Human Cloning


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  • Human Cloning

    1. 1. The Sanctity of Life: LS 408 Group 4
    2. 2. We need to study human cloning to knowif it is good or not, or to know if it can help us or not.Human cloning is a form of cloning which is designed toresult in a copy of a human being or a human body part.There are numbers of ethical and religious issuessurrounding human cloning, and many nations havespecifically banned human cloning, discouraging researchinto procedures which are designed to result in clonedhumans. The same principles which have been successfullyused to clone animals could also theoretically be utilized tomake human clones, although as of 2008, no scientists hadclaimed to produce a human clone.
    3. 3. Opinions Many people nowadays disapprove human cloning. Some says that if we keep cloning, the world’s population will be half and half (clones and humans). By that rate all us humans will die off and clones willrule, but would they consider it a clone race or continue to call it a human race, and since they can’treproduce, they will die off, leaving no one and human race will be extinct. The cloning of human beings has the potential for resolving many problems, but it also has the potential for creating just as many problems. The perspective of the value of human life could change entirely with those making the decisions in society viewing humans not as humans but more like machines or cattle. With this new perspective it is not inconceivable that clones could be retired like an oldmachine, and even possibly being killed to make room for the new younger clones.
    4. 4. The term clone is derived from the AncientGreek word klōn, referring to the process whereby a new plantcan be created from a twig. Cloning is the creation of anorganism that is an exact genetic copy of another. It is usedto amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes. There are five potential uses for cloning humans orhuman cells: (1) a research tool to understand how genes incells can be switched off and on; (2) growing new skin forburn victims; (3) culturing bone marrow that could be used totreat cancer patients; (4) manipulating genes to cure sickle cellanemia; (5) potential application in treating infertility.
    5. 5. 1. DNA Cloning2. Reproductive Cloning3. Therapeutic Cloning Recombinant DNA Technology or DNA Cloning Also called "molecular cloning”, or "gene cloning“ thatrefers the transfer of a DNA fragment of interest from one organism to aself-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid.Cloning strategies:1. fragmentation - breaking apart a strand of DNA2. ligation - gluing together pieces of DNA in a desired sequence3. transfection - inserting the newly formed pieces of DNA into cells4. screening/selection - selecting out the cells that were successfullytransfected with the new DNA
    6. 6. Reproductive Cloning It is used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. Dolly was created by reproductive cloning technology. In a process called "somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT), scientists transfer genetic material from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg whose nucleus, and thus its genetic material, has been removed. If the egg begins to divide normally it is transferred into the uterus of the surrogate mother. Such clones are not strictly identical since the somatic cells may contain mutations in their nuclear DNA. *Dolly was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. Therapeutic Cloning Also called "embryo cloning," is the production ofhuman embryos for use in research. The goal of this process is not tocreate cloned human beings, but rather to harvest stem cells that can beused to study human development and to treat disease.
    7. 7. Researchers have found several abnormalities in clonedorganisms. The cloned organism may be born normal and resembleits non-cloned counterpart, but majority of the time will expresschanges in its genome later on in life. The concern with cloninghumans is that the changes in genomes may not only result inchanges in appearance, but in psychological and personality changesas well. The theory behind this is that the biological blueprint of thegenes is the same in cloned animals as it is in normal ones, but theyare read and expressed incorrectly. Results of these abnormallyexpressed genes in the cloned mice were prematuredeath, pneumonia, liver failure and obesity.
    8. 8. Cloning violates the marriage act by separating procreation ofchildren from the unifying act of love between husband and wife. Thisis contrary to the dignity of the human person, according to a survey ofChristian fundamentalist pastors, responses indicated a "commonaccount of human cloning as primarily reproductive innature, proscribed by its violation of Gods will and role." Many ofthese pastors acknowledged the reason for this violation being rootedin the religiously motivated view that human cloning is an example ofscientists “playing God”. Catholics and other Christian denominationsthat share this belief may see embryonic cloning as tantamount to livehuman experimentation and therefore contrary to Gods will. Accordingto this view, the dignity of the person is not upheld. The RomanCatholic Church, under the papacy of Benedict XVI, has condemnedthe practice of human cloning, in the magisterial instruction DignitasPersonae, stating that it represents a "grave offense to the dignity ofthat person as well as to the fundamental equality of all people."
    9. 9. B. Biblical Teachings The Biblical Passages in the Bible are proofs that cloning violated the rule of the Church and against the will of God. It prevents a human being to have a family. It also gives way to homosexuals and lesbians to reproduce which is also against the law of the Church. According to (Gen. 2:24; Eph. 6:1-4), by restricting the sexual union to marriage, God assured that any children conceived would have a family (father and mother) to raise the child. This clearly states that cloning forbidden the right of a child to have a family or parents that would care for him/her. Her/His right as an individual was lost and his/her cloning hinder this recognition to his/her own identity. According to (1 Cor. 6:9-11; Rom. 1:24-27), the reasons for cloning include a way for lesbians and homosexuals to reproduce, since their sexual practices are inherently sterile. This is clearly sinful, because homosexuality is sinful. This states the freedom of lesbians and homosexuals to reproduce which is also against the will of God. Since God made a man and woman to reproduce and make a family, lesbians and homosexuals should not have the right to make one which composed of a man with a man or woman with another woman. Another biblical passage can prove this statement, in the beginning God created man and woman and told them to reproduce (Gen. 1:26-28).
    10. 10. Check This Out!●● Clone.-But-Ethical/● resources/printed-materials/cloning●● n1.html●●●●●