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  1. 1. Cloning By Calvin Koder, Henry Hauser, and Max Hoffmann
  2. 2. What is Cloning? <ul><ul><li>Cloning is the process of creating genetically identical organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual organisms reproduce by cloning themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human identical twins are clones of each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are two types of cloning: artificial embryo twinning, and somatic cell nuclear transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clones have identical DNA but can have different personalities </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Artificial Embryo Twinning <ul><ul><li>Artificial embryo twinning is done by imitating the process that creates identical twins.  An embryo is split up and each part is put in a petri dish to develop.  They are then placed in a surrogate mother.  The resulting clones are exact genetic copies of each other. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer <ul><ul><li>Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer is a laboratory technique for creating a clonial embryo, using an egg cell, that has had it's nucleus removed, and a nucleus from a cell of a different animal. It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, or potentially, in regenerative medicine where it is sometimes referred to as &quot;therapeutic cloning.&quot; It can also be used as the first step in the process of reproductive cloning.  </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Dolly the Sheep <ul><ul><li>In 1996, scientists in Scotland created Dolly the Sheep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other animals had been cloned before, but Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It took 277 tries to produce a successful clone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dolly was cloned using the somatic cell nuclear transfer method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dolly lived until she was six year s ol d, which is a short life for a sheep (However, her death had nothing to do with the fact that she was a clone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dolly reproduced, showing that it is possible for clones to have children </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Human Cloning: The Good and The Bad <ul><li>Good: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use certain organs and tissue of the clone for transplants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could help with getting DNA from two infertile parents into an offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  There will most likely be several failures resulting in the death of the clone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There has not yet been a successful clone of a primate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can possibly rob the clone of individuality when they realize they are a clone </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Questions to consider: <ul><ul><li>Do you approve of human cloning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you approve of cloning other animals? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think it's right to harvest organs and tissue from clones? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you had the option, would you want to clone yourself? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think the benefits outweigh the risks with cloning humans? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>Acknowledgments