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Ethics Of Cloning On A Global Scale


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Informative slideshow about the ethics of cloning and provides viewpoints about cloning from around the world.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
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Ethics Of Cloning On A Global Scale

  1. 1. Human Cloning: Clone people, not their ideology By Ryan Galindo
  2. 2. Purpose The purpose of this slide show is to eliminate all ignorance about the subject of cloning. Hopefully this slide show will provide you with enough information to make your own educated opinion on the subject and to not just copy what everybody else says. Don’t follow the crowd
  3. 3. What is Cloning Cloning is the process of creating a genetically identical copy of either a human cell or tissue. This is an issue where there is much controversy.
  4. 4. Subjects of Controversy Stem Cell Research This is what is done for therapeutic cloning. Although it brings great benefits such as curing heart disease paralysis, diabetes and many other ailments, it raises the concern of many pro-life supporters, since it is believed that a person exists at the moment of conception.
  5. 5. Financial Concerns Cloning is a very expensive process with a very low success rate, so low that some people even say that it is pointless to continue research with that much of a cost.
  6. 6. What are the Three Types of Cloning? DNA Cloning the transfer of a DNA fragment of interest from one organism to a self-replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid. This process is used to create enough identical material for further study.
  7. 7. Reproductive Cloning Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate a being that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing being.
  8. 8. Therapeutic Cloning The production of human embryos for use in research. This is for the purpose of harvesting stem cells. In this process, the embryos are destroyed, which raises many ethical concerns.
  9. 9. The Process of Cloning DNA Cloning A DNA fragment containing the gene of interest is isolated from chromosomal DNA using restriction enzymes and then united with a plasmid that has been cut with the same restriction enzymes. The DNA can then be reproduced along with the host cell.
  10. 10. Reproductive Cloning Scientists transfer genetic material from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg whose nucleus (and all of the genetic material), has been removed. The reconstructed egg, which contains the DNA from a donor cell, must be treated with chemicals or electric current in order to stimulate cell division. Once the cloned embryo reaches a suitable stage, it is transferred to the uterus of a female host where it continues to develop until birth.
  11. 11. Therapeutic Cloning The egg is removed from a woman’s ovary. Then the genetic material is removed using a tiny needle and a skin cell is inserted into the egg to serve as the new nucleus. It is then stimulated with a chemical and starts to divide.
  12. 12. Common Cloning Misconceptions. (Thanks Sci-Fi) Clones will not immediately be adults, they will develop in the exact same way that a regular person develops and it will take 18 years to have an adult clone
  13. 13. Common Cloning Misconceptions. (Thanks Sci-Fi) Cloning is a very expensive process, and the success rate of cloning is very low, which is .1%-3%, so there will not be a massive amount of clones that can just decide to rebel and take over the world or be used as an army by an evil dictator for the purpose of world domination.
  14. 14. Common Cloning Misconceptions. (Thanks Sci-Fi) Clones are not inherently evil just because they are a copy of another person. This is like saying that there is one twin that is good and one that is evil. Whatever the Soap Operas told you is not true.
  15. 15. Common Cloning Misconceptions. (Thanks Sci-Fi) They will not immediately give their allegiance to whoever has cloned them. They will be just as resentful of a parental figure as any other human being.
  16. 16. Global and Religious Views. Australia Opposed to cloning humans for reproductive purposes. In 2001 there was a law passed that banned reproductive cloning, but allowed regulated therapeutic cloning.
  17. 17. European Union The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine has passed a protocol that bans human cloning, but it has only been ratified by Greece Spain and Portugal. It has also passed a legally binding charter called The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, which explicitly prohibits human cloning.
  18. 18. United States The House of Representatives have met 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2007, and during all of these meetings, there has been debate over therapeutic cloning that prevents both of the proposals, which are: a ban of reproductive cloning or reproductive and therapeutic cloning. Some states have chosen to take matters into their own hands and ban both forms or just reproductive cloning. Even if the government hasn’t made a decision on what types of cloning are allowed current regulations prohibit federal funding for cloning research, so either way, no work is getting done.
  19. 19. The United Nations A non-binding resolution,meaning that it is not punishable by international law, has been passed by the United Nations General Assembly stating that all types of cloning are banned.
  20. 20. Native Americans Most believe that cloning animals and humans would disrupt the balance and erode the kinship and reverence between humans and other created beings. Everyday, we become more like the “creator”, but we do not deserve/aren’t responsible enough to be. Some Native Americans support cloning for the purpose of preserving the endangered indigenous people and they see cloning as a way of doing that.
  21. 21. Hinduism Hinduism, which is practiced in the countries of India and Nepal, takes a neutral stance on this subject. If it is done with divine intent and consciousness, it will benefit, but if done for the wrong reasons, it will evoke experiences caused by negative Karma, but hindus aren’t allowed to injure sentient beings, which prohibits both animal research and the destruction of embryos. Hindus also believe reincarnation, that the world was in a process that is similar to cloning, so there is no objection like many of the traditional christian religions.
  22. 22. Buddhism Buddhism, which is practiced in the majority of Asian Counties, rejects the idea of individuality, and says that it doesn’t matter how children are born. Some say that it can even be used to reach enlightenment by using DNA cloning in order to obtain admiral traits. Like Hinduism, Buddhism also prohibits harming sentient beings, restricting testing on animals and embryos.
  23. 23. Islam Islam, which is practiced mainly in the Middle East, Northern Africa and some of Asia, highly values the parent child lineage, so they object to third party assisted reproduction, as it would break down the filial relationships. Muslims are also wary of the destruction of embryos, but debate on when the embryo gets a soul, justifies the harvesting of embryos up to a certain age.
  24. 24. Judaism Judaism, which is practiced all over the world, but the largest populations are found in Israel; the United States; Russia and Canada, states that reproduction is an “overriding duty” of the Jews, scientific research is highly valued. Cloning research is fully supported and they are suspicious of government bans. It is stated that if advancements in cloning improve chances of successfully curing people, then it should be pursued.
  25. 25. African American Churches These churches, which are mainly derived from the Methodist and Baptist Churches, believe that life begins at conception, which leaves no room for stem cell research. They also believe that cloning would also widen the gap between races, further marginalizing minorities.
  26. 26. Orthodox Christianity Conservative Christians such as these strongly oppose cloning, saying that once an embryo exists, it is automatically a human being. It is also believed that cloning will create a new business centered around the marketing of DNA, which will specialize in creating spare parts and babies. It is feared that this will evoke a movement towards creating a superior human being.
  27. 27. Roman Catholic Church It is clearly sated that any attempts of cloning are a violation of the human embryo and also of the human sexuality. Once again, all research on the human embryo is banned because it is already viewed as a person.
  28. 28. Mainline Protestant Christianity This group of people has made a clear distinction between therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning, saying that therapeutic cloning is perfectly acceptable, but reproductive cloning is not because it would be like you are trying to play the role of God.
  29. 29. Final Thought Now that you have been armed with knowledge, it is now your responsibility to make an educated decision if the time ever comes to where we would have to vote on something that pertains to cloning.
  30. 30. Sources