Epigenetics presentation

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Epigenetics presentation

  1. 1. Epigenetics By Abby Johnson, Angel Vaughn, and Daniele Marcato
  2. 2. What is Epigenetics? <ul><ul><li>The study of changes in gene activity that do not have to do with changes in actual DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal traits that (as far as we know) are not necessarily determined in our genes or have no specific gene but are passed down through at least one generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often relating to Nature v.s. Nurture </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is an Epigenome? <ul><ul><li>A large aspect of Epigenetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A &quot;switch&quot; that sits on and just outside of a regular genome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is responsible for the inheritance of traits caused by environment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The codes on Epigenomes tell genes whether to turn on or off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epigenomes determine small things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whether we whisper or talk loudly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or more important things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity to disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What is an Epigenome? <ul><ul><li>Although the Epigenome can greatly affect normal genomes, it is not evolution or DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It only adjusts genes, it does not get rid of them or add new ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just a response to enviornment and fades after a certain number of generations (But generations can be from 1-60+) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Effects of Epigenomes <ul><ul><li>They are affected by certain life style choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eating habits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When they are changed, they can cause certain genes to turn on or be stronger or can cause genes to become weaker or turn off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eating to much might cause genes for obesity to become stronger while turning genes that control life expectancy down </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Experiment <ul><ul><li>Dr. Lars Olov Bygren conducted an experiment where he collected data from kids born in 1905 who grew up in Norrbotten, Sweden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small farming village </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So small that if harvest was bad people starved </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest was different year to year (to much--too little) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bygren collected data on these kids, their children, and grandchildren to see what affect this eating pattern would have on them </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Experiment <ul><ul><li>Bygren found that kids who had extreme eating habits had kids and grandchildren who lived shorter lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These kids died an average of 32 years before children who had not experienced this diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A separate Experiment where 14,024 pregnant women from the same area were recruited by ALSPC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The children and parents have been analyzed since </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found that specific enviorment conditions in pregnancy and durring infancy affect children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Peanut baby oil--peanut allergies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  High anxiety durring pregnancy--baby gets asthma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children kept extremely clean--higher risk of eczema </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Experiment <ul><ul><li>The experiment also found that 166 fathers in the study had started smoking before age 11 (right before the body goes through puberty) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm could have been effected by epigenomes, changed by the early smoking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sons of the 166 fathers on average had a higher BMI than other children </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Medical Advantages <ul><ul><li>Scientist are further researching Epigenetics because, if they are able to be controlled, it would be helpful in the medical world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to develop medicine that is able to turn off a negative epigenome and turn on a positive one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2004--the first epigenetic drug was approved </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Azacitidine  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treats deadly blood tumors/cancers etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life expectancy is expanded by 9 months+ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists are trying to develop other medicines that manipulate epigenomes for Cancer, Schizophrenia, Autism, Alzheimers, Diabetes, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Acknowledgments <ul><ul><li>http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1951968-4,00.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/3411/02.html </li></ul></ul>

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