 a composition does not become cluttered or confusing.
 a concept can be communicated more clearly.
 a design evokes a sense of quality and organization.
49 Some of the ways to achieve unity include:
1. Alignment
2. Similarity
3. Proximity
4. Repetition
5. Continuation
6. Overlapping
 Alignment consists of arranging elements so that
their edges are lined up.
 The common alignment allows the eye to group
those elementstogether.
 A grid is often used to create unity through
alignment, not just in a single design but also
between related designs (the pages of a
magazine or book, for example).
1.Alignment
50
2. Similarity
Repeating colors,
shapes, values,
textures, or lines
creates a visual
relationship
between elements,
called correspond
ence.
51
3.Proximity
 Proximity is based on
grouping by closeness;
the closer elements are to
each other, the more
likely we will see them as
a group.
 Proximity is one of the
easiest ways to achieve
unity.
52
4. Repetition
 Repetition is based on
grouping by similarity;
elements that are similar
visually are perceived to
be related.
 Any element can be
repeated - line, shape,
color, value or texture -
as well other things such
as direction, angle or
size.
 Repetition helps unify a
design by creating
similar elements and is
one of the most effective
ways to unify a design.
53
5. Continuation
 Continuation means that
something (a line, an
edge, a curve, a direction)
continues from one
element to another.
 The viewer’s eye will
follow the continuing line
or edge smoothly from
one elementto other and
the mind will group the
elements because of this
connection.
 Implied lines are one
example of continuation.
54
6.Overlapping
Overlapping
design
elements can
contribute to
unity by
creating a
relationship
between
separate
elements.
55
56
57
Sumit Ranjan
Architecture student
at College of Architecture, Bhaddal,
Ropar , Email-ar.sumitranjan@gmail.com
Fb-www.facebook.com/sumiran46.muz

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Principles of Interior Design

  • 2. 2 Submitted to- Ar Rimaljeet Kaur Submitted by- Sumit Ranjan College of architecture, Bhaddal, Ropar 6th sem AR/12/834
  • 3. What is meant by “Principles of Interior Design”? 3  The Principles of interior Design are the ways that designers use the Elements of interior design to create good Compositions (decoration/arragements).  Design principles are ways of arranging or organising design elements.  These principles evaluate each element in a design (magnificent vs. mediocre right vs. wrong).  The way the elements are arranged to create a feeling of stability in a work.
  • 4. Principles of Interior Design 1.Balance 2.Space 3.Focus/Emph asis 4.Rhythm 5.unity 4
  • 6. Balance i n t r o d u c t i o n6  Balance in interior design refers to the proper distribution of objects in a room to create visual balance.  Balance refers to the distribution of visual weight within a composition.  Lack of balance disturbs the harmony of a composition.  A work that is unbalanced visually creates tension.  Balance is created when there is an equilibrium of elements that need each other and together they create Unity.
  • 7. 7 Balance T y p e s There’s three different kinds of balance: symmetrical (formal), asymmetrical (informal) radial. Symmetrical (formal) Balance  He easiest way to achieve balance is by using the symmetrical or formal form, objects are repeated or mirrored along a central axis.  It’s when the space is evenly split into two sides that mirror each other.  Symmetry is created by dividing a space and the elementswithin it equally.  Symmetry can create order, formality, calmness and stillness.  Symmetry Makes Design Simple
  • 8. 8
  • 9. 9 Although it's primarily a practical space, a bathroom works its best when it's beautiful as well as functional. In this symmetrical layout, custom his-and-her vanities on either side of the central bathtub divide the space. The dark wood pops beautifully against the neutral bathtub and tiles.
  • 10. 10 symmetrical custom cabinetry allows the tufted head of the bed to act as the focal point in this bedroom, since it serves as the cabinetry's center axis. Objects repeated on the shelving bring an additional calmness.
  • 11. 11  Asymmetrical design is typically created with an odd number of disparate elements.  Lines, colours, forms and textures are balanced in a space without duplication.  The two sides of a work of art are not exactly the same, but are still visually balanced.  Asymmetry can look informal, natural and energetic.  A design effect in which elementson either side of an imaginary central line are unmatched but appear to be in balance.  Asymmetrical balance makes for a more relaxed and lively interior space.  This balance scheme uses a central line but relies more on the eye's sense of balance to complete the design.  Rather than having identical objects on either side of the central axis, asymmetrically balanced spaces have different objects of equal visual weight on either side of the line.  Asymmetry Helps Us Stay Interested Asymmetrical/informal balance
  • 12. 12  Asymmetrical interiors tend to feel more dynamic and less rigid because in these spaces a variety of objects types are working together to create balance.  This form of balance can be more difficult to achieve it often requires an “eye for design”.
  • 13. 13 In this living room, the left side of the fireplace serves as the central line. The height and weight of the sofa and cushions on the right balance the console on the left. The height of the fireplace surround also balances out the tall bookshelves .
  • 14. 14 You wouldn’t guess that the above photo of Microsoft’s new office, designed is balanced, but it is. This is because it’s balanced in an asymmetrical way using variety in the visual weight of objects.
  • 15. 15 Asymmetrical elements can be as big as statement furniture or as small as table decorations
  • 16. 16 Radial Balance  When there is a central focal point with other elements radiating from it or around it, this is radial balance.  Radial balance is almost circular – distributed arrangementof items around a central point either extending outward or inward.  You see radial balance less often in traditional homes; round rooms are difficult to link to other spaces.Butthe result can be stunning. The central elements of a radially balanced room — like the dining table and light fixture in this dining space — become the immediate focal points.  The chairs, sculpture and print all radiate out from this central point. The circular furniture placement radiates from the central round coffee table and makes the arrangement look comfy and relaxed.
  • 17. 17 D-CRAIN Design and Construction We can use radial symmetry in the landscape not only to create a focal point, but also as a practical approach to design. This swimming pool is offset into a circular retaining wall; the circular stepping stones show people the way to the pool and add balance and stability.
  • 18. 18 This circular staircase creates a feeling of grandeurand focus. The hall table embraces the radial balance of the space, and the circular planter attracts the eye. The dark color of the table is an eye-pleasing link to the black metal railing. The placement chairs and other furnishings in the room are based on the table as a central focal point.
  • 19. 19 The central elements of a radially balanced room — like the dining table and light fixture in this dining space — become the immediate focal points. The chairs, sculpture and print all radiate out from this central point.
  • 20. Visual Balance 20  There are instances when this is the desired effect, but for the majority of spaces one goal is visual balance.  This is achieved by distributing the visual weight of objects within a space to achieve a feeling of equilibrium.  The size, color, texture, shape of an element can change its visual weight.  For example, larger, darker, brighter, highly textured, complexly shaped objects typically feel heavierand require balance through the placement equally “heavy” items or multiple less heavy items.
  • 21. 21  Very dark or saturated areas of color demand attention within a composition.  An area of high contrast, even at a small size, will automatically draw the viewerʼ s eye.  Forms placed near the edge of a page can also draw more visual attention than forms placed directly in the center of a page.
  • 22. The Rule of Thirds 22  The Rule of Thirds refers to the idea of dividing a composition into thirds based on a grid.  The most important elementsof the composition fall on the lines in between to create a strong composition.  A slightly off center balance is more visually interesting and harmonious than an evenly centered composition.  A rectangle has been divided horizontally and vertically by four lines.  The rule of thirds states that the centers of interest for any rectangle lie somewhere along those lines.
  • 23. The Golden Mean 23  Golden Mean: Relationship between sizes that is pleasing to the human eye.  This concept was first formally recognized by the ancient Greeks, and examples of the golden mean can be observed through Greek artwork and architecture.  The golden mean appears in everything from atomic structures to galaxies.  Graphic designerscan use these proportions to create work that instinctively looks “right.”  There’s a mathematical ratio commonly found in nature—the ratio of 1 to 1.618—that has many names.  Most often we call it the Golden Section, Golden Ratio, or Golden Mean, but it’s also occasionally referred to as the Golden Number, Divine Proportion, Golden Proportion, Fibonacci Number, and Phi.
  • 24. Fibonacci sequence 24  The Fibonacci Sequence is also one of the most elemental building blocks found in nature.  This principle is based on the Fibonacci sequence, which is a series if numbers to denote proportions: 2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89,144,233, etc. The each number in this series is the sum of the two numbers proceeding it.  Proportions are based on the number Pi, in which measurements are approximately1.618 times one another in a layout.  In the example above, segment A is 1.618 times the size of segment B, and segment B is 1.618 times the size of segment C.
  • 25. 25
  • 27. Space i n t r o d u c t i o n27  Space is the area in and around something.  Designing involves arranging design elements in space.  The distance or area between, around, above, below, or within things.  Three-dimensional designs have: • form • length • width • height and occupy space.
  • 28. 28
  • 30. 30 Focus/Emphasis i n t r o d u c t i o n  Accent, stress, or importance placed on a part of a piece of artwork.  Focus is used to centre attention.  Focus can be created by contrasting elements so that they attract attention.  Emphasis is something we all know about. It simply means that every room or space has a focal point, whether it is architectural or an object.  A fireplace is the most common architectural focal point.  Oversized artwork or a large piece of furniture can also be a focal point in a room.  Interior design elements like color, texture and form are used to add emphasis to a focal point.  If you refaced your fireplace with bronze glass tiles, you have used color and texture to create emphasis. The fireplace and mirror collection exemplifies emphasis in a room.
  • 31. 31 Movie posters creating focus of interest
  • 32. 32
  • 33. 33 The single element of emphasis in this bathroom is the sink structure. The sink draws your eye to it because of the bold gold and brown color, the shape and size of the element in the room. The shape provides movement in the space and the colors complement the wall color behind it. In this small area, the sink dominates the space. The ceiling in this kitchen is amazing, its the first thing my eyes went to when I saw the image. The placement, color, shape, and size of the lighting makes this kitchen different and exciting.
  • 34. 34 The sofas frame the painting as the focal point of this room, with a white wall-to-ceiling construct juxtaposed against the wall and ceiling for further contrast.
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  • 38. 38  The design principle that suggests connected movement between different parts of a design by using colors, lines, forms, or textures; also referred to as continuity  Rhythm is visual flow: the eye should be able to ‘flow’ smoothly across the room.  Regular repetition of lines, shapes, or colors that create a movement.  Patterns have rhythm .  Rhythm refers to a way of utilizing the art elements to produce the look and feel of rhythmic movement with a visual tempo or beat.  Rhythm is a feeling of structured movement created by the repetition of elements.  Rhythm can be used to create a sense of movement in, through or around a design.  Repeated elements and the spaces between them make patterns that we experience as rhythm.  This helps to give a composition visual harmony by creating unity in a layout.  Examples include the repetition of similar shapes, colors or textures. Rhythm i n t r o d u c t i o n
  • 40. 40 Rhythm can be accomplished through the following means: 1. Repetition 2. Alternation 3. Progression Repetition  The repeated use of certain objects or physical attributes of decor elements.  For example: chevron patterns on both your sofa and wall tapestry, a series of similar vases lining a mantle or a stack of books on a shelf.  Similarly-themed homeware and arts will also contribute to the theme of your interior design.  Repetition is the simplest way to attain rhythm and can be achieved by repeating any of the elements of design (line, colour, texture and pattern, light, and scale and proportion) or other design concepts in an organized and regular way.
  • 41. 41 He repeating wood slats on the wall of this pizza shop creates a playful rhythm and draws your eye through the space.
  • 42. 42 Repetition is the simplest way to attain rhythm and can be achieved by repeating any of the elements of design (line, colour, tex ture and pattern, light, and scale and proportion)
  • 43. 43 Alternation  Alternation is used to create rhythm by alternating two or more elements in a regular pattern.  The pattern may be ABCABC or ABBABB, but always repeating in the same order  a modular sofa with alternating colours of white and green, placing a small roundtable between two armchairs, or even differently-shaped wall recesses can achieve this effect, as seen below.
  • 44. 44 This restaurant displays both repetitive rhythm, in the booths and chairs, as well as alternation which can be seen in the pendant lights that hang in groupings with an ABAAAABA rhythm.
  • 45. 45 Progression  Interior design elements placed according to size from smaller to bigger ones, or perhaps according to the gradient of their colours.  Rhythm can also be achieved through progression. Examples are a gradation of colour or a series of objects that start small and become large in a very regular manner.
  • 46. 46 The Barajas Airport is an excellent example of rhythm achieved through repetition and progression of colour.
  • 48. Unity i n t r o d u c t i o n48  Unity is achieved when all of the different elements in a design work together to create a unified whole.  Designers use unity to make elements in a composition appear to belong together.  When each elements has a clear visual relationship to one or more other elements, the composition is unified.  Unity is what draws the whole design together. Simply put, every single item in your home should contribute to the overall interior design concept, not draw away from it.  All Parts of a work of art are interrelated, balanced, and organized to achieve a quality of oneness .  A unified design is greater than the sum of its parts; the design is seen as a whole first, before the individual elementsare noticed .  Unity can be compared to harmony, integrity or wholeness. When unity is achieved:  a composition does not become cluttered or confusing.  a concept can be communicated more clearly.  a design evokes a sense of quality and organization.
  • 49. 49 Some of the ways to achieve unity include: 1. Alignment 2. Similarity 3. Proximity 4. Repetition 5. Continuation 6. Overlapping  Alignment consists of arranging elements so that their edges are lined up.  The common alignment allows the eye to group those elementstogether.  A grid is often used to create unity through alignment, not just in a single design but also between related designs (the pages of a magazine or book, for example). 1.Alignment
  • 50. 50 2. Similarity Repeating colors, shapes, values, textures, or lines creates a visual relationship between elements, called correspond ence.
  • 51. 51 3.Proximity  Proximity is based on grouping by closeness; the closer elements are to each other, the more likely we will see them as a group.  Proximity is one of the easiest ways to achieve unity.
  • 52. 52 4. Repetition  Repetition is based on grouping by similarity; elements that are similar visually are perceived to be related.  Any element can be repeated - line, shape, color, value or texture - as well other things such as direction, angle or size.  Repetition helps unify a design by creating similar elements and is one of the most effective ways to unify a design.
  • 53. 53 5. Continuation  Continuation means that something (a line, an edge, a curve, a direction) continues from one element to another.  The viewer’s eye will follow the continuing line or edge smoothly from one elementto other and the mind will group the elements because of this connection.  Implied lines are one example of continuation.
  • 54. 54 6.Overlapping Overlapping design elements can contribute to unity by creating a relationship between separate elements.
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  • 57. 57 Sumit Ranjan Architecture student at College of Architecture, Bhaddal, Ropar , Email-ar.sumitranjan@gmail.com Fb-www.facebook.com/sumiran46.muz