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  1. 1. Dolly and her first-born lamb, Bonnie cloning By Shreya sharma
  2. 2. Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of an original organism or thing. Cloning in the biological sense results in a molecule , single cell (for example: bacteria , lymphocytes , etc.) or multi-cellular organism that has been directly copied from and is therefore genetically identical to the molecule, cells or organism being cloned. Sometimes this term can refer to "natural" clones, which may arise when an organism reproduces asexually by chance (as with identical twins ), but in common parlance, a clone is an identical copy created intentionally. lets define it..
  3. 3. The term clone is derived from κλων , the Greek word for "twig". In horticulture , the spelling clon was us e d until the twentieth century; the final e came into use to indicate the vowel is a "long o" instead of a "short o". Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more general context, the spelling clone has been used exclusively Etymology
  4. 4. Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a DNA sequence of interest and obtaining multiple copies of it in an organism. Cloning is frequently employed to amplify DNA fragments containing genes , an essential step in their subsequent analysis. Frequently, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning . In practice, localisation of the gene to a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily enable one to isolate or amplify the relevant genomic sequence. molecular cloning
  5. 5. Cloning a cell means to derive a (clonal) population of cells from a single cell. This is an important in vitro procedure when the expansion of a single cell with certain characteristics is desired, for example in the production of gene-targeted ES cells. A valuable tissue culture technique used to clone distinct lineages of cell lines involves the use of cloning rings (cylinders). Cloning cell-line colonies using cloning rings Genetic Cloning
  6. 6. Cloning means to create a new organism with the same genetic information as a cell from an existing one(identical). It is an asexual method of reproduction, where fertilization or inter-gamete contact does not take place. Asexual reproduction (also known as agamogenesis) is a form of reproduction which does not involve meiosis , gamete formation, or fertilization . In laymen's terms, there is only one "parent" involved. This form of reproduction is common among simple organisms such as amoeba and other single-celled organisms , although most plants reproduce asexually as well Organism
  7. 7. The modern cloning techniques involving nuclear transfer have been successfully performed on several species. Landmark experiments in chronological order: Tadpole : (1952) Many scientists questioned whether cloning had actually occurred and unpublished experiments by other labs were not able to reproduce the reported results. Carp : (1963) In China , embryologist Tong Dizhou cloned a fish. He published the findings in an obscure Chinese science journal which was never translated into English. [1] Mice : (1986) was the first successfully cloned mammal; Soviet scientists Chaylakhyan, Veprencev, Sviridova, Nikitin had mice "Masha" cloned. Research was published in the magazine "Biofizika" volume ХХХII, issue 5 of 1987. [2] Sheep : (1996) From early embryonic cells by Steen Willadsen. Megan and Morag cloned from differentiated embryonic cells in June 1995 and Dolly the sheep in 1997. Rhesus Monkey : Tetra (female, January 2000) from embryo splitting Cattle : Alpha and Beta (males, 2001) and (2005) Brazil [3] Cat : CopyCat "CC" (female, late 2001), Little Nicky , 2004, was the first cat cloned for commercial reasons Mule : Idaho Gem , a john mule born 2003 - 05-04 , was the first horse-family clone. Horse : Prometea , a Haflinger female born 2003 - 05-28 , was the first horse clone. species cloned
  8. 8. The success rate of cloning has been low: Dolly the sheep was born after 277 eggs were used to create 29 embryos, which only produced three lambs at birth, only one of which lived, Dolly. Seventy calves have been created from 9,000 attempts and one third of them died young; Prometea took 328 attempts, and, more recently, Paris Texas was created after 400 attempts. Notably, although the first clones were frogs, no adult cloned frog has yet been produced from a somatic adult nucleus donor cell. health aspects
  9. 9. Dolly ( 1996 - 07-05 – 2003 - 02-14 ), a ewe , was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell (while the mice in USSR were cloned from embryo cell back in 1986 [1] ). She was cloned at the Roslin Institute in the United Kingdom and lived there until her death when she was 6. Her birth was announced on 1997 - 02-22 . Dolly and her first-born lamb, Bonnie Dolly the sheep
  10. 10. Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing, or previously existing human , by growing cloned tissue from that individual. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning; human clones in the form of identical twins are commonplace, with their cloning occurring during the natural process of reproduction. Human cloning is amongst the most controversial forms of the practice. There have been numerous demands for all progress in the human cloning field to be halted. One of the most ethically questionable problems with human cloning is farming of organs from clones. For example, many believe it is unethical to use a human clone to save the life of another. In this scenario, the cloned human would be euthanized so that the vital organs could be harvested. This process of renewing the body's organs would potentially increase the life expectancy of a human by 50 years. Human cloning
  11. 11. Cloning, or more precisely, the reconstruction of functional DNA from extinct species has, for decades, been a dream of some scientists. The possible implications of this were dramatized in the best-selling novel by Michael Crichton and high budget Hollywood thriller Jurassic Park . In real life, one of the most anticipated targets for cloning was once the Woolly Mammoth , but attempts to extract DNA from frozen mammoths have been unsuccessful, though a joint Russo-Japanese team is currently working toward this goal. [6] In 2000 , a cow named Bessie gave birth to a cloned Asian gaur , an endangered species, but the calf died after two days. In 2003 , a banteng was successfully cloned, followed by three African wildcats from a thawed frozen embryo. These successes provided hope that similar techniques (using surrogate mothers of another species) might be used to clone extinct species. Cloning extinct creature
  12. 12. animated mechanism of cloning